Contents 1 Company history 2 Features 2.1 Video technology 2.1.1 Playback 2.1.2 Uploading 2.1.3 Quality and formats 2.1.4 Live streaming 2.1.5 3D videos 2.1.6 360° videos 2.2 User features 2.2.1 Community 2.3 Content accessibility 2.3.1 Platforms 2.4 Localization 2.5 YouTube Red 2.6 YouTube TV 2.7 YouTube Go 2.8 April Fools 3 Social impact 4 Revenue 4.1 Advertisement partnerships 4.2 Partnership with video creators 4.3 Revenue to copyright holders 5 Community policy 5.1 Copyrighted material 5.1.1 Content ID 5.2 Controversial content 5.2.1 Child protection 5.3 User comments 5.4 View counts 6 Censorship and filtering 7 See also 8 References 8.1 Notes 8.2 Further reading 9 External links

Company history Main article: History of YouTube From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.[7] Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[8] According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".[9] Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.[10] Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.[9][11] The YouTube logo from launch until 2011, featuring its former slogan Broadcast Yourself YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006.[12] YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.[13] The domain name was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.[14] The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.[15] The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.[16] YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.[17][18] Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day.[19][20] The site grew rapidly and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.[21] According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.[22] In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute,[23] which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012,[23] 100 hours every minute in May 2013,[24][25] 300 hours every minute in November 2014,[26] and 400 hours every minute in February 2017.[27][28] The site has 800 million unique users a month.[29] It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.[30] According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016[update]; SimilarWeb also lists YouTube as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.[1][31][32] The choice of the name led to problems for a similarly named website, The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to[33][34] In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,[35][36] and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.[37][38] YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.[39] On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."[40] In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two billion times per day.[41][42][43] This increased to three billion in May 2011,[44][45][46] and four billion in January 2012.[23][47] In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day.[48][49][50] In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.[51] In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.[52] In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.[53] YouTube logo from 2015 until 2017 In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.[54] At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.[55] In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.[56][57] In February 2014, Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube.[58] In February 2015, YouTube released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube Kids. The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children, and features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-approriate content (including existing channels and entertainment brands), and parental control features.[59] Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented sub-site and app that is intended to compete with the[60] 2015 also saw the announcement of a premium YouTube service titled YouTube Red, which provides users with both ad-free content as well as the ability to download videos among other features.[61] On August 10, 2015, Google announced that it was creating a new company, Alphabet, to act as the holding company for Google, with the change in financial reporting to begin in the fourth quarter of 2015. YouTube remains as a subsidiary of Google.[62] In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.[63] On August 29, 2017, YouTube launched a new logo, typeface, color scheme and other changes to the appearance of its desktop and mobile app.[64]

Features Video technology YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video formats, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol. Playback Previously, viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser.[65] In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard.[66] This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.[67][68] The YouTube site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5 Video using the MP4 (with H.264 video) or WebM (with VP8 video) formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available.[69][70] On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default playback method on supported browsers. YouTube used to employ Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash,[71] but with the switch to HTML5 video now streams video using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.[72] Uploading All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as live streams, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone.[73][74] When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.[75] The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.[76] In the past, it was possible to upload videos longer than 12 hours. Videos can be at most 128 GB in size.[73] Video captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.[77] YouTube accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats, including AVI, MP4, MPEG-PS, QuickTime File Format and FLV. It supports WebM files and also 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.[78] Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.[79] YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.[80] Quality and formats YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263),[81][82] with mono MP3 audio.[83] In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.[84] In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels.[85] In November 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9.[86] With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels.[87][88] In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels.[89] In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).[90] HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.[91] In June 2014, YouTube introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards.[92][93] The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher.[94] YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.[95] Live streaming YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February 2010.[96] These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own live streaming infrastructure.[97] In April 2011, YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live, with a portal page at the URL "". The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners.[98] It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London.[99] In October 2012, more than 8 million people watched Felix Baumgartner's jump from the edge of space as a live stream on YouTube.[100] In May 2013, creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1,000 subscribers; in August of that year the number was reduced to 100 subscribers,[101] and in December the limit was removed.[102] In February 2017, a live streaming feature was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. Live streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers,[103] but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers.[104] Live streams can be up to 4K resolution at 60 fps, and also support 360° video.[105] 3D videos In a video posted on July 21, 2009,[106] YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users can now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect.[107][108][109] The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.[110] 360° videos In January 2015, Google announced that 360° videos would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google Cardboard, a virtual reality system. YouTube 360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.[111] Live streaming of 360° video at up to 4K resolution is also supported.[105] User features Community On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel.[112] Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3.[113] Content accessibility YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.[114] This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.[115] Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.[116] YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.[117] A small number of videos, can be downloaded as MP4 files.[118] Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.[119] In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.[120] In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.[121] In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site.[122] Users retain copyright of their own work, but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.[123] Platforms Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video.[124] Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.[125] Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.[126] In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.[127] The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.[128][129] In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.[130] According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app.[131] A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.[132] In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles.[133][134] In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.[135] YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.[136] On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel.[137] An app is also available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5.[138] Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013,[139] and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.[140] Localization On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system.[141] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 89 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.[142] Countries with YouTube localization Country Language(s) Launch date  USA (and worldwide launch) English 000000002005-02-15-0000February 15, 2005[141]  Brazil Portuguese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  France French, and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Ireland English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Italy Italian 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Japan Japanese 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Netherlands Dutch 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Poland Polish 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Spain Spanish, Galician, Catalan, and Basque 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  United Kingdom English 000000002007-06-19-0000June 19, 2007[141]  Mexico Spanish 000000002007-10-11-0000October 11, 2007[143]  Hong Kong Chinese, and English 000000002007-10-17-0000October 17, 2007[144]  Taiwan Chinese 000000002007-10-18-0000October 18, 2007[145]  Australia English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007[146]  New Zealand English 000000002007-10-22-0000October 22, 2007[146]  Canada French, and English 000000002007-11-06-0000November 6, 2007[147]  Germany German 000000002007-11-08-0000November 8, 2007[148]  Russia Russian 000000002007-11-13-0000November 13, 2007[149]  South Korea Korean 000000002008-01-23-0000January 23, 2008[150]  India Hindi, Bengali, English, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu 000000002008-05-07-0000May 7, 2008[151]  Israel Hebrew 000000002008-09-16-0000September 16, 2008  Czech Republic Czech 000000002008-10-09-0000October 9, 2008[152]  Sweden Swedish 000000002008-10-22-0000October 22, 2008[153]  South Africa Afrikaans, Zulu, and English 000000002010-05-17-0000May 17, 2010[141]  Argentina Spanish 000000002010-09-08-0000September 8, 2010[154]  Algeria French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Egypt Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Jordan Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Morocco French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Saudi Arabia Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Tunisia French, and Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Yemen Arabic 000000002011-03-09-0000March 9, 2011[155]  Kenya Swahili, and English 000000002011-09-01-0000September 1, 2011[156]  Philippines Filipino, and English 000000002011-10-13-0000October 13, 2011[157]  Singapore English, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil 000000002011-10-20-0000October 20, 2011[158]  Belgium French, Dutch, and German 000000002011-11-16-0000November 16, 2011[141]  Colombia Spanish 000000002011-11-30-0000November 30, 2011[159]  Uganda English 000000002011-12-02-0000December 2, 2011[160]  Nigeria English 000000002011-12-07-0000December 7, 2011[161]  Chile Spanish 000000002012-01-20-0000January 20, 2012[162]  Hungary Hungarian 000000002012-02-29-0000February 29, 2012[163]  Malaysia Malay, and English 000000002012-03-22-0000March 22, 2012[164]  Peru Spanish 000000002012-03-25-0000March 25, 2012[165]  United Arab Emirates Arabic, and English 000000002012-04-01-0000April 1, 2012[166]  Greece Greek 000000002012-05-01-0000May 1, 2012  Indonesia Indonesian, and English 000000002012-05-17-0000May 17, 2012[167]  Ghana English 000000002012-06-05-0000June 5, 2012[168]  Senegal French, and English 000000002012-07-04-0000July 4, 2012[169]  Turkey Turkish 000000002012-10-01-0000October 1, 2012[170]  Ukraine Ukrainian 000000002012-12-13-0000December 13, 2012[171]  Denmark Danish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[172]  Finland Finnish, and Swedish 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[173]  Norway Norwegian 000000002013-02-01-0000February 1, 2013[174]   Switzerland German, French, and Italian 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013[175]  Austria German 000000002013-03-29-0000March 29, 2013[176]  Romania Romanian 000000002013-04-18-0000April 18, 2013[177]  Portugal Portuguese 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013[178]  Slovakia Slovak 000000002013-04-25-0000April 25, 2013[179]  Bahrain Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]  Kuwait Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]  Oman Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]  Qatar Arabic 000000002013-08-16-0000August 16, 2013[180]  Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014  Bulgaria Bulgarian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[181]  Croatia Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[182]  Estonia Estonian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[183]  Latvia Latvian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[184]  Lithuania Lithuanian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014  Macedonia Macedonian, Serbian, and Turkish 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014  Montenegro Serbian, and Croatian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014  Serbia Serbian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014  Slovenia Slovenian 000000002014-03-17-0000March 17, 2014[185]  Thailand Thai 000000002014-04-01-0000April 1, 2014[186]  Lebanon Arabic 000000002014-05-01-0000May 1, 2014[180]  Puerto Rico Spanish, and English 000000002014-08-23-0000August 23, 2014  Iceland Icelandic  ?, 2014  Luxembourg French, and German  ?, 2014  Vietnam Vietnamese 000000002014-10-01-0000October 1, 2014  Libya Arabic 000000002015-02-01-0000February 1, 2015  Tanzania Swahili, and English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015  Zimbabwe English 000000002015-06-02-0000June 2, 2015  Azerbaijan Azerbaijani 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]  Belarus Russian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]  Georgia Georgian 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]  Kazakhstan Kazakh 000000002015-10-12-0000October 12, 2015[187]    Nepal Nepali 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[188]  Pakistan Urdu, and English 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[189]  Sri Lanka Sinhala, and Tamil 000000002016-01-12-0000January 12, 2016[188]  Iraq Arabic  ?, 2016  Jamaica English  ?, 2016 The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.[190] The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions.[191] Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.[192][193] In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.[194] In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.[195] In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.[196] YouTube Red Main article: YouTube Red YouTube Red is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service.[197] YouTube Red was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music "All Access" service.[198][199][200] On October 28, 2015, the service was re-launched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.[201][202][203] As of November 2016[update], the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis.[204] As of June 2017[update], the first season of YouTube Red Originals had gotten 250 million views in total.[205] In May 2014, before Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience."[206][207][208][209] The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.[200] On September 28, 2016, YouTube named Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and former Warner Music Group executive, the Global Head of Music.[210] In early 2018, Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music.[211] The service is expected to be launched in March 2018. YouTube TV On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced the launch of YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for United States customers at a price of US$35 per month. Initially launching in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017,[212][213] the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox Broadcasting Company and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Red original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Red subscription).[214][215] During the 2017 World Series (in which it was the presenting sponsor), YouTube TV ads were placed behind the home plate. The trademarked red play button logo appeared at the center of the screen, mimicking YouTube's interface.[216] YouTube Go YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution.[217] YouTube announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India.[218] It was launched in India in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 other countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa.[219][220] It was rolled out in 130 countries worldwide, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60% of the world's population.[221][222] April Fools YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year. In 2008, all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "rickrolling".[223][224] The next year, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down, which YouTube claimed was a "new layout".[225] In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode which transformed colors in videos to random uppercase letters "in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second."[226] The next year, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat.[227] In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about a purported option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD.[228] In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023.[229] In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming internet memes, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".[230] The next year, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude.[231] In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.[232]

Social impact Main article: Social impact of YouTube Both private individuals[233] and large production companies[234] have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.[233] Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television.[234] While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annually[235] and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 million[236]—in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use... promotional platform for the music labels".[237] In 2013 Forbes' Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media.[238] Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year.[239] By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.[240] Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards accepting for YouTube Observing that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication".[241] Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history."[241] In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes'  Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.[242] YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award,[243] the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy."[244] The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.[245] A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.[246] The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.[247] YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape.[248] Describing the Arab Spring (2010– ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world."[249] In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."[250] Leading YouTube content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the "YouTube generation".[251][252] Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012[253] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance.[254] In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of Obamacare[255] but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation".[251] Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.[251] Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.[256] TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field.[241] Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.[257] The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers[258] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra[259] selected their membership based on individual video performances.[241][259] Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work,[260] with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.[261] The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens,[262] that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries.[263] Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.[264]

Revenue Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.[265] In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.[266] In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television.[29] In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at $3.7 billion.[267] In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit $5.6 billion according to eMarketer,[267][268][269] others estimated 4.7 billion,[267] The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising.[56] In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month.[270] The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu.[56] In 2017, viewers watch YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day.[271] Advertisement partnerships YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.[272] In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC for three channels with BBC content, one for news and two for entertainment.[273] In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.[274][275] In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.[276] In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,[277] which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010.[278][279] The service offers over 6,000 films.[280] Partnership with video creators In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program, a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.[281] YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.[282][283] There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program.[284] According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.[285] In 2013, YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos.[286][287] In April 2017, YouTube set an eligibility requirement of 10,000 lifetime views for a paid subscription.[288] On January 16, 2018, the eligibility requirement for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watchtime within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers.[288] The move was seen as an attempt to ensure that videos being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels.[289] YouTube Play Buttons, a part of the YouTube Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube of its most popular channels.[290] The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel alloy, golden plated brass, silver plated metal and ruby are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million and fifty million subscribers, respectively.[291][292] Revenue to copyright holders Further information: § Copyrighted material Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos.[269] In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.[293] In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games.[294] In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.[295][296][297]

Community policy YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior.[298] Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines. Copyrighted material At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.[299] Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.[300][301] Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[302][303][304] Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".[305] During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".[306][307] In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.[308] On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again.[309] On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.[310] In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.[311] In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.[312] He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.[313] In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating: “ We remain committed to finding a solution to the music licensing issue in Germany that will benefit artists, composers, authors, publishers and record labels, as well as the wider YouTube community.[314] ” On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.[315] In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.[316][317] YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe "fair use" laws apply.[318] Content ID See also: Criticism of Google § YouTube In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.[319] The system, which became known as Content ID,[320] creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.[321] When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. YouTube describes Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File".[321] Content ID accounts for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.[322] An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.[323] The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.[324] If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.[325] Prior to 2016, videos weren't monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute.[326] Should the uploader want to monetize the video again, they may remove the disputed audio in the "Video Manager".[327] YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.[328] Controversial content See also: Criticism of Google § YouTube, and Censorship by Google § YouTube YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".[298] YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.[298] Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.[329][330] In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating: We have strict rules on what's allowed, and a system that enables anyone who sees inappropriate content to report it to our 24/7 review team and have it dealt with promptly. We educate our community on the rules and include a direct link from every YouTube page to make this process as easy as possible for our users. Given the volume of content uploaded on our site, we think this is by far the most effective way to make sure that the tiny minority of videos that break the rules come down quickly.[331] (July 2008) In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki.[332] YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines.[333] In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.[334] Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks of said program, YouTube joined the PRISM program in 2010.[335] YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".[336] In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators".[337][338][339] In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremism content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".[340][341] In early-April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.[342][343] On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.[344] Child protection See also: DaddyOFive and Elsagate In 2017, YouTube was associated with several controversies related to child safety. During Q2, the owners of popular channel DaddyOFive, which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse. Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody.[345][346][347][348] Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term "Elsagate" was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.[349][350][351][352] On November 11, 2017, YouTube announced it was strengthening site security to protect children from unsuitable content. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels which made improper use of family friendly characters. As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a channel with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in odd and upsetting situations.[353][354][355][356][357][358] According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually prior to its deletion.[359] Also in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children – often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content – were attracting comments from pedophiles[360][361] and circulating on the dark web, with predators finding the videos by typing in certain keywords in Russian.[361] As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube.[362][352] User comments See also: Criticism of Google § YouTube user comments Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".[363] The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:[364] Juvenile, aggressive, misspelled, sexist, homophobic, swinging from raging at the contents of a video to providing a pointlessly detailed description followed by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance – with the occasional burst of wit shining through. In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".[365] The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.[366] On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone.[367] The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.[368][369] In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change.[370] The official YouTube announcement[371] received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days.[372] Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:[373] Perhaps user complaints are justified, but the idea of revamping the old system isn't so bad. Think of the crude, misogynistic and racially-charged mudslinging that has transpired over the last eight years on YouTube without any discernible moderation. Isn't any attempt to curb unidentified libelers worth a shot? The system is far from perfect, but Google should be lauded for trying to alleviate some of the damage caused by irate YouTubers hiding behind animosity and anonymity. On July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube.[374] On November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.[375] Creators may also choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can also allow other users to moderate their comments.[376] View counts In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.[377][378] On August 5, 2015, YouTube removed the feature which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud.[379] YouTube view counts once again updated in real time.[380]

Censorship and filtering Main article: Censorship of YouTube As of 2017[update], countries with standing national bans on YouTube are China and North Korea, while Iran blocks YouTube on only one internet service provider. YouTube may be blocked for a variety of reasons, including:[381] Limiting public exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest; Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan); Violations of national laws, including: Copyright and intellectual property protection laws, for example in Germany; Violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran; and Preventing access to videos judged to be inappropriate for youth,[382] which is also done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with "Restricted mode";[383] Reducing distractions at work or school,[384] e.g. in Australia; and Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.[385][386][387] In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.[381] Several countries have previously blocked access to YouTube: Iran temporarily blocked access on December 3, 2006, to YouTube and several other sites, after declaring them as violating social and moral codes of conduct. The YouTube block came after a video was posted online that appeared to show an Iranian soap opera star having sex.[388] The block was later lifted and then reinstated after Iran's 2009 presidential election.[389] In 2012, Iran reblocked access, along with access to Google, after the controversial film Innocence of Muslims trailer was released on YouTube.[390] Thailand blocked access between 2006 and 2007 due to offensive videos relating to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[391][392] Some Australian state education departments block YouTube citing "an inability to determine what sort of video material might be accessed" and "There's no educational value to it and the content of the material on the site."[393] China blocked access from October 15, 2007 to March 22, 2008, and again starting on March 24, 2009. Access remains blocked.[394][395][396][397] Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's actions in Western Sahara.[398] YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".[399] Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[400][401][402] In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.[403] During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth-most-accessed site in Turkey.[404][405] In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."[406][407][408] Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad.[409] This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government.[410][411] Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.[412] In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".[413] The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked.[414][415] Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013.[416] The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube launched a Pakistan-specific version.[417] Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.[418] Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.[419] In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya.[420] Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Russia, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site.[421][422][423][424][425][426] In Libya and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims trailer was blamed[by whom?] for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."[427][428]

See also Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the article "YouTube" dated 2011-03-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Alphabet portal Companies portal Google portal Internet portal San Francisco Bay Area portal United States portal List of most viewed YouTube videos List of most liked YouTube videos List of most disliked YouTube videos List of YouTubers List of most subscribed users on YouTube BookTube Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. Reply Girls YouTube Awards YouTube Instant YouTube Live YouTube Multi Channel Network CNN-YouTube presidential debates YouTube Symphony Orchestra Viacom International Inc. v. YouTube, Inc. General Alternative media Comparison of video hosting services List of Internet phenomena List of video hosting services List of most viewed online videos in the first 24 hours List of most viewed online trailers in the first 24 hours

References Notes ^ a b c " Traffic Statistics". Alexa Internet. July 9, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018.  ^ Claburn, Thomas (January 5, 2017). "Google's Grumpy code makes Python Go". The Register. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Wilson, Jesse (May 19, 2009). "Guice Deuce". Official Google Code Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube Architecture – High Scalability -". Retrieved October 13, 2014.  ^ "Golang Vitess: a database wrapper written in Go as used by Youtube".  ^ "YouTube". GitHub. Retrieved January 12, 2018.  ^ Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2008.  ^ a b Cloud, John (December 25, 2006). "The YouTube Gurus". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013. ^ Helft, Miguel; Richtel, Matt (October 10, 2006). "Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Kehaulani Goo, Sara (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Whois Record for". DomainTools. Retrieved April 1, 2009.  ^ Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Me at the zoo". YouTube. April 23, 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ "Ronaldinho: Touch of Gold – YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 25, 2005. Archived from the original on November 25, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.  ^ "Most Viewed – YouTube". Wayback Machine. November 2, 2005. Archived from the original on November 2, 2005. Retrieved January 1, 2017.  ^ "YouTube: a history". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. April 17, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online". USA Today. Gannett Company. July 16, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings". comScore. Retrieved June 27, 2010.  ^ a b c Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012). "Exclusive: YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Welch, Chris (May 19, 2013). "YouTube users now upload 100 hours of video every minute". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Russell, Jon (May 19, 2013). "YouTube reveals users now upload more than 100 hours of video per minute, as the site turns eight". The Next Web. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ E. Solsman, Joan (November 12, 2014). "YouTube's Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Hamedy, Saba (February 28, 2017). "People now spend 1 billion hours watching YouTube every day". Mashable. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Bates, Daniel (March 1, 2017). "YouTube users watch more than a BILLION hours of footage every day … and is set to overtake TV viewing". The Sun. News UK. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ a b Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 6, 2012.  ^ Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ " Analytics". SimilarWeb. Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ "Top 50 sites in the world for Arts And Entertainment > TV And Video". SimilarWeb. Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ Zappone, Christian (October 12, 2006). "Help! YouTube is killing my business!". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2008.  ^ Blakely, Rhys (November 2, 2006). "Utube sues YouTube". The Times. London. Retrieved November 29, 2008.  ^ La Monica, Paul R. (October 9, 2006). "Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion". CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Arrington, Michael (October 9, 2006). "Google Has Acquired YouTube". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Arrington, Michael (November 13, 2006). "Google Closes YouTube Acquisition". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age. Fairfax Media. November 14, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). "Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal". The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 6, 2010.  ^ "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". AFP. Retrieved April 1, 2010.  ^ Parr, Ben (May 17, 2010). "YouTube Surpasses Two Billion Video Views Daily". Mashable. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Kincaid, Jason (May 16, 2010). "Five Years In, YouTube Is Now Streaming Two Billion Views Per Day". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Barnett, Emma (May 17, 2010). "YouTube hits two billion views a day". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ O'Neill, Megan (May 25, 2011). "YouTube Celebrates Its 6th Birthday With 3 Billion Daily Views". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Bryant, Martin (May 25, 2011). "YouTube hits 3 Billion views per day, 2 DAYS worth of video uploaded every minute". The Next Web. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "YouTube moves past 3 billion views a day". CNET. CBS Interactive. May 25, 2011. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Perez, Sarah (January 23, 2012). "YouTube Reaches 4 Billion Views Per Day". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ McCormick, Rich (February 27, 2017). "Humans watch a billion hours of YouTube every single day". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Lumb, David (February 27, 2017). "One billion hours of YouTube are watched every day". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Broussard, Mitchel (February 28, 2017). "YouTube Users Watch More Than 1 Billion Hours of Video a Day, Will Soon Outpace U.S. TV". MacRumors. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.  ^ Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). "Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels". BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.  ^ Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). "YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!". Retrieved December 2, 2011.  ^ a b c "YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.  ^ Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). "YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week". Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.  ^ Oreskovic, Alexei. "Google taps longtime executive Wojcicki to head YouTube". Reuters. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Perez, Sarah (February 23, 2015). "Hands on With "YouTube Kids," Google's Newly Launched, Child-Friendly YouTube App". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Dredge, Stuart (August 26, 2015). "Google launches YouTube Gaming to challenge Amazon-owned Twitch". The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2015.  ^ Reader, Ruth. "Google wants you to pay $9.99 per month for ad-free YouTube". Venturebeat. Retrieved October 22, 2015.  ^ Hern, Alex (August 11, 2015). "Why Google is restructuring, why the name Alphabet and how it affects you". The Guardian. Retrieved August 11, 2015.  ^ Avalos, George (January 20, 2016). "YouTube expansion in San Bruno signals big push by video site". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved February 3, 2016.  ^ Ben Popper, The Verge. "YouTube Has a New Look and, for the First Time, a New Logo." August 29, 2017. August 29, 2017. ^ Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.  ^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". YouTube. Retrieved April 12, 2011.  ^ "Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player". Retrieved November 30, 2009.  ^ "HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there". Archived from the original on November 10, 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2017.  ^ "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". Retrieved January 21, 2010.  ^ Shankland, Stephen (May 19, 2010). "Google tries freeing Web video with WebM". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ YouTube: Google I/O 2013 – Adaptive Streaming for You and YouTube on YouTube ^ Rajeev Tiwari (January 3, 2013). "Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube". Retrieved March 13, 2014.  ^ a b "Upload videos longer than 15 minutes" YouTube Help. Retrieved July 15, 2017. ^ "Introduction to live streaming" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017. ^ Fisher, Ken (March 29, 2006). "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 29, 2010). "YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ University of Washington. "Adding Captions to YouTube Videos". University of Washington. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "Video Formats: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ "Getting Started: File formats". YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2010.  ^ Kokaram, Anil; Foucu, Thierry; Hu, Yang (April 20, 2016). "A look into YouTube's video file anatomy". YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Tinic Uro (August 13, 2005). "The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8". Archived from the original on February 6, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2011. We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions.  ^ Adobe Systems Incorporated (2010). "Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1" (PDF). p. 72. Retrieved January 27, 2011. Sorenson H.263  ^ "Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply". Sorenson Media. June 2, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.  ^ "YouTube Mobile goes live". June 17, 2007. Archived from the original on June 20, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2010.  ^ "YouTube Videos in High Quality". Official YouTube Blog. Google. March 14, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Lowensohn, Josh (November 20, 2008). "YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Sarukkai, Ramesh (July 9, 2010). "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Lowensohn, Josh (July 9, 2010). "YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Schroeder, Stan (June 10, 2015). "You can watch an 8K video on YouTube – in theory". MashableUK. Retrieved July 2, 2015.  ^ Robertson, Steven; Verma, Sanjeev (November 7, 2016). "True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos". YouTube Help. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Glotzbach, Matthew; Heckmann, Oliver (June 26, 2014). "Look ahead: creator features coming to YouTube". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Stuart, Keith (June 27, 2014). "Battlefield Hardline ushers in era of smooth YouTube trailers". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2014.  ^ Kumparak, Greg (October 29, 2014). "YouTube Can Now Play Videos at a Buttery 60 Frames Per Second". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Deploying VP9 at YouTube: a postmortem – Steven Robertson". October 16, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2014.  ^ Gross, Doug (September 13, 2010). "YouTube testing live streaming". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2017.  ^ "YouTube in two-day live video-streaming test". BBC. September 13, 2010.  ^ "YouTube is going LIVE". YouTube Official Blog. April 8, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2017.  ^ Pierce, David. "YouTube Is the Sleeping Giant of Livestreaming". WIRED. Retrieved September 22, 2017.  ^ "Felix Baumgartner's jump from space's edge watched by millions". Associated Press. October 15, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2012.  ^ Blagdon, Jeff (August 3, 2013). "YouTube opens up live streaming to anyone with 100 or more subscribers". The Verge.  ^ "YouTube opens live streaming for all verified accounts". MacNN. December 13, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2017.  ^ Palladino, Valentina (February 8, 2017). "YouTube now lets creators with 10,000 subscribers live-stream video on mobile". Ars Technica.  ^ "Create a live stream" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017. ^ a b Garun, Natt (November 30, 2016). "YouTube now supports 4K live-streaming for both 360-degree and standard video". The Verge.  ^ "YouTube in 3D". YouTube. July 21, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Marquit, Miranda (July 23, 2009). "YouTube in 3D?". Physorg. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Dsouza, Keith (July 20, 2009). "YouTube 3D Videos". Techie Buzz. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Sobti, Kshitij (July 21, 2009). "YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included". thinkdigit. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Smith, Ryan (May 26, 2011). "YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too)". AnandTech. Purch Group. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Bonnington, Christina (March 13, 2015). "You Can Now Watch and Upload 360-Degree Videos on YouTube". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Perez, Sarah (September 13, 2016). "YouTube gets its own social network with the launch of YouTube Community". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ McEvoy, Kiley (September 13, 2016). "YouTube Community goes beyond video". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube embedded video guide".  ^ "So long, video responses... Next up: better ways to connect". YouTube Creators Blog. Google. August 27, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ YouTube. "Control comments and video responses". Retrieved August 28, 2013.  ^ "Terms of Use, 5.B". YouTube. Retrieved August 25, 2010.  ^ Lowensohn, Josh (January 16, 2009). "(Some) YouTube videos get download option". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Milian, Mark (February 19, 2009). "YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 21, 2009.  ^ Rao, Leena (February 12, 2009). "YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Torrentfreak (June 19, 2012). "Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site". Retrieved September 4, 2013.  ^ Zamzar (June 12, 2012). "Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported". Retrieved September 4, 2013.  ^ Casserly, Cathy (July 25, 2012). "Here's your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube Mobile".  ^ Chitu, Alex (June 15, 2007). "Mobile YouTube". Unofficial Google Blog. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29". Apple. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original on December 28, 2008. Retrieved January 17, 2009.  ^ Zibreg, Christian (July 8, 2010). "Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android". Retrieved January 9, 2012.  ^ Kincaid, Jason (July 7, 2010). "YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market". December 8, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2012.  ^ Dredge, Stuart (September 11, 2012). "New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 11, 2012.  ^ Smith, Cooper (September 5, 2013). "Google+ Is The Fourth Most-Used Smartphone App". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today". Gizmodo. July 17, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2009.  ^ "YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles". Los Angeles Times. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 17, 2009.  ^ "Coming Up Next... YouTube on Your TV". YouTube Blog. January 15, 2009. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.  ^ "Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen". YouTube Blog. YouTube. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009.  ^ "Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search". Mashable. June 6, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2011.  ^ "YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch". November 15, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2012.  ^ Ali, Sarah (November 22, 2012). "Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Spangler, Todd (December 17, 2013). "YouTube Channel Now Playing on Roku". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ O'Grady, Richard (October 28, 2014). "Pwn, share, repeat with YouTube on PlayStation 4". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France News". PC Advisor. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ See YouTube localisation list on the bottom of YouTube website. ^ "Presentan hoy YouTube México" [YouTube México launched today] (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. Archived from the original on May 16, 2009. Retrieved September 9, 2010.  ^ "中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場!". Stanley5. October 17, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ "YouTube台灣網站上線 手機版再等等". ZDNet. October 18, 2007. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2012.  ^ a b Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ "YouTube перевелся на русский" (in Russian). Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). "YouTube Launches Korean Site". PC World. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it's crap. It sucks". The Czech Daily Word. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012. ^ "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. Archived from the original on September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.  ^ Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). "Google launches YouTube in Kenya". The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.  ^ "YouTube Launches Singapore Site". Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2015.  ^ YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011. ^ Google Launches YouTube Uganda Archived January 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012. ^ Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today Archived January 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012. ^ Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Google Launches Hungarian YouTube March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. ^ YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012. ^ Bindu Suresh Rai (April 2, 2012). "UAE version of YouTube launched". Emirates 247. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012. ^ "Google launches YouTube in Ghana" Archived June 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012. ^ "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", Jubr> ^ [3] itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live".July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012. ^ "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012. ^ Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). "YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)" (in Ukrainian). Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog.  ^ "YouTube lanceres i Danmark". Denmark: iProspect. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). "YouTube Launches in the Nordics". Nordic: KLOK. Retrieved February 11, 2013.  ^ "YOUTUBE LAUNCHED IN NORWAY". Norway: TONO. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ "YouTube goes Swiss". Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ " since Thursday online". Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  ^ "Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână". Romania: Retrieved May 14, 2013.  ^ "Google lança versão lusa do YouTube". Portugal: Luso Noticias. Retrieved May 14, 2013.  ^ tš (May 21, 2013). "Slováci už môžu oficiálne zarábať na tvorbe videí pre YouTube" (in Slovak). Vat Pravda. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ a b c d e Nick Rego (September 16, 2013). "YouTube expands monetization and partnership in GCC". tbreak Media. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ Ивелина Атанасова (March 18, 2014). "YouTube рекламата става достъпна и за България" (in Bulgarian). New Trend. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ "Oglašavanje na video platformi YouTube od sad dostupno i u Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Lider. March 19, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ Siiri Oden (March 19, 2014). "Youtube reklaamid – uued võimalused nüüd ka Eestis!" (in Estonian). Meedium. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ Marta (March 18, 2014). "Tagad reklāmas iespējas Youtube kanālā iespējams izmantot arī Latvijā" (in Latvian). Marketing. Archived from the original on March 21, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ STA (March 18, 2014). "Na Youtube prihajajo tudi slovenski video oglasi" (in Slovenian). Dnevnik. Retrieved April 5, 2014.  ^ Asina Pornwasin (April 3, 2014). "YouTube introduces homepage especially". The Nation. Retrieved April 4, 2014.  ^ a b c d Stephen Hall (October 12, 2015). "YouTube continues global expansion w/ versions of its site in 7 new locales". 9to5 Google. Retrieved March 18, 2016.  ^ a b "YouTube launches Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka-specific homepages". The Himalayan Times. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.  ^ "YouTube launches country-specific homepage for Pakistan". The Express Tribune. January 12, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.  ^ "Learn More: Video not available in my country". Retrieved August 4, 2009.  ^ "YouTube language versions". Retrieved June 2, 2015.  ^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2012.  ^ Danforth, Nick (July 31, 2009). "Turks censor YouTube censorship". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2009.  ^ Kerr, Dara (October 2, 2012). "YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Barnett, Emma (September 3, 2009). "Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Now YouTube stops the music in Germany". The Guardian. London. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.  ^ "YouTube Red".  ^ Trew, James (November 12, 2014). "YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here's what you need to know". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Newton, Casey (November 12, 2014). "YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ a b Spangler, Todd (November 12, 2014). "YouTube Launches 'Music Key' Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Spangler, Todd (October 21, 2015). "YouTube Red Unveiled: Ad-Free Streaming Service Priced Same as Netflix". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Amadeo, Ron (October 21, 2015). ""YouTube Red" offers premium YouTube for $9.99 a month, $12.99 for iOS users". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Popper, Ben (October 21, 2015). "A first look at the ad-free YouTube Red subscription service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Roberts, Hannah (November 3, 2016). "YouTube's ad-free paid subscription service looks like it is struggling to take off". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube Red originals have racked up nearly 250 million views". The Verge. June 22, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Popper, Ben (June 17, 2014). "YouTube will block videos from artists who don't sign up for its paid streaming service". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube subscription music licensing strikes wrong notes with indie labels". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.  ^ "Talks with indie labels stall over YouTube music subscription service". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.  ^ "YouTube to block indie labels who don't sign up to new music service". The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 17, 2014.  ^ "Lyor Cohen Named YouTube's Global Head of Music". Billboard. Retrieved January 6, 2018.  ^ "How YouTube Is Playing the Peacemaker With Musicians". Fortune. Retrieved January 6, 2018.  ^ "YouTube TV launches today. It has some cool features and some big drawbacks". Los Angeles Times. Tronc. Associated Press. April 5, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2017.  ^ Christina Warren (April 5, 2017). "YouTube Is Officially in the Live TV Game Now". Gizmodo. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved April 24, 2017.  ^ Dave Lee (March 1, 2017). "YouTube takes on cable with new TV service". BBC. Retrieved March 1, 2017.  ^ Tom Huddleston, Jr. (March 1, 2017). "Meet YouTube TV: Google's Live TV Subscription Service". Fortune. Retrieved March 1, 2017.  ^ This well-placed YouTube ad on the World Series broadcast drove people crazy – Matt Clapp, Awful Announcing, October 24, 2017 ^ Dave, Paresh (February 1, 2018). "YouTube's emerging markets-focused app expands to 130 countries". Reuters. Retrieved February 10, 2018.  ^ Byford, Sam (September 27, 2016). "YouTube Go is a new app for offline viewing and sharing". The Verge. Retrieved February 10, 2018.  ^ Singh, Manish (February 9, 2017). "YouTube Go is finally here, kind of". Mashable. Retrieved February 10, 2018.  ^ Ho, Victoria (November 30, 2017). "Data-friendly YouTube Go beta launches in Southeast Asia, Africa". Mashable. Retrieved February 10, 2018.  ^ Perez, Sarah. "Google's data-friendly app YouTube Go expands to over 130 countries, now supports higher quality videos". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ "Google's 'offline first' YouTube Go app launches in 130 new markets, but not the U.S." VentureBeat. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Arrington, Michael (March 31, 2008). "YouTube RickRolls Users". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Wortham, Jenna (April 1, 2008). "YouTube 'Rickrolls' Everyone". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Bas van den Beld (April 1, 2009). "April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down". Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2010.  ^ Pichette, Patrick (March 31, 2010). "TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Richmond, Shane (April 1, 2011). "YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Carbone, Nick (April 1, 2012). "April Fools' Day 2012: The Best Pranks from Around the Web". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Quan, Kristene (April 1, 2013). "WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down". Time. Time Inc. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Kleinman, Alexis (April 1, 2014). "YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets in April Fools' Day Video". HuffPost. Retrieved April 1, 2014.  ^ Alba, Alejandro (April 1, 2015). "17 April Fools' pranks from tech brands, tech giants today". NY Daily News. Retrieved June 12, 2016.  ^ Sini, Rozina (April 1, 2016). "Snoopavision and other April Fools jokes going viral". BBC News. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ a b Bruno, Antony (February 25, 2007). "YouTube stars don't always welcome record deals". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014.  ^ a b Tufnell, Nicholas (November 27, 2013). "The rise and fall of YouTube's celebrity pioneers". Wired UK. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014.  ^ Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on January 8, 2012.  ^ Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015.  • Berg, Madeline (November 2015). "The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015 / 1. PewDiePie: $12 million". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 13, 2015.  ^ "Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube". BBC News. December 21, 2012. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.  ^ Thayer, Katheryn (October 29, 2013). "The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013.  ^ "2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title)". Next Big Sound. January 2014. Archived from the original on January 20, 2014.  "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%. ^ Billboard staff (February 20, 2013). "Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014.  ^ a b c d Anderson, Chris (July 2010). "How web video powers global innovation". TED. Archived from the original on December 25, 2013.  (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation." ^ Noer, Michael (November 2, 2012). "One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.  ^ (award profile), "Winner 2008",, May 2009. (Archived January 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. from the original on January 14, 2016). ^ Poniewozik, James (April 1, 2009). "Nonprofit Press Release Theater: Peabody Awards Announced". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Tsukayama, Haley (April 20, 2012). "In online video, minorities find an audience". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.  ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013.  ^ Q. Seelye, Katharine (June 13, 2007). "New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Howard, Philip N. (February 23, 2011). "The Arab Spring's Cascading Effects". Pacific Standard. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.  ^ Wong, Scott (March 22, 2012). "Joseph Kony captures Congress' attention". Politico. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.  ^ a b c Cohen, Joshua (March 2, 2014). "Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors on How To Reach Online Audiences". Tubefilter. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.  ^ Jenkins, Brad L. (March 6, 2014). "YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House". Washington, D.C.: Archived from the original on March 7, 2014.  ^ Journalism Project Staff (July 16, 2012). "YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013.  ^ Reston, Maeve (December 12, 2013). "Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013.  ^ McMorris-Santoro, Evan (March 2, 2014). "Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014.  ^ CNN Wire Staff (September 14, 2012). "U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video". CNN. Archived from the original on December 29, 2013.  ^ Heffernan, Virginia (August 27, 2006). "Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Chu, Jon M. (February 2010). "The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves". TED. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014.  ^ a b Nichols, Michelle (reporter); Simao, Paul (editor) (April 14, 2009). "YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 19, 2014. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Levs, Josh (interviewer) (March 6, 2010). "CNN Newsroom". CNN. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010.  Also CNN Saturday Morning News and CNN Sunday Morning (archives). ^ Smart, Richard (May 11, 2011). "Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You". The Tokyo Times. Archived from the original on May 28, 2011.  ^ Hartlaub, Peter (October 8, 2010). "Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.  ^ "It Gets Better". Archived from the original on January 3, 2014.  ^ "In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion". CTV News. October 14, 2012. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.  ^ Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2008.  ^ Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 3, 2009.  ^ a b c ROLFE WINKLER (December 11, 2013). "YouTube Growing Faster Than Thought, Report Says". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 28, 2016.  ^ "YouTube's ad revenue estimated at $5.6 billion". YAHOO. Retrieved March 28, 2016.  ^ a b Worstall, Tim (December 12, 2013). "Google's YouTube Ad Revenues May Hit $5.6 Billion in 2013". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ McAllister, Neil (May 9, 2013). "YouTube launches subscriptions with 53 paid channels". The Register. Retrieved May 20, 2013.  ^ "Updates from VidCon: more users, more products, more shows and much more". Official YouTube Blog. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Knowledge@wharton. "Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy". Retrieved July 19, 2012.  ^ Weber, Tim (March 2, 2007). "BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Stone, Brad; Barnes, Brooks (November 9, 2008). "MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ D. Kramer, Staci (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 13, 2009.  ^ Helft, Miguel (January 20, 2010). "YouTube Takes a Small Step into the Film Rental Market". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.  ^ "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.  ^ Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Biggs, John (May 4, 2007). "YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Carmody, Tim (March 4, 2013). "It's not TV, it's the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "The biggest stars on YouTube make huge incomes ... yet they can't keep the vast majority of it". Business Insider. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013. ^ Kaufman, Leslie (February 1, 2014). "Chasing Their Star, on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ McCue, TJ. "Google's YouTube Introduces Paid Content Subscriptions". Forbes. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ "Introduction to paid content – YouTube Help". Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ a b "Additional Changes to the YouTube Partner Program (YPP) to Better Protect Creators". YouYube. Retrieved January 16, 2018.  ^ Levin, Sam (January 18, 2018). "YouTube's small creators pay price of policy changes after Logan Paul scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2018.  ^ "YouTube Creator Rewards". YouTube. Retrieved August 14, 2017.  ^ "What is the Gold Play Button REALLY Made Of?". YouTube. Retrieved June 6, 2017.  ^ "YouTube Sends PewDiePie Custom Ruby Play Button To Commemorate 50 Million Subscribers". Tubefilter. December 19, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Miller, Claire Cain (September 2, 2010). "YouTube Ads Turn Videos into Revenue". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ MacDonald, Keza (May 16, 2013). "Nintendo enforces copyright on YouTube Let's Plays". IGN. j2 Global. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Tassi, Paul (February 6, 2015). "Nintendo Updates Their Bad YouTube Policies By Making Them Worse". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Johnson, Eric (February 4, 2015). "Nintendo Wants YouTubers to Pretend Its Competitors' Games Don't Exist". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Hernandez, Patricia (January 29, 2015). "Nintendo's YouTube Plan Is Already Being Panned By YouTubers [Update]". Kotaku. Univision Communications. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ a b c "YouTube Community Guidelines". YouTube. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ Marsden, Rhodri (August 12, 2009). "Why did my YouTube account get closed down?". The Independent. London. Retrieved August 12, 2009.  ^ Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012. ^ "Is YouTube's three-strike rule fair to users?". BBC News. London. May 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2012.  ^ "Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn". BBC News. March 13, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2008.  ^ "Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google's YouTube". July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2009.  ^ "Premier League to take action against YouTube". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. May 5, 2007. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "YouTube law fight 'threatens net'". BBC News. May 27, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2008.  ^ "Google must divulge YouTube log". BBC News. BBC News. July 3, 2008.  ^ Helft, Miguel (July 4, 2008). "Google Told to Turn Over User Data of YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Lefkow, Chris (June 23, 2010). "US judge tosses out Viacom copyright suit against YouTube". AFP. Retrieved June 24, 2010.  ^ "Google and Viacom: YouTube copyright lawsuit back on". BBC News. April 5, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.  ^ "Google and Viacom settle seven-year YouTube row". BBC News. March 18, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2014.  ^ Egelko, Bob (August 20, 2008). "Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 25, 2008.  ^ Ohio Northern District Court (July 18, 2013). "Court Docket". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved October 21, 2014.  ^ District Judge James G. Carr (June 6, 2011). "Order". Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. United States District Court, N.D. Ohio, Western Division. Retrieved November 7, 2011.  ^ "YouTube loses court battle over music clips". BBC News. London. April 20, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.  ^ "YouTube's seven-year stand-off ends". BBC News. London. November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 2, 2016.  ^ "YouTube's Deal With Universal Blocks DMCA Counter Notices". TorrentFreak. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 5, 2013.  ^ "Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube's contractual obligations". Google. Retrieved April 5, 2013.  ^ Finley, Klint (November 19, 2015). "Google Pledges to Help Fight Bogus YouTube Copyright Claims—for a Few". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Delaney, Kevin J. (June 12, 2007). "YouTube to Test Software To Ease Licensing Fights". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ "YouTube Content ID". YouTube. September 28, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2015.  ^ a b More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011. ^ Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012. ^ Von Lohmann, Fred (April 23, 2009). "Testing YouTube's Audio Content ID System". Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ Von Lohmann, Fred (February 3, 2009). "YouTube's January Fair Use Massacre". Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011. ^ Hernandez, Patricia. "YouTube's Content ID System Gets One Much-Needed Fix". Kotaku. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ "Remove Content ID claimed songs from my videos – YouTube Help". Retrieved September 17, 2017.  ^ Siegel, Joshua; Mayle, Doug (December 9, 2010). "Up, Up and Away – Long videos for more users". Official YouTube Blog. Google. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos". Reuters. Retrieved May 28, 2008.  ^ "Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult". icLiverpool. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2015.  ^ Kirkup, James; Martin, Nicole (July 31, 2008). "YouTube attacked by MPs over sex and violence footage". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner". Fox News. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2010.  ^ F. Burns, John; Helft, Miguel (November 4, 2010). "YouTube Withdraws Cleric's Videos". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Bennett, Brian (December 12, 2010). "YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 29, 2015.  ^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited.  ^ Robertson, Adi (September 1, 2016). "Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Guynn, Jessica (September 2, 2016). "YouTubers protest 'advertiser friendly' policy". USA Today. Gannett Company. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Mulkerin, Tim (September 1, 2016). "A bunch of famous YouTubers are furious at YouTube right now – here's why". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ E. Solsman, Joan (September 1, 2016). "Pause the #YouTubeIsOverParty: YouTube isn't pulling more ads from stars' videos". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "Google Ad Crisis Spreads as Biggest Marketers Halt Spending". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ "YouTube: UK government suspends ads amid extremism concerns". BBC News. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ "A YouTube Star, Reddit Detectives, and the Alt-Right Call Out a Fake News Story. Turns Out It Was Real". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 5, 2017.  ^ "How one little screenshot drove YouTube to the brink". Mashable. Retrieved April 10, 2017.  ^ "YouTube will no longer allow creators to make money until they reach 10,000 views". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (April 26, 2017). "The saga of a YouTube family who pulled disturbing pranks on their own kids". The Washington Post.  ^ Cresci, Elena (May 7, 2017). "Mean stream: how YouTube prank channel DaddyOFive enraged the internet". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 7, 2017.  ^ Dunphy, Rachel (April 28, 2017). "The Abusive 'Pranks' of YouTube Family Vloggers". Select All. New York Magazine. Retrieved July 9, 2017.  ^ Gajanan, Mahita (May 3, 2017). "YouTube Star DaddyOFive Loses Custody of 2 Children Shown in 'Prank' Videos". Time. Retrieved July 9, 2017.  ^ Ben Popper, Adults dressed as superheroes is YouTube’s new, strange, and massively popular genre, The Verge, February 4, 2017 ^ Staff, Web (March 31, 2017). "Report: Thousands of videos mimicking popular cartoons on YouTube Kids contain inappropriate content". NEWS10 ABC. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Sapna Maheshwari, On YouTube Kids, Startling Videos Slip Past Filters, The New York Times, November 4, 2017 ^ a b Dani Di Placido, YouTube's "Elsagate" Illuminates The Unintended Horrors Of The Digital Age, Forbes, November 28, 2017 ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube Terminates Toy Freaks Channel Amid Broader Crackdown on Disturbing Kids’ Content, Variety, November 17, 2017 ^ Popper, Ben (November 9, 2017). "YouTube says it will crack down on bizarre videos targeting children". The Verge. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. In August of this year, YouTube announced that it would no longer allow creators to monetize videos which "made inappropriate use of family friendly characters." Today it's taking another step to try and police this genre.  ^ Sarah Templeton, Disturbing 'ElsaGate', 'Toy Freaks' videos removed from YouTube after abuse allegations, Newshub, November 22, 2017 ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube Terminates Toy Freaks Channel Amid Broader Crackdown on Disturbing Kids’ Content, Variety, November 17, 2017 ^ YouTube to crack down on videos showing child endangerment, ABC News, November 22, 2017 ^ Charlie Warzel, YouTube Is Addressing Its Massive Child Exploitation Problem BuzzFeed, November 22, 2017 ^ Bridge, Mark; Mostrous, Alexi (November 18, 2017). "Child abuse on YouTube". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ YouTube videos of children are plagued by sexual comments, The Verge, November 15, 2017 ^ a b Mostrous, Alexi; Bridge, Mark; Gibbons, Katie (November 24, 2017). "YouTube adverts fund paedophile habits". The Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Todd Spangler, YouTube Faces Advertiser Boycott Over Videos With Kids That Attracted Sexual Predators, Variety, November 25, 2017 ^ Grossman, Lev (December 25, 2006). "You – Yes, You – Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Owen, Paul (November 3, 2009). "Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved March 13, 2014.  ^ Moore, Matthew (September 2, 2008). "YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Rundle, Michael (April 7, 2012). "Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube And The Law Of Big Numbers". The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2012.  ^ "YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ "No more links in comments?". Google product forums. 2009. Retrieved August 28, 2013.  ^ "View and post comments". Google Support. 2013. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ Hern, Alex (November 8, 2013). "YouTube co-founder hurls abuse at Google over new YouTube comments". The Guardian. London. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ "Meet the new YouTube comments" on YouTube, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ "YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. ^ Chase, Melvin (November 20, 2013). "YouTube comments require Google+ account, Google faces uproar". Newsday.  (subscription required) Alternate link Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Google unlinking Google+ from YouTube". BBC News. London. July 28, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.  ^ E. Solsman, Joan (November 3, 2016). "YouTube helps creators blast trolls from comments". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Jotham, Immanuel (July 24, 2017). "New YouTube feature allows creators to automatically block spam". International Business Times UK. Retrieved September 17, 2017.  ^ "YouTube strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views". The Daily Dot. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ "Two billion YouTube music video views disappear … or just migrate?". The Guardian. December 28, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ Haran, Brady (June 22, 2012). Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?. Numberphile.  ^ Snyder, Benjamin (August 6, 2015). "YouTube Finally Fixed This Annoying Feature". Time. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ a b "YouTube Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012. ^ "The disturbing YouTube videos that are tricking children". BBC News. March 27, 2017. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Shu, Catherine. "YouTube responds to complaints that its Restricted Mode censors LGBT videos". TechCrunch. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Strom, Stephanie (March 9, 2012). "YouTube Finds a Way Off Schools' Banned List". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ David Meerman Scott. "Facebook and YouTube blocked by paranoid corporations at their own peril". Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Marks, Gene. "Netflix and YouTube Now Consume 50% Of The Internet As The Argument For Net Neutrality Weakens". Forbes. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Hannaford, Kat. "US Military Bans YouTube, Amazon and 11 Other Websites to Free Up Bandwidth for Japan Crisis". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Tait, Robert (November 4, 2006). "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 17, 2006.  ^ "Mobile phones, Facebook, YouTube cut in Iran". American Free Press. Google. July 13, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.  ^ "Iran blocks YouTube, Google over Mohammed video". September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.  ^ "Thailand blocks access to YouTube". BBC. April 4, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Ban on YouTube lifted after deal". The Nation. August 31, 2007. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007.  ^ States still hold out on YouTube The Australian, March 6, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2015. ^ "Youku Transcends YouTube as China Becomes Center of Internet". Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). "China 'blocks YouTube video site'". BBC News. Retrieved March 24, 2009.  ^ "YouTube遭中國封鎖?". Now News. October 19, 2007. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ "China Blocks YouTube". PC World. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ "YouTube site 'blocked' in Morocco". BBC News. May 29, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2013.  ^ "YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom". Reporters Without Borders. May 30, 2007. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2007.  ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (November 28, 2008). "Google's Gatekeepers". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ "Turkey goes into battle with Google". BBC News. July 2, 2010. Retrieved July 3, 2010.  ^ "Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube". BBC News. October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.  ^ Champion, Marc (November 2, 2010). "Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2010.  ^ "Turkey report", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012. ^ "Top Sites in Turkey", Alexa. Retrieved August 26, 2010. ^ B. Kelley, Michael (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Blocked in Turkey Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ "Turkey moves to block YouTube access after 'audio leak'". BBC. March 27, 2014. Retrieved March 27, 2014.  ^ Wagstaff, Keith (March 27, 2014). "YouTube Banned in Turkey". NBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2014.  ^ "Pakistan blocks YouTube website". BBC. February 24, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Pakistan lifts YouTube ban". ABC News (Australia). AFP. February 26, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2008.  ^ "Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube". BBC. February 26, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban". Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown". BBC News. May 20, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ "YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012 ^ "Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010 ^ Pakistan ban on YouTube stays even after one year The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013. ^ "Pakistan unblocks access to YouTube". BBC News. January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2016.  ^ "Turkmenistan blocks access to YouTube, LJ". Retrieved October 5, 2017.  ^ "Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved February 7, 2010.  ^ "Libya", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012 ^ "Afghanistan to unblock YouTube – Afghanistan Times" Archived January 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., December 1, 2012. ^ "Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film", Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012. ^ "YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video", The Independent (AP), September 18, 2012. ^ Tsukayama, Haley (September 17, 2012). "YouTube blocked in Pakistan". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Devnath, Arun (September 18, 2012). "Pakistan, Bangladesh Block YouTube Amid Islam Film Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved September 18, 2012.  ^ "Russian court bans anti-Islam film". The News. September 29, 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013.  ^ Willon, Phil; Keegan, Rebecca (September 12, 2012). "'Innocence of Muslims': Mystery shrouds film's California origins". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 13, 2012.  ^ "YouTube restricts video access over Libyan violence". CNN. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.  Further reading Kelsey, Todd (2010). Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4302-2596-6.  Lacy, Sarah (2008). The Stories of Facebook, YouTube and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0. Richmond: Crimson. ISBN 978-1-85458-453-3.  Walker, Rob (June 28, 2012). "On YouTube, Amateur Is the New Pro". The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2017. 

External links Find more aboutYouTubeat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Official website (Mobile) YouTube on Blogger Press room – YouTube YouTube – Google Developers Haran, Brady; Hamilton, Ted. "Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?". Numberphile. Brady Haran.  Dickey, Megan Rose (February 15, 2013). "The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  Are YouTubers Revolutionizing Entertainment? (June 6, 2013), video produced for PBS by Off Book. v t e YouTube History Censorship Copyright issues Social impact Founders Steve Chen Chad Hurley Jawed Karim Channels Personalities Most-subscribed channels Spotlight Original channels YouTube Red (List of original programs) Culture and videos Elsagate Play Buttons YouTube Poop YouTube Rewind Vevo Lists Most-viewed videos Most-liked videos Most-disliked videos Most-viewed Vevo videos Multi-channel networks Events Awards CNN/YouTube presidential debates Comedy Week Live Music Awards Orchestra Playlist Live VidCon Related articles API Viacom conflict Viral video YouTube Kids YouTube Music v t e Google Overview Alphabet Inc. History List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet Products Criticism Privacy concerns Censorship Easter eggs Don't be evil Advertising AdMob Adscape AdSense AdWords Analytics Contributor Partners DoubleClick DoubleClick for Publishers Wallet Communication Allo Alerts Apps Script Duo Calendar Contacts Gmail history interface Google+ Groups Hangouts Inbox Sync Text-to-Speech Translate Transliteration Voice Software Assistant Lens Chrome for Android for iOS Chrome Web Store Apps Extensions Cloud Print Earth Sky Moon Mars Gadgets Gboard Goggles IME Japanese Pinyin Photos Keep News & Weather Now OpenRefine Search Operating systems Android version history software development Android Auto Android Pay Android TV Android Wear Chrome OS Chromebit Chromebook Chromebox Chrome Zone Fuchsia Programming languages Dart Go Sawzall Platforms Account Authenticator Body Books Library Project Caja Virtual reality Cardboard Daydream Cast Chromecast Cloud Platform App Engine BigQuery Bigtable Compute Engine Storage Contact Lens Custom Search Daydream Earth Engine Fit GFS Firebase G Suite Classroom Home Jamboard Marketplace Native Client Nexus OnHub OpenSocial Pay Primer Pixel Play Books Games Movies & TV Music Newsstand Public DNS Safe Browsing URL Shortener Wallet Wifi Development tools AJAX APIs App Inventor Closure Tools Developers Dialogflow Flutter GData Googlebot Guava Guice GWS KML Kythe MapReduce Mediabot Sitemaps Summer of Code Web Toolkit Search Console Website Optimizer Swiffy Publishing Blogger Bookmarks Drive Docs, Sheets, Slides, Forms Drawings My Maps Sites Fusion Tables Domains FeedBurner Map Maker YouTube YouTube Instant YouTube Red Vevo Zagat Search (timeline) Appliance Blog Search Books Ngram Viewer Custom Search Finance Flights Images Maps Mars Moon Sky Street View Coverage Competition Privacy concerns News Archive Patents Public Data Scholar Shopping Usenet Videos Algorithms PageRank Panda Penguin Hummingbird Features Personalized Real-Time Instant Search SafeSearch Voice Search Analysis Insights for Search Trends Knowledge Graph Knowledge Vault Discontinued Aardvark Answers Ara Browser Sync Base Buzz Checkout Chrome Frame Click-to-Call Cloud Connect Code Search Currents Desktop Dictionary Directory Dodgeball Fast Flip Friend Connect Gears Glass Glass OS GOOG-411 Google TV Jaiku Knol Health iGoogle Image Labeler Labs Latitude Lively Mashup Editor Notebook Offers Orkut Pack Page Creator Panoramio Picasa Picasa Web Albums Picnik PowerMeter Questions and Answers Reader Script Converter SearchWiki Sidewiki Slide Squared Talk Updater Urchin Videos Wave Web Accelerator Toolbar Other Arts & Culture Calico Current Chrome Experiments Code-in Code Jam Developer Day Google Business Groups Made with Code Data Liberation Takeout Google Developer Expert Google for Work Self-driving car Earth Outreach Fiber GV "Google" Google China Google Express Googlization Grants Lunar X Prize Project Fi Material Design Motorola Mobility reCAPTCHA WiFi X Events Science Fair Searchology I/O Developer Day Code Jam Highly Open Participation Contest Code-in Projects Loon Tango Sunroof Real estate 111 Eighth Avenue Chelsea Market Googleplex Logo Doodle4Google Google Doodles People Al Gore Alan Eustace Alan Mulally Amit Singhal Ann Mather David Drummond Eric Schmidt Jeff Dean John Doerr John L. Hennessy Krishna Bharat Matt Cutts Patrick Pichette Paul Otellini Omid Kordestani Rachel Whetstone Rajen Sheth Ram Shriram Ray Kurzweil Ruth Porat Salar Kamangar Sanjay Ghemawat Shirley M. Tilghman Sundar Pichai Susan Wojcicki Urs Hölzle Vint Cerf Hal Varian Gayglers Founders Larry Page Sergey Brin Related AI Challenge Bomb GmailFS "Google: Behind the Screen" (2006 documentary) Google: The Thinking Factory (2008 documentary) Google and the World Brain (2013 documentary) Goojje Monopoly City Streets Unity Category Portal v t e Alphabet Inc. Divisions Access Calico CapitalG Chronicle DeepMind Google GV Jigsaw Nest Sidewalk Verily X Waymo People Arthur D. Levinson Astro Teller David Krane Eric Schmidt Ruth Porat Sundar Pichai Tony Fadell Andrew Conrad Founders Larry Page Sergey Brin Category Portal Task Force v t e Video digital distribution platforms Digital library Streaming media Video on demand Free 7plus 9Now ABC iview Aparat AcFun afreecaTV All 4 Arte Boutique BBC iPlayer Bilibili BitTorrent Blinkbox Brightcove Buzznet Canalplay Chicken Pork Adobo Crackle Dailymotion DittoTV DramaFever Facebook Watch Flickr Fotki France TV Pluzz Frequency Funimation Funshion GyaO Hoopla Hotstar Hunter TV iQiyi ITV Hub i Want TV Le Lightbox LiveLeak Mango TV Metacafe Mixer My5 MyTF1 VOD MyVideo NeuLion The NewsMarket Niconico Noggin OneWorldTV Ora TV OverDrive, Inc. Pandora TV PictureBox Films Pluto TV PLUS7 Popcornflix PPTV Putlocker Queensland Online TV RTÉ Player Rumble Rutube SBS on Demand SchoolTube Sky Go Sohu Sony LIV Sina Video Spirit Show Network Spuul Starlight Networks Steam Streamworks International STV Player SVT Play TalkTalk TV Tank Top TV TAPP TV TeacherTube Teaching Channel Telly Inc TENplay thePlatform Toon Goggles Trilulilu Tubi TV Tudou TV UOL Tvigle TVNZ OnDemand TVPlayer tvyo UKTV Play Ultraviolet VBOX7 Veoh Vevo Viddsee Viewster Viki Vimeo Viu Voddler VyRT Wistia Wuaki Xfinity Streampix Xunlei Kankan Yahoo! View Youku YouTube YuppTV Zattoo Sports Fox Sports Go WatchESPN Pornographic PornerBros Pornhub PornMD PornoTube RedTube XHamster Xtube XVideos YouPorn Comedy Funny or Die Paid Acorn TV Amazon Video AnimeLab CBS All Access CraveTV Crunchyroll CuriosityStream DirecTV Now ESPN+ FandangoNOW Fandor Filipino On Demand FilmStruck Foxtel Play Fullscreen Global Wrestling Network Google Play Movies & TV HBO Go HBO Now Hillsong Channel Now HOOQ Hulu Honor Club Icflix iflix iTunes Store MUBI Netflix New Japan Pro-Wrestling World Nintendo eShop Now TV PlayStation Store PlayStation Video PlayStation Vue Playster Rooster Teeth FIRST SHAHID Showmax Showtime Shudder Sky On Demand Sling TV Stan STARZ TVPlayer UFC Fight Pass VidAngel Vudu Warner Archive Instant WWE Network WWNLive YouTube Red Windows Store (Microsoft Movies & TV) Discontinued Azubu BBC Store Blip Blockbuster On Demand (now part of Sling TV) BlogTV CinemaNow Daisuki Fearnet Flixster Google Video imeem iMesh Intel AppUp Joost Kazaa LoveFilm Megavideo MUZU.TV Nintendo Channel Nintendo Video Nokia Store Openfilm Presto Quickflix Redbox Instant by Verizon Revver Seeso Shomi Sony Entertainment Network Stage6 Super Deluxe TouchVision Triton TroopTube Twango Vdio Vessel Viddler Vidme Vine Vongo WeShow Windows Media Center WWE Classics on Demand Yahoo! Screen Zune Marketplace Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144469555 GND: 7597411-3 NKC: ph659134 Retrieved from "" Categories: YouTube2005 establishments in CaliforniaAlphabet Inc.American websitesAndroid (operating system) softwareCompanies based in San Mateo County, CaliforniaAmerican companies established in 2005Entertainment websitesFirefox OS softwareGoogle acquisitionsGoogle servicesInternet companies of the United StatesInternet properties established in 2005IOS softwareMultilingual websitesRecommender systemsSocial mediaVideo hostingVideo on demand servicesGo softwareHidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)CS1 Russian-language sources (ru)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 Ukrainian-language sources (uk)CS1 Slovak-language sources (sk)CS1 Bulgarian-language sources (bg)CS1 Croatian-language sources (hr)CS1 Estonian-language sources (et)CS1 Latvian-language sources (lv)CS1 Slovenian-language sources (sl)CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listPages containing links to subscription-only contentWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse mdy dates from February 2018Pages using deprecated image syntaxCoordinates not on WikidataArticles containing potentially dated statements from January 2018All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from February 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2016Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2016Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2017Spoken articlesArticles with hAudio microformatsOfficial website different in Wikidata and WikipediaGood articlesWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikibooksWikinews Languages АдыгэбзэAfrikaansAkanAlemannischአማርኛالعربيةArmãneashtiঅসমীয়াAsturianuАварAzərbaycancaবাংলাBahasa BanjarBân-lâm-gúБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎भोजपुरीBikol CentralБългарскиBoarischBosanskiCatalàCebuanoČeštinaCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschDolnoserbskiEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisGaeilgeGalegoગુજરાતી客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî한국어Հայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa Jawaಕನ್ನಡKapampanganქართულიҚазақшаKiswahiliKurdîКыргызчаລາວLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLumbaartMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄Монголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlNederlandsNedersaksiesनेपाली日本語НохчийнNordfriiskNorskNorsk nynorskOccitanଓଡ଼ିଆOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀPälzischپنجابیPapiamentuپښتوភាសាខ្មែរPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийСаха тылаSarduScotsSeelterskShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishسنڌيSlovenčinaSlovenščinaSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaతెలుగుTetunไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeThuɔŋjäŋУкраїнськаاردوVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtWalonWinarayייִדיש粵語ZazakiŽemaitėška中文डोटेलीKabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 15 February 2018, at 04:04. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"3.188","walltime":"3.609","ppvisitednodes":{"value":26034,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":819883,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":20229,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":25,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":11,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 2930.477 1 -total"," 63.17% 1851.282 1 Template:Reflist"," 34.24% 1003.525 259 Template:Cite_web"," 15.94% 467.235 121 Template:Cite_news"," 7.69% 225.225 90 Template:Flag"," 4.86% 142.327 1 Template:Infobox_dot-com_company"," 4.60% 134.919 1 Template:Infobox"," 3.96% 116.128 86 Template:Dts"," 1.66% 48.514 1 Template:Pp-semi-indef"," 1.54% 45.236 10 Template:Navbox"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"1.639","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":10490462,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1287","timestamp":"20180219020807","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":115,"wgHostname":"mw1250"});});

YouTube - Photos and All Basic Informations

YouTube More Links

This Is A Good Article. Follow The Link For More Information.This Article Is Semi-protected.Listen To This ArticleThe YouTube Logo Is Made Of A Red Round-rectangular Box With A White "play" Button Inside And The Word "YouTube" Written In Black.Types Of Business EntitySubsidiaryVideo Hosting ServiceSan Bruno, CaliforniaGeographic Coordinate SystemWorldCensorship Of YouTubeAlphabet Inc.EntrepreneurshipSteve ChenChad HurleyJawed KarimSusan WojcickiInternetVideo Hosting ServiceHolding CompanyGoogleSloganAlexa InternetOnline AdvertisingAdSenseCreative CommonsJavaScriptC (programming Language)C++Python (programming Language)Java (programming Language)Go (programming Language)Ruby (programming Language)Video Hosting ServiceSan Bruno, CaliforniaPayPalChad HurleySteve ChenJawed KarimGoogleSubsidiaryList Of Most-subscribed YouTube ChannelsUser-generated ContentCorporate MediaVideo ClipTV ShowMusic VideoShort FilmDocumentary FilmTrailer (promotion)Live StreamsVideo BlogEdutainmentCBSBBCVevoHuluAdSenseYouTube RedAlexa InternetHistory Of YouTubeEnlargeChad HurleySteve ChenJawed KarimChad HurleySteve ChenJawed KarimPayPalIndiana University Of PennsylvaniaComputer ScienceUniversity Of Illinois At Urbana-ChampaignJanet JacksonSuper Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show Controversy2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake And TsunamiOnline Dating ServiceHot Or NotEnlargeVenture CapitalStartup CompanySequoia CapitalDomain NameMe At The ZooSan Diego ZooNike, Inc.RonaldinhoComScoreMarket ShareBandwidth (computing)Alexa InternetSimilarWebUniversal Tube & Rollform EquipmentGoogleEnlargeIndian Premier LeagueSalar KamangarGoogle+Google ChromeEnlargeSusan WojcickiChief Executive OfficerYouTube KidsVideo GamingAmazon.comTwitch.tvAlphabet Inc.Holding CompanyVP9H.264/MPEG-4 AVCDynamic Adaptive Streaming Over HTTPAdobe Flash PlayerHTML5MPEG-4 Part 14H.264/MPEG-4 AVCWebMVP8HTML5 Video SupportAdaptive Bitrate StreamingDynamic Adaptive Streaming Over HTTPGigabyteSpeech RecognitionDigital Container FormatAudio Video InterleaveMPEG-4 Part 14MPEG Program StreamQuickTime File FormatFlash VideoWebM3GP And 3G2Progressive ScanDeinterlacingPixelSorenson CodecH.2633GP And 3G2720pHigh-definition Video4:3Aspect RatioWidescreen16:9H.264/MPEG-4 AVC1080p4K Resolution8K ResolutionHigh-dynamic-range VideoHybrid Log-GammaPerceptual QuantizerRec. 2020Frame RateVideo CardVP9Opus (audio Format)Windows XPH.264/MPEG-4 AVCAdvanced Audio CodingLive StreamingU2Barack ObamaFelix BaumgartnerRed Bull StratosPeter Bradshaw3D FilmAnaglyph 3DHTML5Nvidia 3D Vision360-degree VideoGoogle CardboardVirtual RealityVirtual RealityPublic BetaSocial MediaGIFVlogbrothersAsapScienceLilly SinghMatPatKarminBarely ProductionsPeter HollensRosianna Halse RojasSam TsuiHTMLMPEG-4 Part 14Plug-in (computing)Google CheckoutCease And DesistZamzarPublic Copyright LicenseCreative CommonsSmartphonesReal Time Streaming ProtocolApple Inc.H.264/MPEG-4 AVCApple TVIPod TouchIPhoneHTML5GlobalWebIndexTiVoPlayStation 3WiiVideo Game ConsoleXbox LiveWii UNintendo 3DSInternet Browser (Wii U)RokuPlayStation 4Eric SchmidtInternationalization And LocalizationUnited StatesAmerican EnglishBrazilBrazilian PortugueseFranceFrench LanguageBasque LanguageRepublic Of IrelandHiberno-EnglishItalyItalian LanguageJapanJapanese LanguageNetherlandsDutch LanguagePolandPolish LanguageSpainSpanish LanguageGalician LanguageCatalan LanguageBasque LanguageUnited KingdomBritish EnglishMexicoMexican SpanishHong KongTraditional Chinese CharactersHong Kong EnglishTaiwanTraditional Chinese CharactersAustraliaAustralian EnglishNew ZealandNew Zealand EnglishCanadaCanadian FrenchCanadian EnglishGermanyGerman LanguageRussiaRussian LanguageSouth KoreaKorean LanguageIndiaHindi LanguageBengali LanguageIndian EnglishGujarati LanguageKannada LanguageMalayalam LanguageMarathi LanguageTamil LanguageTelugu LanguageUrduIsraelHebrew LanguageCzech RepublicCzech LanguageSwedenSwedish LanguageSouth AfricaAfrikaans LanguageZulu LanguageSouth African EnglishArgentinaRioplatense SpanishAlgeriaFrench LanguageLiterary ArabicEgyptArabic LanguageJordanArabic LanguageMoroccoFrench LanguageArabic LanguageSaudi ArabiaArabic LanguageTunisiaFrench LanguageArabic LanguageYemenArabic LanguageKenyaSwahili LanguageEnglish LanguagePhilippinesFilipino LanguagePhilippine EnglishSingaporeSingapore EnglishMalay LanguageSimplified Chinese CharactersTamil LanguageBelgiumBelgian FrenchDutch LanguageGerman LanguageColombiaColombian SpanishUgandaUgandan EnglishNigeriaNigerian Standard EnglishChileSpanish LanguageHungaryHungarian LanguageMalaysiaMalaysian LanguageMalaysian EnglishPeruSpanish LanguageUnited Arab EmiratesArabic LanguageEnglish LanguageGreeceGreek LanguageIndonesiaIndonesian LanguageEnglish LanguageGhanaEnglish LanguageSenegalFrench LanguageEnglish LanguageTurkeyTurkish LanguageUkraineUkrainian LanguageDenmarkDanish LanguageFinlandFinnish LanguageSwedish LanguageNorwayNorwegian LanguageSwitzerlandGerman LanguageFrench LanguageItalian LanguageAustriaGerman LanguageRomaniaRomanian LanguagePortugalPortuguese LanguageSlovakiaSlovak LanguageBahrainArabic LanguageKuwaitArabic LanguageOmanArabic LanguageQatarArabic LanguageBosnia And HerzegovinaBosnian LanguageCroatian LanguageSerbian LanguageBulgariaBulgarian LanguageCroatiaCroatian LanguageEstoniaEstonian LanguageLatviaLatvian LanguageLithuaniaLithuanian LanguageRepublic Of MacedoniaMacedonian LanguageSerbian LanguageTurkish LanguageMontenegroSerbian LanguageCroatian LanguageSerbiaSerbian LanguageSloveniaSlovenian LanguageThailandThai LanguageLebanonArabic LanguagePuerto RicoPuerto Rican SpanishAmerican EnglishIcelandIcelandic LanguageLuxembourgFrench LanguageGerman LanguageVietnamVietnamese LanguageLibyaArabic LanguageTanzaniaSwahili LanguageEnglish LanguageZimbabweEnglish LanguageAzerbaijanAzerbaijani LanguageBelarusRussian LanguageGeorgia (country)Georgian LanguageKazakhstanKazakh LanguageNepalNepali LanguagePakistanUrdu LanguagePakistani EnglishSri LankaSinhala LanguageTamil LanguageIraqArabic LanguageJamaicaJamaican EnglishTurkeyMustafa Kemal AtatürkPRS For MusicYouTube RedGoogle Play MusicComparison Of On-demand Streaming Music ServicesFinancial TimesRobert KynclMerlin NetworkLyor Cohen300 EntertainmentWarner Music GroupSpotifyApple MusicOver-the-top ContentMultichannel Video Programming DistributorNew York CityLos AngelesChicagoPhiladelphiaSan FranciscoAmerican Broadcasting CompanyCBSThe CWFox Broadcasting CompanyNBCThe Walt Disney CompanyCBS Corporation21st Century FoxNBCUniversalTurner Broadcasting SystemBravo (U.S. TV Network)USA NetworkSyfyDisney ChannelCNNCartoon NetworkE!Fox Sports 1Freeform (TV Network)FX (TV Network)ESPNShowtime (TV Network)Fox Soccer PlusYouTube Red2017 World SeriesAndroid (operating System)Emerging MarketBluetoothDisplay ResolutionIndiaNigeriaIndonesiaThailandMalaysiaVietnamPhilippinesKenyaSouth AfricaBrazilMexicoTurkeyIraqApril Fools' DayRick AstleyNever Gonna Give You UpRickrollingKeyboard CatThe OnionSandstorm (Darude Composition)DarudeSnoop DoggSocial Impact Of YouTubeOld MediaComplete Music UpdateForbesBillboard (magazine)Billboard Hot 100EnlargePeabody AwardsTED (conference)Chris Anderson (entrepreneur)Johannes GutenbergKhan AcademyDisruptive InnovationGeorge Foster Peabody AwardSpeakers' CornerPew Research CenterCNN/YouTube Presidential DebatesTechPresidentArab SpringPhilip N. HowardJoseph KonyKony 2012EnlargeWhite HouseIman CrossonPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActNew MediaInnocence Of MuslimsReactions To Innocence Of MuslimsVirginia HeffernanThe Legion Of Extraordinary DancersYouTube Symphony OrchestraWe Are The World 25 For Haiti (YouTube Edition)It Gets Better ProjectSuicide Among LGBT YouthSuicide Of Amanda ToddMateriality (auditing)NetflixNBCBBCMetro-Goldwyn-MayerLions Gate EntertainmentCBSFox Broadcasting CompanyWalt Disney Studios Motion PicturesAdSenseTubeMogulYouTube Play ButtonNintendoShock SiteDigital Millennium Copyright ActTakedown NoticeOnline Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation ActYouTube Copyright StrikeCopyright InfringementViacomMediasetPremier LeagueElectronic Frontier FoundationLouis L. StantonLenz V. Universal Music Corp.Fair UsePrince (musician)Let's Go CrazySmith V. Summit Entertainment LLCCauses Of ActionGesellschaft Für Musikalische Aufführungs- Und Mechanische VervielfältigungsrechteUniversal Music GroupCriticism Of GoogleViacomYouTube Copyright IssuesCriticism Of GoogleCensorship By GoogleHolocaust DenialHillsborough DisasterAnthony WeinerAnwar Al-AwlakiPRISM (surveillance Program)Censorship Of YouTubePhillip DeFrancoVlogbrothersThe GuardianH3h3ProductionsWall Street JournalJohnny Rebel (singer)Chief KeefDaddyOFiveElsagateChild ProtectionDaddyOFiveChild AbuseYouTube KidsElsagatePedophiliaDark WebCriticism Of GoogleTroll (Internet)Time (magazine)Web 2.0The GuardianThe Daily TelegraphThe Huffington PostUniform Resource LocatorAlgorithmSony Music EntertainmentThe Daily DotClick FraudCensorship Of YouTubeChinaNorth KoreaIranInternet Service ProviderNorth KoreaChinaMoroccoTurkeyLibyaPakistanBlocking Of YouTube Videos In GermanyIranYouTube KidsCensorship Of YouTubeAustraliaIranian Presidential Election, 2009Innocence Of MuslimsThailandBhumibol AdulyadejMustafa Kemal AtatürkDeniz BaykalJyllands-Posten Muhammad Cartoons ControversyMuhammadVirtual Private NetworkEverybody Draw Mohammed DayInnocence Of MuslimsTurkmenistanLiveJournalBenghaziAbu Salim PrisonMuammar GaddafiHuman Rights Watch2011 Libyan Civil WarAfghanistanBangladeshRussiaSudanInnocence Of MuslimsEgyptWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Words To Watch2012 Diplomatic Missions AttacksFile:Youtube Spoken Word.oggWikipedia:Media HelpWikipedia:Spoken ArticlesPortal:AlphabetPortal:CompaniesPortal:GooglePortal:InternetPortal:San Francisco Bay AreaPortal:United StatesList Of Most Viewed YouTube VideosList Of Most Liked YouTube VideosList Of Most Disliked YouTube VideosList Of YouTubersList Of Most Subscribed Users On YouTubeBookTubeOuellette V. Viacom International Inc.Reply GirlsYouTube AwardsYouTube InstantYouTube LiveYouTube Multi Channel NetworkCNN-YouTube Presidential DebatesYouTube Symphony OrchestraViacom International Inc. V. YouTube, Inc.Alternative MediaComparison Of Video Hosting ServicesList Of Internet PhenomenaList Of Video Hosting ServicesList Of Most Viewed Online Videos In The First 24 HoursList Of Most Viewed Online Trailers In The First 24 HoursAlexa InternetAmazon.comGoogleUSA TodayGannett CompanyUniversity Of Illinois At Urbana-ChampaignTime (magazine)USA TodayGannett CompanyWayback MachineThe New York TimesThe Washington PostJeff BezosThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupWayback MachineWayback MachineThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SEUSA TodayGannett CompanyComScoreReutersThomson ReutersThe VergeVox MediaCNETCBS InteractiveMashableThe Sun (United Kingdom)News UKThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupSimilarWebSimilarWebCNNMoneyCNNTechCrunchAOLTechCrunchAOLThe AgeFairfax MediaMashableTechCrunchAOLThe GuardianGuardian Media GroupAdweekCNETCBS InteractiveTechCrunchAOLThe VergeVox MediaEngadgetAOLMacRumorsThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupCNETCBS InteractiveBBC NewsSan Jose Mercury NewsTechCrunchAOLCNETCBS InteractiveArs TechnicaCondé NastCNETCBS InteractiveUniversity Of WashingtonUniversity Of WashingtonGoogleGoogleCNETCBS InteractiveGoogleCNETCBS InteractiveGoogleGoogleGoogleThe GuardianTechCrunchAOLBBCThe VergeArs TechnicaThe VergeAnandTechPurch GroupWired (website)Condé NastTechCrunchAOLGoogleGoogleCNETCBS InteractiveThe Washington PostJeff BezosGoogleApple Inc.TechCrunchAOLBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SEGizmodoGoogleVariety (magazine)Penske Media CorporationGoogleEl Universal (Mexico City)ZDNetMashableMashableMashablePC WorldWayback MachineWayback MachineWayback MachineWayback MachineWayback MachineTONOSwissinfoWiener ZeitungDnevnik (Slovenia)The Nation (Thailand)The Himalayan TimesThe Express TribuneCNETCBS InteractiveThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupEngadgetAOLThe VergeVox MediaVariety (magazine)Penske Media CorporationVariety (magazine)Penske Media CorporationArs TechnicaCondé NastThe VergeVox MediaBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SEThe VergeVox MediaLos Angeles TimesTroncGizmodoTechCrunchAOLWired (website)Condé NastGoogleThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupTime (magazine)Time Inc.Time (magazine)Time Inc.HuffPostNext Big SoundTED (conference)Wayback MachineTime (magazine)The Washington PostJeff BezosPew Research CenterPew Research CenterThe New York TimesPew Research CenterThe New York TimesTED (conference)Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListForbesBBC NewsThe New York TimesThe Washington PostJeff BezosThe New York TimesTechCrunchAOLTechCrunchAOLThe VergeVox MediaThe New York TimesThe GuardianThe New York TimesIGNJ2 GlobalForbesRecodeVox MediaKotakuUnivision CommunicationsCNNMoney.comThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupThe New York TimesBBC NewsBBC NewsBBC NewsGoogleWired (website)Condé NastGoogleThe Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupThe New York TimesThe GuardianThe VergeVox MediaUSA TodayGannett CompanyBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SECNETCBS InteractiveThe Washington PostThe GuardianInternational Standard Serial NumberNew York (magazine)Time (magazine)The New York TimesForbes (magazine)Variety (magazine)The VergeNewshubVariety (magazine)ABC NewsBuzzFeedThe VergeVariety (magazine)Time (magazine)The Daily TelegraphTelegraph Media GroupThe Huffington PostWayback MachineCNETCBS InteractiveThe Daily DotBrady HaranNumberphileTime (magazine)David Meerman ScottAmerican Free PressThe NationBBC NewsThe New York TimesBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SEBBCNBC NewsABC News (Australia)Wayback MachineThe Washington PostJeff BezosBloomberg L.P.International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4302-2596-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85458-453-3The New York TimesWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsBlogger (service)Brady HaranBusiness InsiderAxel Springer SEOff Book (web Series)Template:YouTube NavboxTemplate Talk:YouTube NavboxHistory Of YouTubeCensorship Of YouTubeYouTube Copyright IssuesSocial Impact Of YouTubeSteve ChenChad HurleyJawed KarimYouTube LogoList Of YouTubersList Of Most-subscribed YouTube ChannelsYouTube SpotlightYouTube Original Channel InitiativeYouTube RedList Of Original Programs Distributed By YouTube RedElsagateYouTube Play ButtonYouTube PoopYouTube RewindVevoList Of Most-viewed YouTube VideosList Of Most-liked YouTube VideosList Of Most-disliked YouTube VideosList Of Most-viewed Vevo VideosList Of Multi-channel NetworksYouTube AwardsCNN/YouTube Presidential DebatesYouTube Comedy WeekYouTube LiveYouTube Music AwardsYouTube Symphony OrchestraPlaylist LiveVidConYouTube APIViacom International Inc. V. YouTube, Inc.Viral VideoYouTube KidsYouTube MusicTemplate:Google Inc.Template Talk:Google Inc.GoogleOutline Of GoogleAlphabet Inc.History Of GoogleList Of Mergers And Acquisitions By AlphabetList Of Google ProductsCriticism Of GooglePrivacy Concerns Regarding GoogleCensorship By GoogleList Of Google Easter EggsDon't Be EvilAdMobAdscapeAdSenseAdWordsGoogle AnalyticsGoogle ContributorGoogle PartnersDoubleClickDoubleClick For PublishersGoogle WalletGoogle AlloGoogle AlertsGoogle Apps ScriptGoogle DuoGoogle CalendarGoogle ContactsGmailHistory Of GmailGmail InterfaceGoogle+Google GroupsGoogle HangoutsInbox By GmailGoogle SyncGoogle Text-to-SpeechGoogle TranslateGoogle TransliterationGoogle VoiceGoogle AssistantGoogle LensGoogle ChromeGoogle Chrome For AndroidGoogle Chrome For IOSChrome Web StoreGoogle Chrome AppGoogle Chrome ExtensionGoogle Cloud PrintGoogle EarthGoogle SkyGoogle MoonGoogle MarsGoogle GadgetsGboardGoogle GogglesGoogle IMEGoogle Japanese InputGoogle PinyinGoogle PhotosGoogle KeepGoogle News & WeatherGoogle NowOpenRefineGoogle SearchOperating SystemAndroid (operating System)Android Version HistoryAndroid Software DevelopmentAndroid AutoAndroid PayAndroid TVAndroid WearChrome OSChromebitChromebookChromeboxChrome ZoneGoogle FuchsiaProgramming LanguageDart (programming Language)Go (programming Language)Sawzall (programming Language)Google Data CentersGoogle AccountGoogle AuthenticatorZygoteBodyGoogle BooksCaja ProjectVirtual RealityGoogle CardboardGoogle DaydreamGoogle CastChromecastGoogle Cloud PlatformGoogle App EngineBigQueryBigtableGoogle Compute EngineGoogle StorageGoogle Contact LensGoogle Custom SearchGoogle DaydreamGoogle Earth EngineGoogle FitGoogle File SystemFirebaseG SuiteGoogle ClassroomGoogle HomeJamboardG Suite MarketplaceGoogle Native ClientGoogle NexusGoogle OnHubOpenSocialGoogle PayGoogle PrimerGoogle PixelGoogle PlayGoogle Play BooksGoogle Play GamesGoogle Play Movies & TVGoogle Play MusicGoogle Play NewsstandGoogle Public DNSGoogle Safe BrowsingGoogle URL ShortenerGoogle WalletGoogle WifiGoogle APIsApp Inventor For AndroidGoogle Closure ToolsGoogle DevelopersDialogflowFlutter (software)GDataGooglebotGoogle GuavaGoogle GuiceGoogle Data CentersKeyhole Markup LanguageGoogle KytheMapReduceMediabotSitemapsGoogle Summer Of CodeGoogle Web ToolkitGoogle Search ConsoleGoogle Website OptimizerGoogle SwiffyBlogger (service)Google BookmarksGoogle DriveGoogle Docs, Sheets And SlidesGoogle DrawingsGoogle My MapsGoogle SitesGoogle Fusion TablesGoogle DomainsFeedBurnerGoogle Map MakerYouTube InstantYouTube RedVevoZagatGoogle SearchTimeline Of Google SearchGoogle Search ApplianceGoogle Blog SearchGoogle BooksGoogle Ngram ViewerGoogle Custom SearchGoogle FinanceGoogle FlightsGoogle ImagesGoogle MapsGoogle MarsGoogle MoonGoogle SkyGoogle Street ViewCoverage Of Google Street ViewList Of Street View ServicesGoogle Street View Privacy ConcernsGoogle NewsGoogle News ArchiveGoogle PatentsGoogle Public Data ExplorerGoogle ScholarGoogle ShoppingGoogle GroupsGoogle VideosPageRankGoogle PandaGoogle PenguinGoogle HummingbirdGoogle Personalized SearchGoogle Real-Time SearchGoogle SearchSafeSearchGoogle Voice SearchGoogle Insights For SearchGoogle TrendsKnowledge GraphKnowledge VaultList Of Google ProductsAardvark (search Engine)Google AnswersProject AraGoogle Browser SyncGoogle BaseGoogle BuzzGoogle CheckoutGoogle Chrome FrameAdWordsGoogle Cloud ConnectGoogle Code SearchGoogle CurrentsGoogle DesktopGoogle DictionaryGoogle DirectoryDodgeball (service)Google Fast FlipGoogle Friend ConnectGears (software)Google GlassGlass OSGOOG-411Google TVJaikuKnolGoogle HealthIGoogleGoogle Image LabelerGoogle LabsGoogle LatitudeGoogle LivelyGoogle Mashup EditorGoogle NotebookGoogle OffersOrkutGoogle PackGoogle Page CreatorPanoramioPicasaPicasa Web AlbumsPicnikGoogle PowerMeterGoogle Questions And AnswersGoogle ReaderGoogle Script ConverterGoogle SearchWikiGoogle SidewikiSlide.comGoogle SquaredGoogle TalkGoogle PackUrchin (software)Google VideosApache WaveGoogle Web AcceleratorGoogle ToolbarCategory:GoogleGoogle Arts & CultureCalico (company)Google CurrentGoogle Chrome ExperimentsGoogle Code-inGoogle Code JamGoogle Developer DayGoogle Business GroupsMade With CodeGoogle Data Liberation FrontGoogle TakeoutGoogle Developer ExpertGoogle For WorkWaymoGoogle EarthGoogle FiberGV (company)Google (verb)Google ChinaGoogle ExpressGooglizationGoogle Ad GrantsGoogle.orgGoogle Lunar X PrizeProject FiMaterial DesignMotorola MobilityReCAPTCHAGoogle WiFiX (company)Category:Google EventsGoogle Science FairGoogle SearchologyGoogle I/OGoogle Developer DayGoogle Code JamGoogle Highly Open Participation ContestGoogle Code-inProject LoonTango (platform)Project Sunroof111 Eighth AvenueChelsea MarketGoogleplexGoogle LogoDoodle4GoogleGoogle DoodleAl GoreAlan EustaceAlan MulallyAmit SinghalAnn MatherDavid Drummond (Google)Eric SchmidtJeff Dean (computer Scientist)John DoerrJohn L. HennessyKrishna BharatMatt CuttsPatrick PichettePaul OtelliniOmid KordestaniRachel WhetstoneRajen ShethRam ShriramRay KurzweilRuth PoratSalar KamangarSanjay GhemawatShirley M. TilghmanSundar PichaiSusan WojcickiUrs HölzleVint CerfHal VarianGayglersLarry PageSergey BrinAI ChallengeGoogle BombGmailFSGoogle Behind The ScreenGoogle The Thinking FactoryGoogle And The World BrainGoojjeMonopoly Video GamesUnity (cable System)Category:GooglePortal:GoogleTemplate:Alphabet Inc.Template Talk:Alphabet Inc.Alphabet Inc.Google FiberCalico (company)CapitalGChronicle (company)DeepMindGoogleGV (company)Jigsaw (company)Nest LabsSidewalk LabsVerily Life SciencesX (company)WaymoArthur D. LevinsonAstro TellerDavid KraneEric SchmidtRuth PoratSundar PichaiTony FadellAndrew Conrad (geneticist)Larry PageSergey BrinCategory:Alphabet Inc.Portal:AlphabetWikipedia:WikiProject Google/Alphabet Task ForceTemplate:Video Digital Distribution PlatformsTemplate Talk:Video Digital Distribution PlatformsVideoDigital DistributionContent Delivery NetworkDigital LibraryStreaming MediaVideo On Demand56.com7plus9NowABC IviewAparatAcFunAfreecaTVAll 4ArteBBC IPlayerBilibiliBitTorrent (company)BlinkboxBreak.comBrightcoveBuzznetCanal+Chicken Pork AdoboCrackle (company)DailymotionDittoTVDramaFeverFacebook WatchFlickrFotkiFrance TélévisionsFrequency (company)FunimationFunshionGOG.comGyaOHoopla (digital Media Service)HotstarHunter TVIQiyiITV HubI Want TVLe.comLightbox (New Zealand)LiveLeakMango TVMedici.tvMetacafeMixer (website)My5TF1MyVideoNeuLionThe NewsMarketNiconicoNoggin (app)OneWorldTVOra TVOverDrive, Inc.Pandora TVPictureBox FilmsPluto TVSeven NetworkPopcornflixPPTVPutlockerQueensland Online TVRTÉ PlayerRumble.comRutubeSBS (Australian TV Channel)SchoolTubeSky GoSmashcast.tvSohuSony LIVSina CorpSpirit Show NetworkSpuulStarlight NetworksSteam (software)Streamworks InternationalSTV PlayerSVT PlayTalkTalk TVTank Top TVTAPP TVTeacherTubeTeaching ChannelTelly IncNetwork TenThePlatformToon GogglesTriluliluTubi TVTudouTV UOLTvigleTVNZ OnDemandTVPlayerTvyoTwitch.tvUKTV PlayUltraViolet (system)VBOX7VeohVevoViddseeViewsterViki (website)VimeoViu (streaming Media)VoddlerTencent VideoVyRTWistiaWuaki.tvXfinity StreampixXunleiYahoo! ViewYoukuYuppTVZattooFox Sports GoWatchESPNPornerBrosPornhubPornMDPornoTubeRedTubeXHamsterXtubeXVideosYouPornFunny Or DieAcorn TVAmazon VideoAnimeLabCBS All AccessCraveTVCrunchyrollCuriosityStreamDirecTV NowESPN+Fandango (company)Fandor (film Site)Filipino On DemandFilmStruckFoxtel PlayFullscreen (company)Global Wrestling NetworkGoogle Play Movies & TVHBO GoHBO NowHillsong Channel NowHOOQHuluHonor ClubIcflixIflixITunes StoreMUBINetflixNew Japan Pro-Wrestling WorldNintendo EShopNow TV (UK & Ireland)PlayStation StorePlayStation VideoPlayStation VuePlaysterRooster TeethShahid (service)ShowmaxShowtime (TV Network)Shudder (streaming Service)Sky On DemandSling TVStan (company)STARZTVPlayerUFC Fight PassVidAngelVuduWarner Archive CollectionWWE NetworkWWNLiveYouTube RedWindows StoreMicrosoft Movies & TVAzubuBBC StoreBlip (website)Blockbuster LLCSling TVBlogTVCinemaNowDaisuki (website)FearnetFlixsterGoogle VideoHitbox.tvImeemIMeshIntel AppUpJoostJustin.tvKazaaLoveFilmMegauploadMUZU.TVNintendo ChannelNintendo VideoNokia StoreOpenfilmPresto (company)QuickflixRedboxRevverSeesoShomiSony Entertainment NetworkStage6Super DeluxeTouchVisionTriton (content Delivery)TroopTubeTwangoVdioVessel (website)ViddlerVidmeVine (website)Vongo (video On Demand Service)WeShowWindows Media CenterWWE Classics On DemandYahoo! ScreenZune SoftwareHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileIntegrated Authority FileNational Library Of The Czech RepublicHelp:CategoryCategory:YouTubeCategory:2005 Establishments In CaliforniaCategory:Alphabet Inc.Category:American WebsitesCategory:Android (operating System) SoftwareCategory:Companies Based In San Mateo County, CaliforniaCategory:American Companies Established In 2005Category:Entertainment WebsitesCategory:Firefox OS SoftwareCategory:Google AcquisitionsCategory:Google ServicesCategory:Internet Companies Of The United StatesCategory:Internet Properties Established In 2005Category:IOS SoftwareCategory:Multilingual WebsitesCategory:Recommender SystemsCategory:Social MediaCategory:Video HostingCategory:Video On Demand ServicesCategory:Go SoftwareCategory:CS1 Spanish-language Sources (es)Category:CS1 Russian-language Sources (ru)Category:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:CS1 Ukrainian-language Sources (uk)Category:CS1 Slovak-language Sources (sk)Category:CS1 Bulgarian-language Sources (bg)Category:CS1 Croatian-language Sources (hr)Category:CS1 Estonian-language Sources (et)Category:CS1 Latvian-language Sources (lv)Category:CS1 Slovenian-language Sources (sl)Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListCategory:Pages Containing Links To Subscription-only ContentCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Use Mdy Dates From February 2018Category:Pages Using Deprecated Image SyntaxCategory:Coordinates Not On WikidataCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From January 2018Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From February 2017Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From August 2017Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From December 2016Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From November 2016Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From June 2017Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2017Category:Articles With Specifically Marked Weasel-worded Phrases From September 2017Category:Spoken ArticlesCategory:Articles With HAudio MicroformatsCategory:Official Website Different In Wikidata And WikipediaCategory:Good ArticlesCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer