Contents 1 Appellations 2 History 3 Ecology 4 Tourism 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Appellations[edit] A red wine from Napa Valley. Wine Country is generally regarded as the combined counties of Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, and Lake. These counties contain the following American Viticultural Areas (AVAs):[8] in Sonoma County: Alexander Valley, Bennett Valley, Chalk Hill, Dry Creek Valley, Green Valley of Russian River Valley, Knight's Valley, Los Carneros, Northern Sonoma, Rockpile, Russian River Valley, Sonoma Coast, Sonoma Mountain, and Sonoma Valley. in Napa County: Atlas Peak, Los Carneros, Mount Veeder, Napa Valley, Oakville, Rutherford, Saint Helena, Calistoga, Stags Leap District, and Yountville. in Mendocino County: Anderson Valley, Covelo, Mendocino, and Potter Valley. in Lake County: Clear Lake, Guenoc Valley, High Valley, and Red Hills Lake County. The six-county North Coast AVA overlaps with the Wine Country as defined here. In addition, the names of the counties themselves are legal for use as appellation names.[9]

History[edit] Yountville historic rail station, Napa Valley. The earliest prehistory of the Wine Country involves habitation by several Native American tribes from approximately 8000 BC.[10] The principal tribes living in this region included the Pomo, Coast Miwok, Wappo and Patwin, whose early peoples practiced certain forms of agriculture, but probably not involving the cultivation of grapes. During the Mexican Colonial period and after, European settlers brought in more intensive agriculture to the Wine Country, including growing grapes and wine production. Some of the historical events that led to the establishment of California as a state transpired in the Wine Country. In particular, the town of Sonoma, is known as the birthplace of American California. Agoston Haraszthy is credited with being one of the forefathers of the California wine industry in Sonoma by his planting of grapes in the lower Arroyo Seco Creek watershed of Sonoma County.[11] In 2017, many portions of California's Wine Country were heavily devastated by wildfires, including the October 2017 Northern California wildfires.[12]

Ecology[edit] Pygmy forest along a popular Wine Country hiking trail of Hood Mountain. Note darker vegetation in upper right: a mixed oak woodland. A diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate the Wine Country and its riparian zones. Winter-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tsawytscha), Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are the most prominent fishes. Researchers have studied anadromous fish-movements extensively in Sonoma Creek and in the Napa River as well as in the Laguna de Santa Rosa - not only in the mainstems, but in many of the tributaries. These investigations have demonstrated a historical decline in spawning and habitat value for these species, primarily due to sedimentation[13] and secondarily to removal of riparian vegetation since the 19th century. A variety of salamanders, snakes and frogs are also present in the Wine Country. The federally listed as threatened California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park.[14] Several endangered species (mostly associated with the Napa Sonoma Marsh) present include Ridgway's rail (Rallus obsoletus), California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis), California brown pelican (Pelicanus occudentalis), California freshwater shrimp (Syncaris pacifica), salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris ), Suisun shrew (Sorex ornatus sinuosus), Sacramento splittail (Pogonichtys macrolepidotus). The above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail, steelhead and black rail, which are federally designated as threatened.[15] Upland ecosystems drained include mixed California oak woodland, chaparral and savannah woodland.[16] In these upland reaches one finds plentiful black-tailed deer, coyote, skunk, raccoon, opossum, wild turkey, turkey vulture, red-tailed hawk and occasionally bobcat and mountain lion. Prominent higher elevation trees include: Coast live oak, Garry oak, Pacific madrone, California buckeye, Douglas fir, whereas valley oak is prevalent on the Wine Country valley floors.[17]

Tourism[edit] Sonoma County Hot Air Balloon Classic 2012 in Windsor: Dawn Patrol at 5 a.m. The Wine Country has undergone a boom in tourism. In 1975 there were only 25 Napa Valley wineries;[18] today there are well over 400 wineries in Napa and Sonoma Counties.[2] Tourists come to the region not only for wine tasting, but also for hiking, bicycling, hot air ballooning, and historic sites, as well as the extensive culinary choices. Numerous notable chefs and restaurateurs are present in the Wine Country, including Thomas Keller, John Ash, and Sondra Bernstein.[19] Besides the obvious winery attractions, the Wine Country is known for the Sonoma County coastline along the Pacific Ocean, the Russian River valley, redwoods, hot spring baths, petrified forests and other natural areas. The Wine Country tourism boom has its downside, exemplified by traffic congestion on State Route 29, particularly on summer weekends, when the number of tourists often exceeds the carrying capacity of the road. The Napa Valley is also experiencing pressures for increased urbanization and roadway upgrading.[20] There have also been issues related to regulating home sharing. After a boom in residents renting rooms in private homes, the city government of Napa was forced to require any Airbnb Napa properties to register.[21] There are currently 101 legal Airbnb Napa rentals.[22]

See also[edit] Wine portal Central Coast AVA Lake County wine Mendocino County wine Napa County wine Sonoma County wine

References[edit] ^ Elkjer, Thom (2002). Fodor's Escape to the Wine Country: California's Napa, Sonoma, and Mendocino. Fodor's. ISBN 978-0-679-00918-4.  ^ a b "Fodor's California Wine Country Online". 2006.  ^ Appelation ^ Whitesides, Mary (2004). Wine Country: Architecture and Interiors. Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith.  ^ Michael Chiarello, Michael Chiarello's Casual Cooking: Wine Country Recipes for Family and Friends, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California. ^ Molly Chappellet, Gardens of the Wine Country, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California. ^ Sonoma County Indicators: 2007 ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Part 9: American Viticultural Areas. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 27, Section 4.25(a). ^ Stewart, Suzanne B., Time before Time: Prehistory and Archaeology in the Lake Sonoma Area. Sacramento, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1985. ^ Charles Sullivan, Zinfandel: A History of a Grape and Its Wine, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 2003. ^ Thomas Fuller, Richard Perez-Pena, Jonah Engel Bromwich (October 10, 2017). "Wildfires Burn Out of Control Across Northern California; 17 Are Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Sonoma Creek Watershed Limiting Factors Analysis, Sonoma Ecology Center, with support from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, December 2004. ^ San Francisco Bay Area Conservancy Program Fifth Year Report pg 19 ^ Baylands Ecosystem Habitat Goals ^ California's woodlands ^ Wildlife:The Importance of Hardwood Habitat for Wildlife in California, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1987 ^ ^ Bernstein, Sondra (2004). The Girl & the Fig Cookbook: More than 100 Recipes from the Acclaimed California Wine Country Restaurant. ISBN 0-7432-5521-6.  ^ Trancas Road/California State Route 29 Intersection Improvements ^ "Napa planners support Airbnb-type home rental ordinance". Sep 4, 2015.  ^ "AirBnB Napa Valley". September 2017. 

External links[edit] Wikivoyage has a travel guide for California Wine Country. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wine Country. Wine Country at Curlie (based on DMOZ) v t e  State of California Sacramento (capital) Topics Culture Food Music Myth Sports Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography Climate Ecology Flora Fauna Government Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics Congressional delegations Elections People Protected areas State Parks State Historic Landmarks Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles Regions Antelope Valley Big Sur California Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country Metro regions Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana Counties Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba Most populous cities Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim Retrieved from "" Categories: California wineNapa ValleySonoma ValleyAgriculture in CaliforniaFood and drink in the San Francisco Bay AreaEconomy of the San Francisco Bay AreaRegions of CaliforniaSubregions of the San Francisco Bay AreaTourist attractions in Napa County, CaliforniaTourist attractions in Sonoma County, CaliforniaTourism regions of CaliforniaHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listArticles with Curlie linksCalifornia articles missing geocoordinate dataAll articles needing coordinates

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