Contents 1 Rule 1. Register an account 2 Rule 2. Learn the five pillars 3 Rule 3. Be bold, but not reckless 4 Rule 4. Know your audience 5 Rule 5. Do not infringe copyright 6 Rule 6. Cite, cite, cite 7 Rule 7. Avoid shameless self-promotion 8 Rule 8. Share your expertise, but don't argue from authority 9 Rule 9. Write neutrally and with due weight 10 Rule 10. Ask for help 11 Acknowledgments 12 See also 13 References


Rule 1. Register an account[edit] Although any visitor can edit Wikipedia, creating a user account offers a number of benefits. Firstly, it offers you privacy and security. Though counterintuitive, editors registered under a pseudonymous username actually have greater anonymity than those who edit “anonymously”. A few of us have chosen to associate our accounts with our real identities. Should you choose to forgo pseudonymity on Wikipedia, your entire editing history will be open to indefinite scrutiny by curious Web searchers, including future colleagues, students, or employers. Do not forget this. As in academic circles, a good reputation helps your wiki career. By logging in you can build a record of good edits, and it is easier to communicate and collaborate with others if you have a fixed, reputable identity. Finally, registering an account provides access to enhanced editing features, including a “watchlist” for monitoring articles you have edited previously.


Rule 2. Learn the five pillars[edit] There are some broad principles—known as the “five pillars”—all editors are expected to adhere to when contributing to Wikipedia. Perhaps most important for scientists is the appreciation that Wikipedia is not a publisher of original thought or research. Accordingly, it is not an appropriate venue to promote your pet theory or share unpublished results. It is also not a soapbox on which to expound your personal theories or a battleground to debate controversial issues. In this respect, Wikipedia fundamentally differs from other types of new media, such as blogs, that encourage editorializing. Contributing to Wikipedia is something to enjoy; a natural extension of your enthusiasm for science. But differences of opinion inevitably arise, particularly on pages provided for discussion on how to improve articles. Treat other editors as collaborators and maintain a respectful and civil manner, even in disagreement. If you begin to find a particular interaction stressful, simply log off and come back another time. Unlike most scientific enterprises, Wikipedia has no deadlines.


Rule 3. Be bold, but not reckless[edit] The survival and growth of any wiki requires participation. Wikipedia is unmatched in size, but its continuing success depends on the regular contributions of tens of thousands of volunteers. Therefore, Wikipedia urges all users to be bold: if you spot an error, correct it. If you can improve an article, please do so. It is important, however, to distinguish boldness from recklessness. Start off small. Begin by making minor modifications to existing articles before attempting a complete rewrite of "History of science". Many new editors feel intimidated about contributing to Wikipedia at first, fearing they may make a mistake. Such reticence is understandable but unfounded. The worst that can happen is that your first edits are deemed not to be an improvement and they get reverted. If this does occur, treat it as a positive learning experience and ask the reverting editor for advice.


Rule 4. Know your audience[edit] Wikipedia is not primarily aimed at experts; therefore, the level of technical detail in its articles must be balanced against the ability of non-experts to understand those details. When contributing scientific content, imagine you have been tasked with writing a comprehensive scientific review for a high school audience. It can be surprisingly challenging explaining complex ideas in an accessible, jargon-free manner. But it is worth the perseverance. You will reap the benefits when it comes to writing your next manuscript or teaching an undergraduate class.


Rule 5. Do not infringe copyright[edit] With certain conditions, almost all of Wikipedia's content is free for anyone to reuse, adapt, and distribute. Consequently, it does not accept non-free material under copyright restriction. Some journals, including those from the Public Library of Science, publish material under an open-access license that is compatible with use in Wikipedia if properly attributed. Most do not. Therefore, although it may be tempting, avoid copying text or figures from your latest review article (or anyone else's) into Wikipedia. It will quickly be identified as a copyright violation and flagged for immediate deletion. You can give Wikipedia permission to use material you own, but this process is non-reversible and can be time consuming. It is often better to rewrite the text in simpler language or redraw the figure to make it more accessible. This will also ensure it is more suitable for Wikipedia's non-expert readership (see Rule 4).


Rule 6. Cite, cite, cite[edit] To maintain the highest standards possible, Wikipedia has a strict inclusion policy that demands verifiability. This is best established by attributing each statement in Wikipedia to a reliable, published source (but see Rules 7 and 8 on excessive self-citing). Most scientists are in the fortunate position of having access to a wide body of literature, and experience in using inline citations to support their writing. Since unverified content may be removed from Wikipedia at any time, provide supporting citations for every statement that might be challenged by another editor at some point in the future. Whenever possible, give preference to secondary sources (such as reviews or book chapters) that survey the relevant primary research over research articles themselves. Wikipedia's accessibility makes each of its scientific articles an excellent entry point for laypeople seeking specialist information. By also providing direct hyperlinks to reliable, freely accessible online resources with your citations (biological databases or open-access journals, for example), other editors can quickly verify your content and readers have immediate access to authoritative sources that address the subject in greater detail.


Rule 7. Avoid shameless self-promotion[edit] Many people are tempted to write or edit Wikipedia articles about themselves. Resist that urge. If you are sufficiently notable to merit inclusion in an encyclopedia, eventually someone else will write an article about you. Remember that unlike a personal Web page, your Wikipedia biography is not yours to control. A lovingly crafted hagiography extolling your many virtues can rapidly accumulate information you would rather not be publicized. You may already have a Wikipedia biography, but it contains factual inaccuracies that you wish to correct. How do you do this without breaking the rules? Wikipedia's guidelines encourage you to provide information about yourself on the associated discussion page, but please permit other editors to add it to the article itself. Think twice, also, before writing about your mentors, colleagues, competitors, inventions, or projects. Doing so places you in a conflict of interest and inclines you towards unintentional bias. If you have a personal or financial interest in the subject of any article you choose to edit, declare it on the associated discussion page and heed the advice of other editors who can offer a more objective perspective.


Rule 8. Share your expertise, but don't argue from authority[edit] Writing about a subject about which you have academic expertise is not a conflict of interest; indeed, this is where we can contribute to Wikipedia most effectively. Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, told Nature that experts have the ability to "write specifics in a nuanced way", thereby significantly improving article quality.[1] When writing in your area of expertise, referencing material you have published in peer-reviewed journals is permitted if it is genuinely notable, but use common sense (and revisit Rule 7). For example, if you have an obscure, never-been-cited article in the Journal of New Zealand Dairy Research discussing the RNA content of cow milk, then referencing this in the introductory paragraph of the Wikipedia articles on "RNA", "Milk", "Cow", and "Evolution of mammals" is not a good idea. Occasionally you may interact with another editor who clearly does not share your expertise on the subject of an article. This can often prove frustrating for experts and is the basis of much academic angst on Wikipedia.[1] On such occasions, remember that you are assessed only on your contributions to Wikipedia, not who you are, your qualifications, or what you have achieved in your career. Your specialist knowledge should enable you to write in a neutral manner and produce reliable, independent sources to support each assertion you make. If you do not provide verification, your contributions will be rightly challenged irrespective of how many degrees you hold.


Rule 9. Write neutrally and with due weight[edit] All articles in Wikipedia should be impartial in tone and content. When writing, do state facts and facts about notable opinions, but do not offer your opinion as fact. Many newcomers to Wikipedia gravitate to articles on controversial issues about which people hold strong opposing viewpoints. Avoid these until familiar with Wikipedia's policies (see Rule 3), and instead focus on articles that are much easier to remain dispassionate about. Many scientists who contribute to Wikipedia fail to appreciate that a neutral point of view is not the same as the mainstream scientific point of view. When writing about complex issues, try to cover all significant viewpoints and afford each with due weight, but not equal weight. For example, an article on a scientific controversy should describe both the scientific consensus and significant fringe theories, but not in the same depth or in a manner suggesting these viewpoints are equally held.


Rule 10. Ask for help[edit] Wikipedia can be a confusing place for the inexperienced editor. Learning Wiki markup—the syntax that instructs the software how to render the page—may appear daunting at first, though the recent implementation of a new editing toolbar has made this easier, and usability development is ongoing. The intersecting guidelines and policies (and the annoying tendency of experienced editors to use an alphabet soup of acronyms to reference them) can also be tricky to comprehend. Thankfully, the Wikipedia community puts great stock in welcoming new editors. Guidance is available through a number of avenues, including help desks, a specific IRC channel, and an Adopt-a-User mentorship program. You can even summon help using a special template {{helpme}} and, as if by magic, a friendly Wikipedian will appear to offer one-on-one assistance.


Acknowledgments[edit] We thank Philip Bourne for insightful comments and gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the many Wikipedians who collectively developed the policies and guidelines that inspired these rules.


See also[edit] Help desk Help portal Administration – discusses both the human administrative structure of Wikipedia, as well as its non-human components. Contributing to Wikipedia – a page that provides information and resources on the basics needed to use, comment on, and contribute to Wikipedia. List of policies – a comprehensive descriptive list of policies. List of guidelines – a comprehensive descriptive list of guidelines. Manual of Style contents – a comprehensive descriptive list of the pages which make up the Manual of Style. Community standards and advice – a quick directory of community norms and related guidance essays. Advice pages – about advice pages written by WikiProjects. Wikipedia:Eight simple rules for editing our encyclopedia Wikipedia:Wikipedia editing for research scientists


References[edit] The 2010 version of this article has passed academic peer review, has been published in PLOS Computational Biology and can be cited as: Logan DW, Sandal M, Gardner PP, Manske M, Bateman A (2010). "Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia". PLOS Computational Biology. 6 (9): e1000941. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000941. PMC 2947980 . PMID 20941386. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)   ^ a b c Giles J (15 December 2005). "Internet encyclopaedias go head to head". Nature. 438 (7070): 900–1. doi:10.1038/438900a. PMID 16355180.  ^ Laurent MR, Vickers TJ (2009) Seeking health information online: does Wikipedia matter? J Am Med Inform Assoc 16: 471–479. ^ Daub J, Gardner PP, Tate J, Ramskold D, Manske M, et al. (2008) The RNA WikiProject: community annotation of RNA families. RNA 14: 2462–2464 ^ Huss JW 3rd, Orozco C, Goodale J, Wu C, Batalov S, et al. (2008) A gene wiki for community annotation of gene function. PLoS Biol 6: e175. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060175 ^ Hoffmann R (2008) A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nat Genet 40: 1047–1051. ^ Mons B, Ashburner M, Chichester C, van Mulligen E, Weeber M, et al. (2008) Calling on a million minds for community annotation in WikiProteins. Genome Biol 9: R89. ^ Pico AR, Kelder T, van Iersel MP, Hanspers K, Conklin BR, et al. (2008) WikiPathways: pathway editing for the people. PLoS Biol 6: e184. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060184. ^ Hodis E, Prilusky J, Martz E, Silman I, Moult J, et al. (2008) Proteopedia - a scientific 'wiki' bridging the rift between three-dimensional structure and function of biomacromolecules. Genome Biol 9: R121. v t e Wikipedia principles     Five pillars Statement of our principles Jimbo's statement Historic principles Simplified ruleset Synopsis of our conventions Wikimedia principles Common to all projects (in Meta-Wiki) Principles Other essays on Wikipedia's principles v t e Wikipedia community For a listing of current collaborations, tasks, and news, see the Community portal. For a listing of ongoing discussions and current requests, see the Dashboard. About Wikipedia Welcome! Administration News The Signpost Goings-on In the media Meetups Mailing lists Wikipedians Statistics Milestones The Wikipedia Library Centralized discussion Village pump Idea lab Policy Proposals Technical Miscellaneous Awards Reward board Contests Contents and grading Requested articles Most-wanted articles Images needing articles Articles needing images Articles for creation Creation Help Vital articles Today's articles for improvement Peer review Good article nominations Featured article candidates Lists Pictures Portals Topics Article translation Pages Main Page Errors WikiProjects and collaborations Directory Culture and the arts Geographical History and society Science, technology and engineering Wikipedia assistance and tasks Patrols Recent changes Counter-Vandalism Unit Version 1.0 Editorial Team Accessibility Organizations category Maintenance tasks Task Center Open tasks Backlog Category Admin category Edit requests Category Database reports Category tracker Dusty articles Special pages New pages Recent changes Controversial issues Administrators and noticeboards Administrators' noticeboard Incidents Edit warring Vandalism Admin dashboard Admin requests Closure Page protection User permissions Sockpuppets Open proxies Revision deletion Oversight Request Usernames Changing Title blacklist OTRS Bureaucrats' Requests for adminship and bureaucratship Arbitration Committee Requests Enforcement Content dispute resolution Editor assistance Requests for comment Third opinion Dispute resolution noticeboard Biographies of living persons Conflict of interest External links Fringe theories Neutral point of view No original research Reliable sources Mediation Other noticeboards and assistance Regional notice boards Requests for help Category Asking questions Teahouse Help desk Reference desk Adopt-a-user Online Ambassadors Copyright assistance Copyright investigations Text problems Media questions Paid editors Resource requests Mergers History mergers Moves Page importation Spam Blacklist Whitelist Bots Education New pages patrol General sanctions Editor sanctions Long-term abuse Deletion discussions Guide Admin Today Articles Templates Files Categories Redirects Miscellany Speedy Proposed BLP Books Review Undeletion Arguments to avoid Arguments to make Article Rescue Elections and votings Requests for comment (meta) Wikimedia Foundation elections WP Democracy Voting is not evil Milestones Directories and summaries Departments Edit summary legend Editor's index Essays FAQs Glossary Abbreviations Help Manual of Style Simplified Rules Five pillars Policies Guidelines Shortcuts Template messages Citation templates Tips Today Tools Wikis Wiki markup Book Media Category Templates v t e Essays on building Wikipedia Philosophy Articles must be written Avoid vague introductions Be a reliable source Cohesion Concede lost arguments Eight simple rules for editing our encyclopedia Explanationism Here to build an encyclopedia Not editing because of Wikipedia restriction Paradoxes Paraphrasing POV and OR from editors, sources, and fields Product, process, policy Purpose Reasonability rule The role of policies in collaborative anarchy The rules are principles Ten Simple Rules for Editing Wikipedia Tendentious editing Trifecta Wikipedia in brief Wikipedia is a community Wikipedia is an encyclopedia Construction 100K featured articles A navbox on every page Advanced article editing Advanced table formatting Advanced template coding Advanced text formatting Alternatives to the "Expand" template Amnesia test An unfinished house is a real problem Autosizing images Avoid mission statements Bare URLs Be neutral in form Beef up that first revision Cherrypicking Citation overkill Concept cloud Creating controversial content Criticisms of society may be consistent with NPOV and reliability The deadline is now Dictionaries as sources Don't demolish the house while it's still being built Don't get hung up on minor details Don't hope the house will build itself Don't panic Editing on mobile devices Editors are not mindreaders Encourage the newcomers Endorsements (commercial) Featured articles may have problems Give an article a chance How to run an edit-a-thon Inaccuracies in Wikipedia namespace Inaccuracy Law sources Link rot Minors and persons judged incompetent "Murder of" articles Not every story/event/disaster needs a biography Not everything needs a navbox Not everything needs a WikiProject Nothing is in stone Permastub Potential, not just current state Printability Publicists Put a little effort into it Restoring part of a reverted edit Robotic editing Sham consensus Temporary versions of articles There is a deadline Walled garden What an article should not include Wikipedia is a work in progress Wikipedia is not being written in an organized fashion The world will not end tomorrow Writing HER Write the article first Writing about women Writing better articles Deletion Adjectives in your recommendations AfD is not a war zone Arguments to avoid in deletion discussions Arguments to avoid in deletion reviews Arguments to avoid in image deletion discussions Arguments to make in deletion discussions Avoid repeated arguments Before commenting in a deletion discussion Content removal Delete the junk Does deletion help? Don't overuse shortcuts to policy and guidelines to win your argument Follow the leader How to save an article proposed for deletion I just don't like it Immunity Identifying blatent advertising Identifying test edits Liar Liar Pants on Fire Nothing Overzealous deletion Relisting can be abusive What to do if your article gets tagged for speedy deletion Why was the page I created deleted? Wikipedia is not Whack-A-Mole About essays Avoid writing redundant essays Difference between policies, guidelines and essays Don't cite essays as if they were policy Finding an essay Quote your own essay Value of essays Related subjects About policies and guidelines Guidelines Policies Wikipedia is a volunteer service Essay directory Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Ten_Simple_Rules_for_Editing_Wikipedia&oldid=824471745" Categories: Wikipedia guidance essaysWikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literatureWikipedia articles published in PLOS Computational BiologyExternally peer reviewed articlesWikipedia how-toWikipedia essays on experts and expertiseHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter


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