Contents 1 Opening paragraph 1.1 Birth date and place 1.2 Context 1.3 Positions and roles 1.4 Examples 2 Names 2.1 First mention 2.1.1 Maiden names 2.1.2 Changed names 2.1.3 Generational and regnal suffixes 2.1.4 Pseudonyms, stage names, nicknames, hypocorisms, and common names 2.1.5 Families 2.1.6 Royal surnames 2.1.7 Academic titles 2.1.8 Post-nominal letters Formatting post-nominals 2.1.9 Honorifics Honorific prefixes Honorific titles 2.2 Subsequent use 2.2.1 Country-specific usage 2.2.2 People with the same surname 2.2.3 Names confused with common words and well-known single names 3 Occupation titles 4 Tense 5 Out-of-date material 6 Order of events 7 Sexuality 8 Authority control 9 See also 10 Notes

Opening paragraph[edit] Shortcuts MOS:OPENPARA MOS:OPENPARAGRAPH MOS:BLPLEAD It has been suggested that WP:Manual of Style/Lead section#Usage in first sentence and WP:Manual of Style/Lead section#Biographies of living persons be merged into this section. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2017. MOS guidelines for lead paragraphs should generally be followed; the opening paragraph should establish notability, neutrally describe the person, and provide context. The opening paragraph should usually state: Name(s) and title(s), if any (see also Wikipedia:Naming conventions (royalty and nobility)); Dates of birth and death, if known (but for dates of birth see WP:BLPPRIVACY, which takes precedence). Context (location or nationality); The notable position(s) the person held, activities they took part in or roles they played; Why the person is notable. Birth date and place[edit] Further information: WP:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Dates of birth and death The opening paragraph should usually have dates of birth and (when applicable) death. These specific dates are important information about the person being described, but if they are also mentioned in the body, the vital year range (in brackets after the person's full name) may be sufficient to provide context. For living persons, privacy should be considered (see WP:BLPPRIVACY, which takes precedence). Birth and death places, if known, should be mentioned in the body of the article, and can be in the lead if relevant to the person's notability, but they should not be mentioned in the opening brackets of the lead sentence alongside the birth and death dates. Birth and death labels are included only when needed for clarity. When given, use full words, whether immediately preceding a date or not: William Alexander Spinks Jr. (1865–1933) was an American professional player of carom billiards in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. – no need for labels, and specific dates are in the article body Gro Harlem Brundtland (... born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician ... – "born" label used to introduce birth name For an approximate date or range of dates, use c. (abbreviation for circa); at first occurrence this should be done with the template {{circa}} a.k.a. {{c.}}, which explains the abbreviation: c. 1457. When the only date known for a historical subject is a date (or range) when they were alive, fl. for floruit is used; at first occurrence the {{floruit}} a.k.a. {{fl.}} template produces similar output: fl. 1432. For full details on how to format simple and complex dates and ranges, see WP:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Chronological items. Outside of the lead section, birth and death details are not included after a name except in a case of special contextual relevance. Abbreviations like b. and d. can be used, if needed, when space is limited (e.g., in a table) and when used repetitively (e.g., in a list of people). Context[edit] The opening paragraph should usually provide context for the activities that made the person notable. In most modern-day cases this will be the country of which the person is a citizen, national or permanent resident, or if the person is notable mainly for past events, the country where the person was a citizen, national or permanent resident when the person became notable. Ethnicity, religion, or sexuality should generally not be in the lead unless it is relevant to the subject's notability. Similarly, previous nationalities or the place of birth should not be mentioned in the lead unless they are relevant to the subject's notability. Positions and roles[edit] The lead sentence should describe the person as he or she is commonly described in reliable sources. The notable position(s) or role(s) the person held should usually be stated in the opening paragraph. However, avoid overloading the lead paragraph with various sundry roles; instead, emphasize what made the person notable. Incidental and non-notable roles (i.e. activities that are not integral to the person's notability) should usually not be mentioned in the lead paragraph.[a] Examples[edit] Cleopatra VII Philopator (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – August 12, 30 BC), known to history simply as Cleopatra, was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt ... Francesco Petrarca (Italian: [franˈtʃesko peˈtrarka]; July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch (/ˈpiːtrɑːrk, ˈpɛ-/), was a scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists. Cesar Estrada Chavez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW) ... François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (French: [fʁɑ̃swa mɔʁis mitɛʁɑ̃] ( listen); 26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman, who served as President of France from 1981 until 1995.

Names[edit] It has been suggested that Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Abbreviations#Initials be merged into this section. (Discuss) First mention[edit] Shortcuts MOS:BIRTHNAME MOS:FULLNAME While the article title should generally be the name by which the subject is most commonly known, the subject's full name, if known, should be given in the lead sentence (including middle names, if known, or middle initials). Many cultures have a tradition of not using the full name of a person in everyday reference, but the article should start with the complete version. For example: (from Fidel Castro) Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) ... (from Muammar Gaddafi) Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi (Arabic: معمر محمد أبو منيار القذافي‎; /ˈmoʊ.əmɑːr ɡəˈdɑːfi/; c. 1942 – 20 October 2011) ... (from Brian Jones) Lewis Brian Hopkin Jones (28 February 1942 – 3 July 1969) ... In some cases, subjects have legally changed their names at some point after birth. In these cases the birth name should be given as well: (from Jack Benny) Jack Benny (born Benjamin Kubelsky; February 14, 1894 – December 26, 1974) ... (from William F. Buckley Jr.) William Frank Buckley Jr. (born William Francis Buckley; November 24, 1925 – February 27, 2008) ... In the case of transgender and non-binary people, birth names should be included in the lead sentence only when the person was notable prior to coming out. One can introduce the name with either "born" or "formerly": (from Laverne Cox, not notable prior to coming out) Laverne Cox (born May 29) ... (from Chelsea Manning, notable prior to coming out) Chelsea Elizabeth Manning (born Bradley Edward Manning; December 17, 1987) ... Maiden names[edit] It is common to give the maiden name (birth name) of a woman better known under her married name, for example: Lucy Washington (née Payne, c. 1772 – 1846), widow of Major George Steptoe Washington ... An alternative form, Lucy (Payne) Washington, is also widely accepted. A woman should be referred to by her most commonly used name, which will not necessarily include her husband's surname (last name). But if her most commonly used name does include her husband's surname, and you're discussing a period of her life before her marriage, it is often best to refer to her by her maiden name. Avoid sentences like "Clinton met Clinton while they were students at Yale." Changed names[edit] If a person is named in an article in which they are not the subject, they should be referred to by the name they were using at the time of the mention rather than a name they may have used before or after the mention. However, see MOS:IDENTITY. So, a pope's personal name (for example, Albino Luciani instead of Pope John Paul I) is used when referring to the life of the pope prior to being elevated to the papacy but not afterwards. Generational and regnal suffixes[edit] Shortcuts MOS:JUNIOR MOS:JR MOS:REGNAL See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people) § Junior/Senior – the Younger/the Elder – Ordinals Using Jr., Sr., or other such distinctions as a disambiguation technique is advised only for cases in which the name with the suffix is well-attested in reliable sources. Otherwise, explain in longer form which party is meant, e.g. The younger Jackson was elected mayor of Wolverham in 1998. Omission of the comma before Jr. or Sr. (or variations such as Jnr) is preferred. In running text, in the unusual case that a comma is used before the suffix, then a comma (or equivalent[b]) is also placed after it (Neil Brown, Jr., is an American actor; but prefer Neil Brown Jr. is an American actor). When the surname is shown first, the suffix follows the given name, as Kennedy, John F. Jr. When the given name is omitted, omit the suffix—Kennedy, not Kennedy Jr.—except where the context requires disambiguation. Do not place a comma before a Roman numeral name suffix, whether it is patronymic or regnal: use Otis D. Wright II, not Otis D. Wright, II. See § People with the same surname for an additional usage note. Pseudonyms, stage names, nicknames, hypocorisms, and common names[edit] Shortcuts MOS:LEGALNAME MOS:NICKNAME For people who are best known by a pseudonym, the legal name should usually appear first in the article, followed closely by the pseudonym. Follow this practice even if the article itself is titled with the pseudonym: Louis Bert Lindley Jr. (June 29, 1919 – December 8, 1983), better known by the stage name Slim Pickens Investigation in reliable sources may be needed to determine whether a subject known usually by a pseudonym has actually changed their legal name to match (e.g., Reginald Kenneth Dwight formally changed his name to Elton Hercules John early in his musical career). Where this is not the case, and where the subject uses a popular form of their name in everyday life, then care must be taken to avoid implying that a person who does not generally use all their forenames or who uses a familiar form has actually changed their name. Do not write, for example: John Edwards (born Johnny Reid Edwards, June 10, 1953). It is not always necessary to spell out why the article title and lead paragraph give a different name. If a person has a common[c] English-language hypocorism (diminutive or abbreviation) used in lieu of a given name, it is not presented between quotation marks or parentheses into or after their name. Example: Tom Hopper's lead has simply: Thomas Edward Hopper. Use formulations like the following (as applicable) for any kind of alternative name: Timothy Allen Dick (born June 13, 1953), known professionally as Tim Allen Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), better known as Sandro Botticelli Ariadna Thalía Sodi Miranda (born 26 August 1971), known mononymously as Thalía If a person is known by a nickname used in lieu of or in addition to a given name, and it is not a common hypocorism[c] of one of their names, or a professional alias, it is usually presented between double quotation marks following the last given name or initial; the quotation marks are not put in lead-section boldface. Example: Bunny Berigan has: Roland Bernard "Bunny" Berigan. A nickname can eventually become a professional alias, even the most common name for a person. Such a case loses the quotation marks, other than in the subject's lead section if introducing the nickname in mid-name. If the monicker is dominant (in general or in a particular context) it can often be used in other articles without further elaboration. Example: Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. (born August 14, 1959) is ... In the article (and in other articles) use: Magic Johnson left Michigan State after his sophomore season to enter the NBA draft. See also the Dr. Ruth and Dr. Drew examples in § Academic titles, below; these trademarks, once informal nicknames, do not require quotation marks. If a nickname is used in place of the subject's entire name, it is usually given separately: Alphonse Gabriel Capone ... sometimes known by the nickname "Scarface". A leading "the" is not capitalized in a nickname, pseudonym, or other alias (except when the alias begins a sentence[d]): Use: Jack "the Assassin" Tatum; or: Jack Tatum, nicknamed "the Assassin" Avoid: Jack "The Assassin" Tatum; and: Jack Tatum, nicknamed "The Assassin" Nicknames should not be re-presented with additional name parts unless necessary for usage clarity. Use: Earl "the Pearl" Strickland; or: Earl Strickland, nicknamed "Earl the Pearl" Avoid: Earl Strickland, nicknamed "Earl the Pearl" Strickland Common nicknames, aliases, and variants are usually given in boldface in the lead, especially if they redirect to the article, or are found on a disambiguation page or hatnote and link from there to the article. Boldface is not needed for obscure ones or a long list, and those that are not well known to our readers may not need to be in the lead at all.[e] Use: Genghis Khan or Chinggis Khaan (c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), born Temüjin was the founder of the Mongol Empire. Avoid: Genghis Khan or Chinggis Khaan (Mongolian: Чингис хаан, translit. Çingis hán; Chinese: 成吉思汗; pinyin: Chéngjísī Hán; Wade–Giles: Ch'eng2-chi2-szu1 Han4; c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), born Temüjin (Тэмүжин Temüjin; traditional Chinese: 鐵木真; simplified Chinese: 铁木真; pinyin: Tiěmùzhēn; Wade–Giles: T'ieh3-mu4-chen1) was the founder of the Mongol Empire. Foreign language details can make the lead sentence difficult to understand. Use: Joseph John Aiuppa (December 1, 1907 – February 22, 1997), also known as "Joey O'Brien" and later as "Joey Doves", was a Chicago mobster. Avoid: Joseph John Aiuppa (December 1, 1907 – February 22, 1997), also known as "Joey O'Brien", "Joey O.", "O'Brien", "Joey Doves'", "Joey the Doves", and "Mourning Doves", was a Chicago mobster. The various nicknames are mostly how other mobsters – not so much the reliable sources – referred to Joey Aiuppa. Nicknames and other aliases included must be frequently used by reliable sources in reference to the subject.[f] For example, a sports journalist's one-off reference to a player as "the Atlanta panther" in purple prose does not constitute a nickname, and treating it as one is original research. Highlighting uncommon or disputed appellations in the lead section gives them undue weight, and may also be a more general neutrality problem if the phrase is laudatory or critical. Example: "Tricky Dick" does not appear in the lead of Richard Nixon, despite being a redirect to that article; this label by his political opponents is covered, with context, in the article body. Families[edit] Main page: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (families) Royal surnames[edit] See also: Wikipedia:Naming conventions (royalty and nobility) Most European royal families do not have surnames. Many that do have different personal surnames from the name of their royal house. For example, different members of the House of Windsor have a range of surnames: Windsor, Mountbatten-Windsor, etc., and senior royals do not normally use a surname at all. Similarly, the House of Habsburg is different from the surnames of some members of the Habsburg/Habsburg-Lorraine family. Incorporate surnames in the opening line of an article, if they are known, and if they are in normal use. But do not automatically presume that a name of a royal family is the personal surname of its members. In many cases it is not. For visual clarity, articles on royalty should begin with the form "{royal title} {name} {ordinal if appropriate} (full name – including surname if known, except for monarchs)" with the full name unformatted and the rest in bold (3 apostrophes). In practice, this means for example an article on Sweden's King Carl XVI Gustaf should begin "Carl XVI Gustaf (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus)". Using this format displays the most important information clearly without an unattractive excess of formatting. Other information on royal titles should be listed where appropriate in chronological order. Academic titles[edit] "WP:CREDENTIALS" redirects here. For the use of credentials by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia:There is no credential policy. Shortcuts MOS:CREDENTIAL MOS:DOCTOR Academic and professional titles (such as "Dr." or "Professor") should be used in a Wikipedia article only when the subject is widely known by a pseudonym or stage name containing such a title (whether earned or not). In this case, it may be included in the pseudonym as described above (e.g. Ruth Westheimer, better known as Dr. Ruth ...). However, verifiable facts about how a person attained his or her title should be included in the article. Post-nominal letters following the subject's name (such as "Steve Jones, Ph.D."; "Mark Doe, J.D.") may occasionally be used within an article where the person with the degree is not the subject, to clarify that person's qualifications with regard to some part of the article. For example: Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge ... David Drew Pinsky (born September 4, 1958), commonly known as Dr. Drew, is a board-certified physician and addiction medicine specialist. ... Pinsky ... earned his MD at the University of Southern California School of Medicine in 1984 ... Post-nominal letters[edit] See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Abbreviations § Initials, and Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people) § Middle names and initials Shortcut MOS:POSTNOM Post-nominal letters, other than those denoting academic degrees, should be included in the lead section when they are issued by a country or widely recognizable organization with which the subject has been closely associated. Honors issued by other entities may be mentioned in the article, but should generally be omitted from the lead. Post-nominal letters should either be separated from the name by a comma and each set divided by a comma, or no commas should be used at all. If a baronetcy or peerage is held then commas should always be used for consistency's sake, as the former are separated from the name by a comma. When an individual holds a large number of post-nominal letters, or seldom uses their post-nominal letters (for instance because they hold a much "higher" style, like Charles, Prince of Wales), post-nominal letters should be omitted from the lead, and their titles described in the main body of the article. Post-nominal initials signifying honours awarded by the United Kingdom (e.g. KCB, CBE) may be used as soon as they are gazetted; investiture is not necessary. Formatting post-nominals[edit] Editors should remember that the meaning of the most obvious (to them) post-nominal initials will not be obvious to some readers. When post-nominal initials are used, they are conventionally in small caps, and the meaning should be readily available to the reader. This may be via a wikilink to an article, or with the {{abbr}} template (or its underlying <abbr>...</abbr> markup) which provides a mouse-over tooltip expanding the abbreviation. This is all most easily done using the {{post-nominals}} template: With commas: '''Joe Bloggs''', {{post-nominals|size=100|sep=,|VC|OBE}} gives:  Joe Bloggs, VC, OBE Without commas: '''Joe Bloggs''' {{post-nominals|VC|OBE}} gives:  Joe Bloggs VC OBE This template needs the |size=100 parameter when it is used in an infobox, or its output will be too small. At the least, use a piped link to an article with the appropriate title, e.g.: '''Joe Bloggs''', {{sc2|[[Victoria Cross|VC]]}}, {{sc2|[[Officer of the Order of the British Empire|OBE]]}} gives:  Joe Bloggs, VC, OBE. This ensures that readers who hover over the initials see the target article's URL as a hint and in the status bar at the bottom of the window. This manual formatting is only needed for cases where {{post-nominals}} does not handle the abbreviation in question. If there is nothing to link to, and a redlink is unlikely to result in eventual creation of an article, use the {{abbr}} template to explain the acronym. Editors should recognize that there is an accessibility issue with relying exclusively on such tooltip cues, as readers may be using touch-sensitive devices or assistive technology that does not utilize mouse-cursor hovering. Post-nominals should not be added except to a biography subject's own lead sentence, in an infobox parameter for post-nominals, when the post-nominals themselves are under discussion in the material, and in other special circumstances such as a list of recipients of an award or other honor. For example, "Brian Lara, TC, OCC, AM" should not appear in an article like Warwickshire County Cricket Club. Honorifics[edit] Shortcuts MOS:HON MOS:HONOR MOS:HONOUR MOS:HONORIFIC MOS:HONOURIFIC See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Islam-related articles § Islamic honorifics Honorific prefixes[edit] In general, styles and honorifics should not be included in front of the name, but may be discussed in the article. In particular, this applies to: styles and honorifics derived from a title, position or activity, including The Most Noble, The Most Honourable, The Right Honourable, and The Honourable; styles and honorifics related to royalty, clergy, and sainthoods, such as His Holiness, The Reverend, Her Majesty, and The Venerable. Clergy should be named as described in Wikipedia:Naming conventions (clergy). There are some exceptions: Where an honorific is so commonly attached to a name that the name is rarely found in English reliable sources without it, it should be included. For example, the honorific may be included for Mother Teresa and Father Coughlin. Where a female historical figure is consistently referred to using the name of her husband and her birth name is unknown. For example, an honorific may be used for "Mrs. Alfred Jones". The prenominals Sir, Dame, Lord and Lady are discussed in the "Honorific titles" section below. Honorary knights and dames are not entitled to "Sir" or "Dame", only the post-nominal letters. In Burmese names, honorifics may be preserved if they are part of the normal form of address, even for ordinary people. See U Thant for an example. The inclusion of some honorific prefixes and styles is controversial. See Wikipedia:Naming conventions (royalty and nobility) for use in article titles. Honorific titles[edit] The honorific titles Sir, Dame, Lord and Lady are included in the initial reference and infobox heading for the subject of a biographical article, but are optional after that. The infobox heading includes pre-nominals, name and post-nominals as separate elements. The title is placed in bold in the first use of the name. Except for the initial reference and infobox, do not add honorific titles to existing instances of a person's name where they are absent, because doing so implies that the existing version is incorrect (similar in spirit to the guideline on British vs. U.S. English spelling). Similarly, honorific titles should not be deleted when they are used throughout an article unless there is consensus. Where the use of an honorific title is widely misunderstood, this can be mentioned in the article; see, for example, Bob Geldof. Honorific titles used with forenames only (such as "Sir Elton", "Sir David", "Dame Judi") should be avoided unless this form is so heavily preferred in popular usage that the use of the surname alone would render the entire name unrecognizable. Note that titles signifying honours awarded by the United Kingdom (i.e. Sir, Dame) may be used as soon as they are gazetted. Investiture is not necessary. Subsequent use[edit] "Wikipedia:Surname" redirects here. For surname-article issues, see Wikipedia:WikiProject Anthroponymy. Shortcuts MOS:SURNAME MOS:FAMILYNAME MOS:LASTNAME After the initial mention of any name, the person should generally be referred to by surname only, without an honorific prefix such as "Mr", "Mrs", "Ms", "Miss", or "Mx" or by a pronoun. For example: Fred Smith was a Cubist painter in the early 20th century. He moved to Genoa, where he met singer Gianna Doe. Smith and Doe later married. However, where a person does not have a surname but a patronymic (like many Icelanders, some Mongols, and those historical persons who are known by names-and-patronymics instead of surnames), then the proper form of reference is usually the given name. (See also Country-specific usage below.) For example: Iceland's Prime Minister is Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir. Jóhanna was elected to the Althing in 1978. Generally speaking, subjects should not be referred to by their given name. The use of the given name gives the impression that the writer knows the subject personally, which is not relevant—even if true. Exceptions include royalty, e.g. "Prince Charles" or "Charles". A member of the nobility may be referred to by title if that form of address would have been the customary way to refer to him or her; for example Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, may become "the Earl of Leicester", "the Earl", or just "Leicester" in subsequent mentions. Be careful not to give someone a title too soon; for example, one should use "Robert Dudley" or "Dudley" when describing events before his elevation to the peerage in 1564. People who are best known by a pseudonym should be subsequently referred to by their pseudonymous surnames, unless they do not include a recognizable surname in the pseudonym (e.g. Sting, Snoop Dogg, the Edge), in which case the whole pseudonym is used. For people well known by one-word names, nicknames, or pseudonyms, but who often also use their legal names professionally—e.g., musician/actors André Benjamin ("André 3000"), Jennifer Lopez ("J.Lo"); doctor/broadcaster Drew Pinsky ("Dr. Drew") – use the legal surname. If they use their mononym or pseudonym exclusively, then use their pseudonym (e.g. Aaliyah, Selena, Usher, and Madonna). For people with academic or professional titles, subsequent mentions should omit them. For example, use "Asimov", "Hawking", and "Westheimer"; not "Dr. Asimov", "Professor Hawking", or "Dr. Ruth". Country-specific usage[edit] See also: Category:Hatnote templates for names Shortcuts MOS:GIVENNAME MOS:PATRONYMIC Burmese names are personal names that consist of one or more words, with no patronymic or surname. Always use the full form of the person's name. See Wikipedia:Naming conventions (Burmese). Eritrean and Ethiopian people are almost always referred to by their given name as they do not have a family name. There are some rare exceptions to this: where the person—usually a member of the later generations of the Eritrean diaspora or Ethiopian diaspora—has adopted the patronymic as a formal family name. Consider using the template {{Patronymic name}}. In Southeast Asia, many people use only a personal name, which may be followed by a patronymic; they should be referred to by their personal name. Mongolian people are referred to by their given name, with their patronymic placed in front of it, usually in genitive case. There are no family names. For more details, see Mongolian name and Wikipedia:Naming conventions (Mongolian); consider placing {{Mongolian name}}. Thai people are often referred to by their first name (i.e. given name) without a family name, even in formal situations. Hence, on second and subsequent mentions, they should be referred to by their first name. In Vietnam, given names also have the priority over family names. The given name, not the surname, should be used to refer to the person. The given name is nevertheless placed after the family name, following the East Asian naming scheme, even when translated to European languages. Also see Wikipedia:Categorization of people#Sort by surname on the proper sorting of these names. People with the same surname[edit] Shortcut MOS:SAMESURNAME To distinguish between people with the same surname in the same article or page, use given names or complete names to refer to each of the people upon first mention. For subsequent uses, refer to them by their given names for clarity and brevity. When referring to the person who is the subject of the article, use just the surname unless the reference is part of a list of family members or if use of the surname alone will be confusing. This applies to minors as well as adults.[g] While citations and bibliographies should use full names even in subsequent mentions (if full names are the style for citations and bibliographies in the article), the body of an article should not unless confusion could result. For example, in the text of an article on Ronald Reagan: Correct: Ronald and Nancy Reagan arrived separately, Ronald by helicopter and Nancy by car. Correct: The Reagans arrived separately, Ronald by helicopter and Nancy by car. Redundant: Ronald and Nancy Reagan arrived separately; Ronald Reagan by helicopter and Nancy Reagan by car. In the text of an article about the Brothers Grimm: Correct: Jacob Grimm was 14 months older than his brother Wilhelm. Redundant: Jacob Grimm was 14 months older than his brother Wilhelm Grimm. Individuals distinguished with a generational suffix can be written about in Forename Suffix style to disambiguate from other family members in the same article: William Sr., John Jnr, James III. No comma is used in these short constructions. If an article about a person mentions another person with the same surname who is not related by family or marriage, subsequent mentions of the other person should use the full name: Correct: Andrea Dworkin was the subject of biographical writing by Ronald Dworkin In an article that is not about either unrelated person with the same surname, continue to refer to them both by their full names. Source citations, bibliographies, and in-text attributions usually include names of authors and others. Consider them when checking for people with the same surname. Names confused with common words and well-known single names[edit] Some names look like common words that are usually capitalized, or like well-known historical figures. Subsequent mentions of these individuals should use their given names or full names. Examples include: I, Lord, Christ, Moses, Islam, and Mohammed (the last with various spellings).

Occupation titles[edit] Main page: Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Titles of people In biographies, as in other articles, when used to describe the occupation, apply lower case to titles, such as: (de Gaulle was a French president; Louis XVI was a French king; Three prime ministers attended the conference). When preceding a person's name as a title, begin such words with a capital letter (President Obama, not president Obama). Standard or commonly used names of an office are treated as proper nouns or noun phrases (The British Prime Minister is Theresa May; Hirohito was Emperor of Japan; Louis XVI was King of France). Royal styles are capitalized (Her Majesty; His Highness); exceptions may apply for particular offices.

Tense[edit] Biographies of living persons should generally be written in the present tense, and biographies of deceased persons in the past tense. When making the change upon the death of a subject, the entire article should be reviewed for consistency. If a person is living but has retired, use "is a former" or "is a retired" rather than the past tense "was". Correct – John Smith (1946–2003) was a baseball pitcher ... Correct – John Smith (born 1946) is a former baseball pitcher ... Incorrect – John Smith (born 1946) was a baseball pitcher ... Historical events should be written in the past tense in all biographies: Smith played for the Baltimore Orioles between 1968 and 1972 ... When discussing the work of a writer or philosopher, even if they are dead, the present tense may be used: "In his Institutes, Calvin teaches ...". The general rule is to describe statements made in literature, philosophy and art in the eternal present.

Out-of-date material[edit] See also: Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers § Chronological items It is best to avoid time-dependent statements, which can often be creatively rewritten anyway. When making any statements about current events, use the "As of" template; for example, "as of April 2011" or "in April 2011". If you're giving a precise date range from the past to the present, as with a living person's age or career, you may use the "Age" template. The article subject's age can also be calculated in the infobox. There is no need to add "deceased" to a person's article, or those in which they are mentioned. If they have their own article, this should already be sourced. Otherwise, it is unnecessary. "Survived by" and "survivors", phrasings commonly found in obituaries, should not be used.

Order of events[edit] In general, present a biography in chronological order, from birth to death, except where there is good reason to do otherwise. Within a single section, events should almost always be in chronological order. Exceptions to this rule may be apply to lists of works, such as publications or other media productions, where the most recent may be listed first, as well as for distinctions such as orders, decorations, and medals.

Sexuality[edit] Main page: Wikipedia:Manual of Style § Identity See also: Wikipedia:WikiProject LGBT studies/Guidelines It has been suggested that Wikipedia:Naming conventions (identity) be merged into this section. (Discuss) Proposed since September 2017. Care should be taken to avoid placing undue weight on aspects of sexuality. The sexual preferences or activities of a person should usually not be mentioned in the article lead unless it is related to the notability of the person.

Authority control[edit] Main page: Wikipedia:Authority control See also: Wikipedia:ORCID Place {{Authority control}} at the foot of biographies (immediately above {{DEFAULTSORT}}, if present). Add authority control identifiers (VIAF, ISNI, ORCID, etc) in the subject's Wikidata entry, from where they will be automatically transcluded into the template.

See also[edit] Wikipedia:Biography dos and don'ts (information page summarizing the key points of this guideline) Wikipedia:Autobiography Wikipedia:WikiProject Biography Wikipedia:Categorization of people Wikipedia:Naming conventions (people) Wikipedia:Biographies of living persons

Notes[edit] ^ In general, a position, activity, or role should not be included the lead paragraph if: a) the role is not otherwise discussed in the lead (per MOS:LEAD, don't tease the reader), b) the role is not significantly covered in the body of the article, or, c) the role is auxiliary to a main profession of the person (e.g. do not add "textbook writer", if the person is an academic). ^ When Jr. or the like is preceded by a comma, it must be followed by a comma, or by a grammatical replacement including semicolon, colon, period/stop, exclamation point, question mark, dash or ellipsis, as dictated by the sentence structure. Do not "double up" punctuation ungrammatically. The second comma is used before a quotation following the name. Omission of the comma with possessives and parentheses (brackets)—Neil Brown, Jr.'s early life, or Neil Brown, Jr. (an American actor)—is disputed in style and usage guides, so such constructions should be avoided. If the first comma is used, include the second before a parenthetical if that comma would be present had the parenthetical not been inserted: Cornelius C. Brown, Jr., (born June 19, 1980) is an American actor. ^ a b As a guide to what is a "common" hypocorism, consider consulting the Hypocorism § English subsections "Shortening, often to the first syllable" and "Addition of a diminutive suffix ..."; consider treating names listed in the "A short form that differs significantly from the name" subsection as non-hypocoristic nicknames, depending on the particular case. A few short forms that differ significantly from the name are well known common hypocorisms, such as "Bob" for "Robert", but most are not. Assume that most non-English hypocorisms (e.g. Lupita for Guadalupe and Mischa for Mikhail) are not familiar to readers of this English Wikipedia, even if well-known in their native culture. ^ Wikipedia uses sentence case for sentences, article titles, section titles, table headers, image captions, list entries (in most cases), and entries in infoboxes and similar templates, among other things. Any instructions in MoS about the start of a sentence apply to items using sentence case. ^ Criminals often use multiple aliases; ones unfamiliar to the public should generally not be in the lead section. Various rulers and other nobility have often had numerous variant names in different languages. Avoid clogging the lead with a boldfaced litany of these; reserve them for an appropriate place in the body of the article, in an infobox or language sidebar, or in footnotes. ^ Nicknames that are sourceable but not generally known to the public (e.g. a childhood nickname, a hypocorism only used in private life, or a term of spousal endearment revealed in an in-depth biographical book) should not be included in a Wikipedia article, because such trivia is not encyclopedic. ^ There have been repeated proposals to treat small children, or all minors, differently and to always refer to them by given name. These proposals have not gained consensus. Especially do not refer to notable minors by given name (in their own article or elsewhere) except as necessary to disambiguate from other family members. Retrieved from "" Categories: WikiProject BiographyWikipedia Manual of Style (content)Hidden categories: Items to be mergedPages using template Zh with sup tagsPages using Template:Post-nominals with missing parameters

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