Contents 1 What happens if two or more people are editing the same page? 2 How do I recover a password I have forgotten? 3 How do I change my password? 4 How do I report a bug? 5 How do I suggest a new feature? 6 What software is used to run Wikipedia? 7 How about the hardware? 7.1 Current situation 7.2 History of Wikipedia hardware 8 How about the connection? 9 How big is the database? 10 What kind of markup language does Wikipedia use? 11 Why not use HTML? 12 So we can't use any HTML? 13 What about non-ASCII characters, and special symbols? 14 What about math topics, which require many special symbols, fonts, and graphics? 15 Is it possible to download the contents of Wikipedia? 16 Is there a library to query Wikipedia in my programming language? 17 Does Wikipedia use cookies? 18 Hey! Why was I automatically logged out? 19 The software that runs Wikipedia is great! Can I use it for my site? 20 Can I add a page hit counter to a Wikipedia page? 21 Low-bandwidth wireless Wikipedia 22 Is the "random article" feature really random? 23 Are page hit counters available? 24 Can I access Wikipedia via HTTP, due to problems using HTTPS? 25 Are there currently problems with the servers or network? 26 I have a problem not on this list, where do I go? 27 References


What happens if two or more people are editing the same page? When the second person (and later persons) attempts to save the page, MediaWiki will attempt to merge their changes into the current version of the text. If the merge fails then the user will receive an "edit conflict" message, and in some cases the opportunity to merge their changes manually. If multiple consecutive conflicts are noticed, it will generate a slightly different message. This is similar to Concurrent Versions System (CVS), a widely used software version management system. See Help:Edit conflict for more information.


How do I recover a password I have forgotten? If you entered your e-mail address when you signed up, you can have a new password generated. Click on the "Log in" link in the upper-right corner. Enter your user name, and click the button near the bottom of the page called "Mail me a new password". You should receive an e-mail message with a new random password; you can use it to log in, go to your preferences, and change your password to something you'll remember.


How do I change my password? You can change your password via Special:ChangePassword; you can also find a link to this in your preferences.


How do I report a bug? The developers use the Phabricator bug tracking tool to keep track of bugs. Anybody is welcome to create an account there and report any bugs they encounter; however, if you prefer, you can post about your bug at the technical village pump. For more information, see Bug reports.


How do I suggest a new feature? To make an official feature request, use Phabricator. For information on using Phabricator, please see Bug reports.


What software is used to run Wikipedia? Wikipedia originally ran UseModWiki, a general wiki script by Clifford Adams. In January 2002, we switched to a PHP script, which in turn was completely overhauled the following July to create what we now call MediaWiki. Currently, most of the PHP code in Mediawiki at Wikimedia Foundation uses HHVM JIT compiler, although some services continue using Zend Engine PHP. database backend: MySQL and MariaDB, both frontend and caching: Nginx and Varnish application server: Apache domain-name service: PowerDNS Search: Lucene-based ElasticSearch The Wikipedia servers' operating system is Linux. The most widely used distributions are Ubuntu and Debian. For details see Wikimedia servers.


How about the hardware? Current situation See m:Wikimedia servers. History of Wikipedia hardware A brief history of Wikipedia serving: Phase I: January 2001 - January 2002 One of Bomis' servers hosted all Wikipedia wikis running on UseModWiki software Phase II: January 2002 - July 2002 One of Bomis' servers hosted all Wikipedia wikis; English and meta running on the php/mysql-based new software, all other languages on UseModWiki. Runs both the database and the web server on one machine. Phase IIIa: July 2002 - May 2003 Wikipedia gets own server, running English Wikipedia and after a bit meta, with rewritten PHP software. Runs both the database and the web server on one machine. One of Bomis' servers continues to host some of the other languages on UseModWiki, but most of the active ones are gradually moved over to the other server during this period. Phase IIIb: May 2003 - Feb 2004 Wikipedia's server is given the code name "pliny". It serves the database for all phase 3 wikis and the web for all but English. New server, code name "larousse", serves the web pages for the English Wikipedia only. Plans to move all languages' web serving to this machine are put on hold until load is brought down with more efficient software or larousse is upgraded to be faster. One of Bomis' servers continued to host some of the other languages on UseModWiki until it died. All are now hosted on pliny; a few more of the active ones have been gradually moved over to the new software, and an eventual complete conversion is planned. Phase IIIc: Feb 2004 to Present Wikipedia gets a whole new set of servers, paid for through donations to the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. The new architecture has a new database server (suda), with a set of separate systems running Apache, as well as "squids" that cache results (to reduce the load). More details are at m:Wikimedia servers. New servers bought as needed, bringing total number to about 350 servers.


How about the connection? Wikimedia Foundation has multiple facilities spread out worldwide served by different bandwidth suppliers. . See the Wikipedia:Statistics page for information about bandwidth usage.


How big is the database? As of 2012, the combined size of the databases being backed up was between 4 and 6 TB for the copies of the Primary database, and perhaps 27 TB for the images and media (based on wikitech:Backup procedures). Early in Wikipedia's history, in February 2003 the database was about 4 GB in size. By April 2004, it was growing at about 1 to 1.4 GB per week, and by October 2004, it had grown to about 170 GB. Uploaded files took up approximately 372 gigabytes lc[update], excluding thumbnails. For current information, see wikitech:Backup procedures.[needs update] Compressed database dumps can be downloaded at https://dumps.wikimedia.org/.


What kind of markup language does Wikipedia use? Wikipedia uses a very simple markup based on UseModWiki. For more details, see Wikipedia:How to edit a page.


Why not use HTML? The short answer is: for simplicity and security. And now the longer answer. Wikipedia, and wikis in general, are meant to be edited on the fly. HTML is not easy to use when you simply want to write an article. Creating links gives us a particularly dramatic example. To link to the Paris article using HTML, one would have to type <a href="/wiki/Paris">Paris</a> Using MediaWiki markup is much easier: [[Paris]] A special markup language even allows you to "transclude" special snippets of code, called templates, into wiki pages. (You can also "substitute" the code for that template, effectively copying and pasting it into the document, but this is a waste of space and is obnoxious to other users who try to edit but find that they have to scroll through large amounts of template code. Substitution is, however, preferred in some cases.) Then there's security. Different web browsers have bugs that can be exploited via HTML. Malicious users could also do things like JavaScript popup windows or page redirects if they had full HTML ability on Wikipedia. Several "experimental" sites that allowed full-HTML editing have suffered such attacks, including a couple of other wikis that allowed arbitrary HTML.


So we can't use any HTML? That's not true. Certain HTML tags work - namely the ones in this list. It's still best not to rely on using HTML directly, because support for these tags is not always guaranteed to remain; they might affect the results achieved with VisualEditor; and if you can achieve your needed effect using only WikiText markup, you're most likely to get a result that is stable when the MediaWiki software is updated. Also see Wikipedia:How to edit a page.


What about non-ASCII characters, and special symbols? Wikipedia uses Unicode (specifically the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode) and most browsers can handle it but font issues mean that more obscure characters may not work for many users. Meta:Help:Special characters page for a detailed discussion of what is generally safe and what isn't. This page will be updated over time as more browsers come to support more features. See http://www.unicode.org/help/display_problems.html for instructions on how to enable Unicode support for most platforms.


What about math topics, which require many special symbols, fonts, and graphics? Just use TeX! See Meta:Help:Formula.


Is it possible to download the contents of Wikipedia? Yes, the complete text and editing history of all Wikipedia pages can be downloaded. See Wikipedia:Database download. Note that downloading the database dumps is much preferred over trying to spider the entire site. Spidering the site will take you much longer, and puts a lot of load on the server (especially if you ignore our robots.txt and spider over billions of combinations of diffs and whatnot). Heavy spidering can lead to your spider, or your IP, being barred with prejudice from access to the site. Legitimate spiders (for instance search engine indexers) are encouraged to wait about a minute between requests, follow the robots.txt, and if possible only work during less loaded hours (2:00-14:00 UTC is the lighter half of the day). The uploaded images and other media files are not currently bundled in an easily downloadable form; if you need one, please contact the developers on the wikitech-l mailing list. Please do not spider the whole site to get images.


Is there a library to query Wikipedia in my programming language? Yes, client code is available in many languages, see here for a non-exhaustive list. See also the API documentation and our bot tutorial.


Does Wikipedia use cookies? Cookies are not required to read or edit Wikipedia, but they are required in order to log in and link your edits to a user account. When you log in, the wiki will set a temporary session cookie which identifies your login session; this will be expired when your browser exits (or after an inactivity timeout), and is not saved on your hard drive. Another cookie will be saved which lists the user name you last logged in under, to make subsequent logins just a teensy bit easier. (Actually two: one with your name, and one with your account's internal ID number; they must match up.) These cookies expire after 180 days. If this worries you, clear your cookies after completing your session. If you check the "remember my password" box on the login form, another cookie will be saved with a token that authenticates you to our servers (which is unrelated to your password). As long as this remains valid, you can bypass the login step on subsequent visits to the wiki. The cookie expires after 180 days, or is removed if you log out. If this worries you, don't use the option. (You should not use it on a public terminal!)


Hey! Why was I automatically logged out? This could be a result of your cookie, browser cache, or firewall/Internet security settings. Or, to quote Tim Starling (referring to a question about "remembering password across sessions"): "The kind of session isn't a network session strictly speaking, it's an HTTP session, managed by PHP's session handling functions. This kind of session works by setting a cookie, just like the "remember password" feature. The difference is that the session cookie has the "discard" attribute set, which means that it is discarded when you close your browser. This is done to prevent others from using your account after you have left the computer. The other difference is that PHP sessions store the user ID and other such information on the server side. Only a "session key" is sent to the user. The remember password feature stores all required authentication information in the cookie itself. On our servers, the session information is stored in memcached, a system for non-durable (unreliable) caching. Session information may occasionally be lost or go missing temporarily, causing users to be logged out. The simplest workaround for this is to use the remember password feature, as long as you are not worried about other people using the same computer." from the Wikipedia:Village pump (technical) on May 4, 2005 (italics added). In other words: click the "remember me" box when logging in. See also Help:Logging in.


The software that runs Wikipedia is great! Can I use it for my site? You can, but depending on your needs you might be better served using something else; MediaWiki is big and complex. See first Wiki software for a list of alternative wiki software. If, after scanning, you're still sure you want to use MediaWiki, see the MediaWiki web site for details on downloading, installing and configuring the software.


Can I add a page hit counter to a Wikipedia page? To view page hits, go to that page. Then go to its history page, View history. Then choose Page view statistics. Most of the hit rate is missing because 80% come from the cache servers (instead of the database servers). This way pages can be served without having to be rebuilt each time from the database. As of Feb 5, 2016[update] this is a new service, and it uses a different counter than the old service. Techies can use wikitech:Analytics/PageviewAPI#Pageview_counts_by_article the pageview API to get the raw data. For more information on the future of this service see meta:Pageview stats tool.


Low-bandwidth wireless Wikipedia Users of mobile devices (smartphones, etc.) should consider browsing the mobile version of Wikipedia, by clicking the "Mobile view" link at the bottom of any page, or visiting the URL en.m.wikipedia.org. It is suited to touch devices and will save bandwidth. Alternatively, to view a low-bandwidth Main Page suitable for wireless users, select the Wikipedia:Main Page alternative (simple layout) link. That main page has a link to the text-only version of the main page. For now, direct entry of the URL into your wireless device's browser is the most convenient way to get to the articles. If you know a one-word article, such as Science, you can use that article to gain entry to your favorite topics.


Is the "random article" feature really random? No, although it's random enough to provide a small sample of articles reliably. In the Wikipedia database, each page is assigned a "random index", which is a random floating point number uniformly distributed between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive). The "random article" feature (Special:Random) chooses a random double-precision floating-point number, and returns the next article whose random index is greater than the selected random number. Some articles will have a larger gap before them, in the random index space, and so will be more likely to be selected. So the actual probability of any given article being selected is in fact itself random. The random index value for new articles, and the random value used by Special:Random, is selected by reading two 31-bit words from a Mersenne twister, which is seeded at each request by PHP's initialisation code using a high-resolution timer and the PID. The words are combined using: (mt_rand() * $max + mt_rand()) / $max / $max Some old articles had their page_random value reset using MySQL's RAND(): rand_st->seed1=(rand_st->seed1*3+rand_st->seed2) % rand_st->max_value; rand_st->seed2=(rand_st->seed1+rand_st->seed2+33) % rand_st->max_value; return (((double) rand_st->seed1)/rand_st->max_value_dbl);


Are page hit counters available? There is an advanced hits counter site, maintained by the Wikimedia Foundation, which allows you to view hit counts for one page or for multiple pages concurrently. "Page information" under "Tools" in the desktop sidebar shows "Page views in the past 30 days" with a link to a simple graph. Additionally, the weekly Top 25 Report provides a list of the 25 most popular articles in the last week. For more details please see Wikipedia:Technical FAQ#Can I add a page hit counter to a Wikipedia page?


Can I access Wikipedia via HTTP, due to problems using HTTPS? The Wikimedia Foundation decided to move to only allow access via HTTPS.[1] HTTP access is no longer available, and automatically redirects requests to HTTPS access. HTTP Strict Transport Security is enabled, so recent browsers should actually refuse to even attempt to connect via HTTP (automatically rewriting URLs into HTTPS before connecting), after the first successful connection via HTTPS.


Are there currently problems with the servers or network? For the current server or network status, please see Public Website Health Status for Wikimedia Foundation - Core services.


I have a problem not on this list, where do I go? See Troubleshooting - if it's not on there try the village pump. For help with a particular software task see Wikipedia:Computer help desk.


References ^ Welinder, Yana; Baranetsky, Victoria; Black, Brandon (12 June 2015). "Securing access to Wikimedia sites with HTTPS". Wikimedia blog. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 30 January 2016. Today, we are happy to start the final steps of this transition, and we expect completion within a couple of weeks.  More FAQ topics FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) Index of FAQs Main FAQ Overview Readers Schools Organizations Contributing Editing Administration Blocks Technical Problems Article subjects Categories Categorization Copyright Forking Templates Miscellaneous v t e Wikipedia technical help Get personal technical help at the Teahouse, Help desk, Village pump (technical), talk pages or IRC. General technical help Editing Edit toolbar CharInsert Edit conflict Reverting VisualEditor User guide Create a page Page history Page information Page name Introduction Browser notes Keyboard shortcuts Troubleshooting Bypass cache Mobile access Multilingual support Special Characters Entering Printing User access levels Software notices Editnotice IRC Tutorial Special page related Special page help Searching Advanced search Linksearch Logging in Reset passwords Notifications/Echo FAQ Moving a page Fixing cut-and-paste moves Watching pages User contributions Emailing users Random pages Logs What links here Related changes Recent changes Pending changes Page Curation Page import Edit filter Tags Wikitext Wikitext main page Cheatsheet Colours use Columns Line-break handling Lists Magic words For beginners Conditional expressions Switch parser function Time function Redirects Sections and TOCs Tables Introduction Basics Conditional tables Sorting Collapsing Advanced table formatting Links and diffs URLs Links Permanent link Interwikimedia links Interlanguage links Link color Pipe trick Colon trick Magic links Diffs Simplest diff guide Simple diff and link guide Complete diff and link guide Media files: images, videos and sounds Media help Options to hide an image Uploading images Introduction Files Creation and usage Moving files to Commons Visual file markup Images Preparing images for upload Picture tutorial Extended image syntax Gallery tag Graphics tutorials Basic bitmap image editing How to improve image quality Graphics Lab resources Sound file markup SVG help Other graphics Family trees Graphs and charts How to create To scale charts Barcharts Math formula Math symbols Rendering math LaTeX symbols Musical scores Musical symbols Timeline EasyTimeline syntax WikiHiero syntax Templates and Lua modules Templates Template messages Citation templates Transclusion Labeled section Substitution Advanced template coding Template limits Template sandbox and test cases Template documentation Purge Job queue Lua help Lua project To do Resources Guide to Scribbling Data structure Namespaces Main/Article Talk namespaces Archiving User User page design Project/Wikipedia File File description page MediaWiki Bug reports and feature requests System message Template Help Category Portal Book Draft Education Program TimedText Module/Lua Topic/Flow Special Media HTML and CSS HTML in wikitext Markup validation Span tags Cascading Style Sheets Catalogue of CSS classes Useful styles Classes used in microformats Ambox classes Common.js and common.css User CSS for monospaced coding font Customisation and tools Preferences Skins Customizing watchlists Hide pages Gadgets Beta Features User scripts Guide Techniques IRC Scripts User styles Tools Navigation shortcuts Browser tools Alternative browsing Editing tools Optimum tool set Cleaning up vandalism tools Citation tools Wikimedia Cloud Services Automating editing Bots Creating Twinkle HotCat WPCleaner igloo AutoWikiBrowser Navigation popups STiki AfC helper script Huggle See also: Category:Wikipedia information pages Category:Wikipedia how-to Further navigation at: Help pages Administrators Templates Referencing Citation metadata Accessibility Bots User scripts Accounts v t e Wikipedia help pages Visit the Teahouse if you are a new editor looking for interactive help, or the Help desk for an interactive Q & A forum. FAQs (?) Reference desks (?) Noticeboards (?) Missing Manual (?) Cheatsheet (?) Directories (?) About Wikipedia Administration Purpose Principles Wikipedia in brief Policies and guidelines What Wikipedia is not Disclaimer (parental advice) Making requests where to ask questions contact Wikipedia directly Who writes Wikipedia? Why create an account? Help for readers FAQ Books Copyright Glossary Mobile access Navigation Other languages Searching Students Viewing media Contributing to Wikipedia A plain and simple overview A primer for newcomers Advice for young editors Avoiding common mistakes Etiquette (community expectations) Learning the ropes Instructional material Simplified Manual of Style Simplified rule-set "Ignore all rules" "The rules are principles" Style-tips Tip of the day Task Center Your first article (article wizard) Vandalism Getting started Wikipedia intro Wikipedia tutorial The Wikipedia Adventure Manual of Style intro Graphics tutorials Picture tutorial (Uploading intro) IRC (live chat) tutorial Navigating intro Policies intro Referencing intro Tables intro Talk pages intro VisualEditor user guide Dos and don'ts Accessibility Bio's Categorization Disambiguation Images Links Lists References Tables Talks How-to pages and information pages Appealing blocks Article deletion Categories Citations / references Referencing for beginners Citation Style 1 Cite errors References and page numbers Convert Diff Editing toolbar edit conflict Email confirmation Find sources Files Footnotes Image deletion Infoboxes Linking (link color) Logging in Merging Namespaces Page name Redirect Renaming pages Passwords Reverting Talk pages (archiving) URL User contributions User page design center Coding wiki markup Wiki markup Barcharts Calculations Characters Citation templates Columns Hidden text HTML Lists Magic words (introduction) Music symbols Sections Sounds Tables (introduction) Templates documentation messages cleanup messages Transclusion Visual files Wiki tools Directories Abbreviations Departments Editor's index Essays FAQs Glossary Guidelines Help menu Manual of Style Policies Shortcuts Tasks Tips Ask for help on your talk page Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:FAQ/Technical&oldid=823716252" Categories: Wikipedia FAQs


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Project pageTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata item Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages العربيةঅসমীয়াবাংলাБългарскиDeutschEspañolفارسیFrançais한국어Bahasa IndonesiaLëtzebuergeschMirandés日本語НохчийнPortuguêsРусскийසිංහලСрпски / srpskiతెలుగుTürkçe中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 2 February 2018, at 23:30. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.240","walltime":"0.366","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1139,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":92224,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1637,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":12,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 239.793 1 -total"," 23.92% 57.369 1 Template:Reflist"," 20.09% 48.180 1 Template:Update_inline"," 17.50% 41.965 1 Template:Cite_web"," 16.79% 40.260 1 Template:Fix"," 16.79% 40.255 2 Template:Navbox"," 14.02% 33.607 1 Wikipedia:FAQ/framework"," 13.37% 32.051 1 Template:Help_navigation"," 11.21% 26.876 1 Template:Breadcrumb2"," 9.19% 22.035 1 Template:Category_handler"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.079","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":3163177,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1330","timestamp":"20180217150025","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":87,"wgHostname":"mw1326"});});


Wikipedia:FAQ/Technical - Photos and All Basic Informations

Wikipedia:FAQ/Technical More Links

Wikipedia:FAQHelp:ContentsHelp:ContentsWikipedia:FAQ/IndexWikipedia:FAQ/IndexWikipedia:FAQWikipedia:FAQ/OverviewWikipedia:FAQ/ReadersWikipedia:FAQ/SchoolsWikipedia:FAQ/OrganizationsWikipedia:FAQ/ContributingWikipedia:FAQ/EditingWikipedia:FAQ/AdministrationWikipedia:FAQ/BlocksWikipedia:FAQ/ProblemsWikipedia:FAQ/Article SubjectsWikipedia:FAQ/CategoriesWikipedia:FAQ/CategorizationWikipedia:FAQ/CopyrightWikipedia:FAQ/ForkingWikipedia:FAQ/TemplateWikipedia:FAQ/MiscellaneousWikipedia:DirectoryWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:FAQ/Main PageWikipedia:TroubleshootingWikipedia:Village PumpConcurrent Versions SystemHelp:Edit ConflictSpecial:UserLoginSpecial:ChangePasswordSpecial:PreferencesWikipedia:VPTWikipedia:Bug ReportsWikipedia:Bug ReportsUseModWikiUser:Clifford AdamsPHPWikipedia:MediaWikiHHVMZend EngineMySQLMariaDBNginxVarnish (software)Apache HTTP ServerPowerDNSLuceneElasticSearchOperating SystemLinuxLinux DistributionUbuntu (operating System)DebianUseModWikiBomisWikipedia:Wikimedia FoundationWikipedia:StatisticsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersMarkup LanguageUseModWikiWikipedia:How To Edit A PageHTMLWikiWikipedia:Template MessagesWeb BrowserJavaScriptHTMLVisualEditorWikipedia:How To Edit A PageASCIITeXWikipedia:Database DownloadWikipedia:Creating A BotHTTP CookieSpecial:UserLoginHTTP CookieSpecial:UserLogoutUser:Tim StarlingMemcachedWikipedia:Village Pump (technical)Help:Logging InWiki SoftwareSquid CacheMain PageWikipedia:Main Page Alternative (simple Layout)Wikipedia:Main Page Alternative (text Only)ScienceDatabaseDouble-precisionMersenne TwisterWikipedia:Top25ReportWikipedia:Technical FAQWikimedia FoundationHTTPSHTTPHTTPSHTTP Strict Transport SecurityWikipedia:TroubleshootingWikipedia:Village Pump (technical)Wikipedia:Computer Help DeskUser:BBlack (WMF)Wikimedia FoundationWikipedia:FAQ/IndexWikipedia:FAQWikipedia:FAQ/OverviewWikipedia:FAQ/ReadersWikipedia:FAQ/SchoolsWikipedia:FAQ/OrganizationsWikipedia:FAQ/ContributingWikipedia:FAQ/EditingWikipedia:FAQ/AdministrationWikipedia:FAQ/BlocksWikipedia:FAQ/ProblemsWikipedia:FAQ/Article SubjectsWikipedia:FAQ/CategoriesWikipedia:FAQ/CategorizationWikipedia:FAQ/CopyrightWikipedia:FAQ/ForkingWikipedia:FAQ/TemplateWikipedia:FAQ/MiscellaneousTemplate:Wikipedia Technical HelpTemplate Talk:Wikipedia Technical HelpHelp:DirectoryWikipedia:TeahouseWikipedia:Help DeskWikipedia:Village Pump (technical)Help:Introduction To Talk Pages/1Wikipedia:IRCHelp:EditingHelp:Edit ToolbarHelp:CharInsertHelp:Edit ConflictHelp:RevertingWikipedia:VisualEditorWikipedia:VisualEditor/User GuideWikipedia:How To Create A PageHelp:Page HistoryHelp:Page InformationWikipedia:Page NameHelp:Page NameWikipedia:Browser NotesWikipedia:Keyboard ShortcutsWikipedia:TroubleshootingWikipedia:Bypass Your CacheHelp:Mobile AccessHelp:Multilingual SupportHelp:Special CharactersHelp:Entering Special CharactersHelp:PrintingWikipedia:User Access LevelsWikipedia:Software NoticesWikipedia:EditnoticeWikipedia:IRCWikipedia:IRC/TutorialSpecial:SpecialPagesHelp:Special PageHelp:SearchingHelp:Advanced SearchHelp:LinksearchHelp:Logging InHelp:Reset PasswordWikipedia:NotificationsWikipedia:Notifications/FAQWikipedia:Moving A PageWikipedia:Administrators' Guide/Fixing Cut-and-paste MovesHelp:WatchlistHelp:User ContributionsWikipedia:Emailing UsersWikipedia:RandomHelp:LogHelp:What Links HereHelp:Related ChangesHelp:Recent ChangesWikipedia:Pending ChangesWikipedia:Page CurationHelp:ImportWikipedia:Edit FilterWikipedia:TagsWikitextHelp:WikitextHelp:CheatsheetHelp:Using ColoursHelp:ColumnsWikipedia:Line-break HandlingHelp:ListHelp:Magic WordsHelp:Magic Words For BeginnersHelp:Conditional ExpressionsHelp:Switch Parser FunctionHelp:Time FunctionHelp:RedirectHelp:SectionHelp:TableHelp:Introduction To Tables With Wiki Markup/1Help:Basic Table MarkupHelp:Conditional TablesHelp:SortingHelp:CollapsingWikipedia:Advanced Table FormattingHyperlinkData ComparisonHelp:URLHelp:LinkHelp:Permanent LinkHelp:Interwikimedia LinksHelp:Interlanguage LinksHelp:Link ColorHelp:Pipe TrickHelp:Colon TrickHelp:Magic LinksHelp:DiffWikipedia:Simplest Diff GuideWikipedia:Simple Diff And Link GuideWikipedia:Complete Diff And Link GuideWikipedia:Media HelpHelp:Options To Hide An ImageWikipedia:Uploading ImagesHelp:Introduction To Images With Wiki Markup/1Help:FilesWikipedia:Creation And Usage Of Media FilesWikipedia:Moving Files To CommonsHelp:Visual File MarkupWikipedia:ImagesWikipedia:Preparing Images For UploadWikipedia:Picture TutorialWikipedia:Extended Image SyntaxHelp:Gallery TagWikipedia:Graphics TutorialsWikipedia:Basic Bitmap Image EditingWikipedia:How To Improve Image QualityWikipedia:Graphics Lab/ResourcesHelp:Sound File MarkupWikipedia:SVG HelpHelp:Family TreesWikipedia:Graphs And ChartsWikipedia:How To Create Charts For Wikipedia ArticlesWikipedia:To Scale ChartsHelp:BarchartHelp:Displaying A FormulaWikipedia:Mathematical SymbolsWikipedia:Rendering MathWikipedia:LaTeX SymbolsHelp:ScoreHelp:Musical SymbolsWikipedia:TimelineHelp:EasyTimeline SyntaxHelp:WikiHiero SyntaxHelp:A Quick Guide To TemplatesLua (programming Language)Help:TemplateWikipedia:Template MessagesWikipedia:Citation TemplatesWikipedia:TransclusionHelp:Labeled Section TransclusionHelp:SubstitutionWikipedia:Advanced Template CodingWikipedia:Template LimitsWikipedia:Template Sandbox And Test CasesWikipedia:Template DocumentationWikipedia:PurgeHelp:Job QueueHelp:LuaWikipedia:LuaWikipedia:Lua/To DoWikipedia:Lua/ResourcesWikipedia:Guide To ScribblingWikipedia:AdministrationWikipedia:NamespaceWikipedia:What Is An Article?Help:Talk PagesHelp:Archiving A Talk PageWikipedia:User PagesWikipedia:User Page Design CenterWikipedia:Project NamespaceHelp:FilesHelp:File Description PageHelp:MediaWiki NamespaceWikipedia:Bug Reports And Feature RequestsHelp:System MessageWikipedia:Template NamespaceWikipedia:Help NamespaceHelp:CategoryWikipedia:PortalWikipedia:BooksWikipedia:DraftsWikipedia:Course PagesWikipedia:LuaWikipedia:FlowHelp:Special PageHelp:FilesHTMLCascading Style SheetsHelp:HTML In WikitextHelp:Markup ValidationWikipedia:Span TagsHelp:Cascading Style SheetsWikipedia:Catalogue Of CSS ClassesHelp:Useful StylesWikipedia:WikiProject Microformats/classesWikipedia:Classes In AmboxWikipedia:Common.js And Common.cssHelp:User CSS For A Monospaced Coding FontWikipedia:CustomisationHelp:PreferencesWikipedia:SkinWikipedia:Customizing WatchlistsHelp:Hide Pages In WatchlistWikipedia:GadgetWikipedia:User ScriptsWikipedia:User Scripts/GuideWikipedia:User Scripts/TechniquesWikipedia:ScriptsHelp:User StyleWikipedia:ToolsWikipedia:Tools/Navigation ShortcutsWikipedia:Tools/Browser ToolsWikipedia:Tools/Alternative BrowsingWikipedia:Tools/Editing ToolsWikipedia:Tools/Optimum Tool SetWikipedia:Cleaning Up Vandalism/ToolsHelp:Citation ToolsWikipedia:Wikimedia Cloud ServicesWikipedia:BotsWikipedia:Creating A BotWikipedia:TwinkleWikipedia:HotCatWikipedia:WPCleanerWikipedia:IglooWikipedia:AutoWikiBrowserWikipedia:Tools/Navigation PopupsWikipedia:STikiWikipedia:WikiProject Articles For Creation/Helper ScriptWikipedia:HuggleCategory:Wikipedia Information PagesCategory:Wikipedia How-toTemplate:Wikipedia Help PagesTemplate:Administrators' GuideTemplate:Wikipedia Template MessagesTemplate:Wikipedia ReferencingTemplate:Citation Metadata NavboxWikipedia:WikiProject Accessibility/Navigation MenuTemplate:BotnavWikipedia:User Scripts/NavboxTemplate:Wikipedia AccountsTemplate:Wikipedia Help PagesTemplate Talk:Wikipedia Help PagesHelp:DirectoryWikipedia:TeahouseWikipedia:Help DeskWikipedia:FAQWikipedia:Reference DeskWikipedia:NoticeboardsHelp:Wikipedia: The Missing ManualHelp:CheatsheetWikipedia:Directories And IndexesWikipedia:AboutWikipedia:AdministrationWikipedia:PurposeWikipedia:Five PillarsWikipedia:Wikipedia In BriefWikipedia:Policies And GuidelinesWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:General DisclaimerWikipedia:Advice For ParentsWikipedia:Request DirectoryWikipedia:QuestionsWikipedia:Contact UsWikipedia:Who Writes Wikipedia?Wikipedia:Why Create An Account?Wikipedia:Reader's Index To WikipediaWikipedia:FAQ/ReadersHelp:BooksHelp:CopyrightHelp:GlossaryHelp:Mobile AccessHelp:NavigationHelp:Other LanguagesHelp:SearchingHelp:Student HelpHelp:Viewing MediaWikipedia:Contributing To WikipediaWikipedia:Plain And SimpleWikipedia:A Primer For NewcomersWikipedia:Guidance For Younger EditorsWikipedia:Avoiding Common MistakesWikipedia:EtiquetteWikipedia:Expectations And Norms Of The Wikipedia CommunityWikipedia:Learning The RopesWikipedia:Instructional MaterialWikipedia:Simplified Manual Of StyleWikipedia:Simplified RulesetWikipedia:Ignore All RulesWikipedia:The Rules Are PrinciplesWikipedia:StyletipsWikipedia:Tip Of The DayWikipedia:Task CenterWikipedia:Your First ArticleWikipedia:Article WizardWikipedia:VandalismHelp:Getting StartedWikipedia:IntroductionWikipedia:TutorialWikipedia:The Wikipedia AdventureHelp:Introduction To The Manual Of Style/1Wikipedia:Graphics TutorialsWikipedia:Picture TutorialHelp:Introduction To Images With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:IRC/TutorialHelp:Introduction To Navigating Wikipedia/1Help:Introduction To Policies And Guidelines/1Help:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Introduction To Tables With Wiki Markup/1Help:Introduction To Talk Pages/1Wikipedia:VisualEditor/User GuideWikipedia:Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Accessibility Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Biography Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Categorization Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Disambiguation Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Image Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Linking Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:List Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:References Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Table Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Talk Dos And Don'tsCategory:Wikipedia How-toCategory:Wikipedia Information PagesWikipedia:Guide To Appealing BlocksWikipedia:Guide To DeletionHelp:CategoryHelp:Citations Quick ReferenceHelp:Referencing For BeginnersHelp:Citation Style 1Help:Cite ErrorsHelp:References And Page NumbersHelp:ConvertHelp:DiffHelp:EditingHelp:Edit ToolbarHelp:Edit ConflictHelp:Email ConfirmationHelp:Find SourcesHelp:FilesHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:Guide To Image DeletionHelp:InfoboxHelp:LinkHelp:Link ColorHelp:Logging InWikipedia:MergingWikipedia:NamespaceHelp:Page NameHelp:RedirectHelp:How To Move A PageHelp:Reset PasswordHelp:RevertingHelp:Using Talk PagesHelp:Archiving A Talk PageHelp:URLHelp:User ContributionsWikipedia:User Page Design CenterWiki MarkupHelp:Wiki MarkupHelp:BarchartHelp:CalculationHelp:Special CharactersWikipedia:Citation TemplatesHelp:ColumnsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Hidden TextHelp:HTML In WikitextHelp:ListHelp:Magic WordsHelp:Magic Words For BeginnersHelp:Musical SymbolsHelp:SectionHelp:Sound File MarkupHelp:TableHelp:Introduction To Tables With Wiki Markup/1Help:TemplateWikipedia:Template DocumentationWikipedia:Template MessagesWikipedia:Template Messages/CleanupWikipedia:TransclusionHelp:Visual File MarkupWikipedia:ToolsWikipedia:Directories And IndexesWikipedia:Wikipedia AbbreviationsWikipedia:Department DirectoryWikipedia:Editor's Index To WikipediaWikipedia:Essay DirectoryWikipedia:FAQ/IndexWikipedia:GlossaryWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesHelp:MenuWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ContentsWikipedia:List Of PoliciesWikipedia:Shortcut DirectoryWikipedia:MaintenanceWikipedia:TipsHelp:CategoryCategory:Wikipedia FAQsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Project Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link