Contents 1 Problems with citing Wikipedia 1.1 Examples of alternatives to citing Wikipedia 2 Examples of how to cite Wikipedia 2.1 APA style 2.2 MLA style 2.3 MHRA style 2.4 Chicago style 2.5 CBE/CSE Style 2.6 Turabian style 2.6.1 Notes 2.6.2 Bibliography 2.6.3 Parenthetical reference 2.6.4 Reference list 2.7 Legal citation styles 2.8 BibTeX entry 2.9 AMA style 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Problems with citing Wikipedia As with any source, especially one of unknown authorship, you should be wary and independently verify the accuracy of Wikipedia information if possible. For many purposes, but particularly in academe, Wikipedia may not be an acceptable source;[1] indeed, some professors and teachers may reject Wikipedia-sourced material completely.[2] This is especially true when it is used without corroboration. Most educators and professionals do not consider it appropriate to use tertiary sources such as encyclopedias as a sole source for any information—citing an encyclopedia as an important reference in footnotes or bibliographies may result in censure or a failing grade. However, much of the content on Wikipedia is itself referenced, so an alternative is to cite the reliable source rather than the article itself. A wiki is an unusual medium, and as such doesn't conform well to the usual book-citation formats. Wiki is not paper, so you will need to use an electronic-citation format instead. The exact format will depend upon the citation guide that you are following, but here are a few general principles to consider: A special citation tool is available to assist you. On the left of every article, there is a "Cite this page" link. Clicking it will bring you to a listing of relevant information, as well as automatically generated citations in several styles. Note that it is still your responsibility to ensure the citation meets all requirements. You should not cite any particular author or authors for a Wikipedia article, in general. Wikipedia is collaboratively written. However, if you do need to find the list of authors of a particular article, you can check the Page history. Authors are listed only by IP address or chosen user name; you normally cannot verify and often cannot even guess at their identities. Your citation should normally list both the article title and Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, much as you would for an article in a paper publication. Every article should be a separate citation. Most citation styles will likely require the full article URL. You can click "Permanent link" in the toolbox at the left of this page. This lets the URL include a unique identifier such that you can tie your reference back to the exact version of the article you are referencing. It may or may not be desirable to adopt this approach, depending upon the context of your reference. This lets you show what you saw and ignore any changes made after you accessed the page. If greater brevity is desired, you can use the regular URL, or optionally just the site URL (e.g. for an English article), because an article URL can be inferred from an article title. The citation style may request the full date and time of the article revision you are using. If you use the permanent link feature, this may not be necessary. However, the date and time of the last revision can be found at the bottom of every page (above the copyright notice). Examples of alternatives to citing Wikipedia Some Wikipedia articles (list) have been published in peer reviewed academic literature. In that case, it is possible to cite the published article. eg: Cerebellum → Wright, Marion; Skaggs, William; Årup Nielsen, Finn (2016). "The Cerebellum". WikiJournal of Medicine. 3 (1). doi:10.15347/wjm/2016.001.  Circular permutation in proteins → Bliven, Spencer; Prlić, Andreas; Wodak, Shoshana (29 March 2012). "Circular Permutation in Proteins". PLoS Computational Biology. 8 (3): e1002445. Bibcode:2012PLSCB...8E2445B. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002445. PMID 22496628. 

Examples of how to cite Wikipedia Wikipedia has a tool to generate citations for particular articles. For the cite tool, see Special:Cite, or follow the "Cite this page" link in the toolbox on the left of the page in the article you wish to cite. The following examples assume you are citing the Wikipedia article on Plagiarism, using the version that was submitted on July 22, 2004, at 10:55 UTC, and that you retrieved the article on August 10, 2004, except as otherwise noted. APA style Citation in APA style, as recommended by the American Psychological Association: [3] Plagiarism. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from[4] Note that in APA 5th Edition style, the following rules apply for the reference: For reference books, which includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, and glossaries, the book title is preceded by the word In. It is not italicized, but the book title following it is. The book title appears in sentence case. You capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns. The URL must go to the exact page that you reference. No punctuation follows the URL. The term or article title appears in the author position. Use sentence case for multiple-word terms or titles, where you capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns. The proper in-text citation is ("Plagiarism," 2004) for a paraphrased passage or ("Plagiarism," 2004, para. #) if you directly quote the material. Note that para. # represents the paragraph number in the page where the information appears. If there are multiple headings on the page, it is also acceptable to place the subheading and then a paragraph number within that heading. For example, proper in-text citation for a direct quote of fewer than 40 words is: "Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgment of the original work" ("Plagiarism," 2004, "Definition," para. 1). If the quoted material is more than 40 words, use the block quote format instead. As another example, the proper in-text citation for a paraphrased passage is: Plagiarism is stealing the works of others ("Plagiarism," 2004). APA Style requires that you provide a separate reference entry for each term you are citing in your paper because 1) you must provide a URL for each term that goes directly to the term, and 2) you must provide the publication date for each term separately. However, if you are discussing the "online encyclopedia" itself, not a term in the encyclopedia, you might need to reference the site itself. The proper citation of Wikipedia, the site, as referenced in APA 5th Edition Style is: Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from The in-text citation formation would be (Wikipedia, 2004). MLA style Citation in MLA style, as recommended by the Modern Language Association, 8th edition: "Plagiarism." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 July 2004. Web. 10 Aug. 2004, The eighth edition published in 2016 calls for urls to omit “http://” or “https://”. Note that MLA style calls for both the date of publication (or its latest update) and the date on which the information was retrieved. Be sure to double check the exact syntax your institution requires. For citation of Wikipedia as a site, use: Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 22 July 2004. Web. 10 Aug. 2004. MHRA style Citation in MHRA style, as recommended by the Modern Humanities Research Association: Wikipedia contributors, 'Plagiarism', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC, <> [accessed 10 August 2004] Chicago style Citation in Chicago style: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism," (accessed August 10, 2004), Note that the Chicago Manual of Style states that "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies." CBE/CSE Style Citation in CBE/CSE style, as recommended by the Council of Science Editors: Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2004 Jul 22, 10:55 UTC [cited 2004 Aug 10]. Available from: Turabian style The following are examples of how to cite Wikipedia articles according to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). ISBN 0226816265 (cloth), ISBN 0226816273 (paper). Note on Turabian style: Please understand that Turabian does not have rules that cover anything like Wikipedia. These examples are based on "reading between the lines" and assimilating rules from various not-so-similar cases that Turabian does cover. If the party to which you are submitting your paper is particularly strict, you might want to find out if they have their own adaptation of Turabian that would apply in this case. Alternately, you could always consult with the party before the deadline to make sure it's acceptable. Notes 1"Plagiarism," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia; (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC) [encyclopedia on-line]; available from; Internet; retrieved 10 August 2004. 2Wikipedia contributors, "Marketing."Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, (Accessed August 10, 2004) Bibliography Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from Species. Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004. (According to Turabian 6th edition, ¶9.8, for entries in the bibliography, "the first line of each entry is flush left, and any run over lines are indented five spaces". This presentation does not follow that rule.) Parenthetical reference ("Plagiarism," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia) or (Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism") Reference list Plagiarism. 22 July 2003, 10:55 UTC. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from Internet. Retrieved 10 August 2004. (Indenting is like that of the bibliography.) Legal citation styles The Harvard Journal of Law & Technology has adopted the following format for citations to articles in Wikipedia: [Signal] Wikipedia, [article], https://en.wikipedia/wiki/[article] [(optional other parenthetical)] (as of [date], [time] GMT). Here is an example: See Wikipedia, Bluebook, https://en.wikipedia/wiki/Bluebook (describing history and application of the Bluebook) (as of Mar. 21, 2006, 20:50 GMT). This format reflects Rule 18.2 of the 18th and 19th edition of the Bluebook, but uses "as of" rather than "last updated"/"last visited" in the date parenthetical. This change allows specification of the exact version of the article to which the author is referring. The date and time used should correspond exactly to the latest version listed in the article's Wikipedia history page that states the proposition for which you are citing it. Use of GMT conforms to the timestamp format used in those history entries (e.g., use 24-hour notation to avoid AM/PM). BibTeX entry @misc{ wiki:###, author = "Wikipedia contributors", title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia", year = "2004", url = "", note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]" } When using LaTeX, the "url" package can be used to improve web address formatting by putting "\usepackage{url}" somewhere in the LaTeX source preamble, then using this syntax: @misc{ wiki:###, author = "Wikipedia contributors", title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia", year = "2004", url = "\url{}", note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]" } AMA style Citation in AMA style, as recommended by the American Medical Association: [5] Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. July 22, 2004, at 10:55 UTC. Available at: Accessed August 10, 2004.

See also Mediawiki:citethispage-content – Content of "Special:Cite" pages. Wikipedia:Wikipedia as an academic source – list of academic works citing Wikipedia as a source. Reference resources Help:Find sources – a place that helps access reliable sources. Wikipedia:Book sources – links to catalogs of libraries, booksellers, and other book sources where you can search for the book by its ISBN identifier . Wikipedia:Journal sources – links to library searches, online databases, and other venues to locate a journal article by title, or identifier (such as DOI or PMID). List of academic databases and search engines List of scientific journals Wikipedia:Reference desk – where you can ask questions about any worldly topic except Wikipedia itself. Wikipedia:List of online reference desks. Disclaimers Wikipedia:General disclaimer – describes how Wikipedia cannot guarantee the validity of the information found here. Wikipedia:Patent nonsense – describes how at any given time, a Wikipedia article may contain nonsense. Wikipedia:Point of view – describes how at any given time, a Wikipedia article may not have a neutral point of view. Related essays Wikipedia:Administration – discuses both the human administrative structure of Wikipedia, as well as its non-human components. Wikipedia:Evaluating Wikipedia as an encyclopedia – discusses Wikipedia's success or failure as an encyclopedia, using the standard accepted criteria for all encyclopedias. Wikipedia:Why Wikipedia is so great – discusses what accounts for Wikipedia's enormous growth and success. Wikipedia:Why Wikipedia is not so great – discusses many drawbacks of Wikipedia. Wikipedia:Wikipedia is a tertiary source – describes how Wikipedia is an encyclopedia and as such Wikipedia is a tertiary source.

References ^ Bould, Dylan M., et al., References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature, 2014, British Medical Journal, 6 March 2014, 348 DOI, online from BMJ ^ "Anthropology 333 syllabus from American River College" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-02-07. Do NOT use Wikipedia or other online or print encyclopedias as a source for your paper.  [dead link] ^ "APA Style Help". APA Style. Retrieved 8 March 2016.  ^ McAdoo, Timothy. "How to Cite Wikipedia in APA Style". APA Style. Retrieved 8 March 2016.  ^ "AMA Style Guide". University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 

External links "What's Wrong with Wikipedia?". Harvard guide to using sources. 2016.  "Citing Wikipedia Articles in Writing or Not?". UCLA Library. 2016.  Jeffrey R. Young (2006). "Wikipedia founder discourages academic use of his creation". The Chronicle of Higher Education.  Using Wikipedia. Carleton College v t e  Basic information on Wikipedia Main Help directory menu FAQs Reference desk Help desk About Wikipedia Administration Purpose Who writes Wikipedia? Organization Censorship Introduction Why create an account? In brief General disclaimer What Wikipedia is not Readers' FAQ Parental advice Navigation Introduction Searching Viewing media Help Mobile access Other languages Researching with Wikipedia Citing Wikipedia Students help Readers' index Copyright Book creation Contributing to Wikipedia Main tutorial Tutorials and introductions The answer Dos and don'ts Learning the ropes Common mistakes Newcomer primer Plain and simple Your first article Wizard Young Wikipedians The Adventure Protocols and conventions Five pillars Introduction Simplified ruleset Simplified MoS Etiquette Expectations Oversight Principles Ignore all rules The rules are principles Core content policies Policies and guidelines Policies Guidelines Vandalism Appealing blocks Getting assistance Requests for help Request editor assistance Disputes resolution requests IRC live chat Tutorial Village pump Contact us Wikipedia community Community portal Dashboard Noticeboards Departments Maintenance Task Center Essays Meetups WikiProjects Sourcing and referencing Finding sources Combining sources Referencing Introduction Citations Citation Style 1 Citation templates Footnotes Page numbers Cite errors Information Editing Toolbar Conflict VisualEditor User guide Category Diffs Email confirmation Infoboxes Linking Link color Manual of Style Introduction Simplified Namespaces Page name URLs User contribution pages Using talk pages Introduction Archiving Image and media files Images Media files How-to Guide to page deletion Image deletion Logging in Merging pages Page renaming Requests Redirecting Reset passwords Reverting Uploading images Introduction Wiki markup Wiki markup Cheatsheet Barcharts Calculations Columns HTML Lists Magic words For beginners Music symbols Sections Sounds Special Characters Tables Introduction Templates Documentation Messages Tools Transclusion Visual file markup Tutorial Directories Abbreviations Contents Edit summaries Essays Glossary Index The Missing Manual Shortcuts Tips Tip of the day Wikis Teahouse (interactive help for new editors) Ask for help on your talk page (a volunteer will visit you there) Retrieved from "" Categories: Wikipedia how-toWikipedia as a media sourceWikipedia sidebar helpHidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected project pages

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Project pageTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata item Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages Add links This page was last edited on 12 December 2017, at 22:23. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.272","walltime":"0.372","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1447,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":70961,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1787,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":15,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":5,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 301.769 1 -total"," 14.94% 45.096 2 Template:Cite_journal"," 13.25% 39.972 1 Template:Warning"," 12.43% 37.523 1 Template:Pp-semi-protected"," 12.18% 36.741 1 Template:Reflist"," 12.15% 36.666 1 Template:Mbox"," 11.08% 33.436 1 Template:Wikipedia_how-to"," 9.91% 29.901 2 Template:ISBN"," 8.68% 26.208 7 Template:Cite_web"," 8.45% 25.490 2 Template:Ombox"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.125","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4551949,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1328","timestamp":"20180217145732","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":460,"wgHostname":"mw1328"});});

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