Contents 1 Types of citation 2 When and why to cite sources 2.1 Multimedia 2.2 When not to cite 3 Inline citations 3.1 Footnotes 3.1.1 How to create the list of citations 3.1.2 How to place an inline citation using ref tags 3.1.3 Repeated citations 3.1.4 Separating citations from explanatory footnotes 3.1.5 Avoiding clutter 3.1.6 Citing multiple pages of the same source 3.1.7 Duplicate citations 3.1.8 Short citations 3.2 Parenthetical referencing 4 What information to include 4.1 Examples 4.1.1 Books 4.1.2 Journal articles 4.1.3 Newspaper articles 4.1.4 Web pages 4.1.5 Sound recordings 4.1.6 Film, television, or video recordings 4.1.7 Other 4.2 Identifying parts of a source 4.2.1 Books and print articles 4.2.2 Audio and video sources 4.3 Links and ID numbers 4.3.1 Linking to pages in PDF files 4.3.2 Linking to Google Books pages 4.4 Say where you read it 4.5 Dates and reprints of older publications 4.6 Seasonal publication dates and differing calendar systems 4.7 Additional annotation 5 Citation style 5.1 Variation in citation methods 5.1.1 To be avoided 5.1.2 Generally considered helpful 6 Handling links in citations 6.1 Avoid embedded links 6.2 Convenience links 6.3 Indicating availability 6.4 Links to sources 6.5 Preventing and repairing dead links 7 Text–source integrity 8 Bundling citations 9 In-text attribution 10 General references 11 Dealing with unsourced material 12 Citation templates and tools 12.1 Metadata 12.2 Citation processing tools 12.3 Programming tools 12.4 Citation export tools 12.5 Reference management software 13 See also 14 Notes 15 Further reading 16 External links

Types of citation Shortcut WP:CITETYPE A full citation fully identifies a reliable source and, where applicable, the place in that source (such as a page number) where the information in question can be found. For example: Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 1. This type of citation is usually given as a footnote, and is the most commonly used citation method in Wikipedia articles. An inline citation means any citation added close to the material it supports, for example after the sentence or paragraph, normally in the form of a footnote. A short citation is an inline citation that identifies the place in a source where specific information can be found, but without giving full details of the source – these will have been provided in a full bibliographic citation either in an earlier footnote, or in a separate section. For example: Rawls 1971, p. 1. This system is used in some articles; the short citations may be given either as footnotes, or as parenthetical references within the text. In-text attribution involves adding the source of a statement to the article text, such as Rawls argues that X.[5] This is done whenever a writer or speaker should be credited, such as with quotations, close paraphrasing, or statements of opinion or uncertain fact. The in-text attribution does not give full details of the source – this is done in a footnote in the normal way. See In-text attribution below. A general reference is a citation that supports content, but is not linked to any particular piece of material in the article through an inline citation. General references are usually listed at the end of the article in a References section. They are usually found in underdeveloped articles, especially when all article content is supported by a single source. They may also be listed in more developed articles as a supplement to inline citations.

When and why to cite sources Shortcut WP:WHYCITE By citing sources for Wikipedia content, you enable users to verify that the information given is supported by reliable sources, thus improving the credibility of Wikipedia while showing that the content is not original research. You also help users find additional information on the subject; and by giving attribution you avoid plagiarising the source of your words or ideas. In particular, sources are required for material that is challenged or likely to be challenged – if reliable sources cannot be found for challenged material, it is likely to be removed from the article. Sources are also required when quoting someone, with or without quotation marks, or closely paraphrasing a source. However, the citing of sources is not limited to those situations – editors are always encouraged to add or improve citations for any information contained in an article. Citations are especially desirable for statements about living persons, particularly when the statements are contentious or potentially defamatory. In accordance with the biography of living persons policy, unsourced information of this type is likely to be removed on sight. Multimedia For an image or other media file, details of its origin and copyright status should appear on its file page. Image captions should be referenced as appropriate just like any other part of the article. A citation is not needed for descriptions such as alt text that are verifiable directly from the image itself, or for text that merely identifies a source (e.g., the caption "Belshazzar's Feast (1635)" for File:Rembrandt-Belsazar.jpg). When not to cite Shortcut WP:WHENNOTCITE Citations are not used on disambiguation pages (sourcing for the information given there should be done in the target articles). Citations are often omitted from the lead section of an article, insofar as the lead summarizes information for which sources are given later in the article, although quotations and controversial statements, particularly if about living persons, should be supported by citations even in the lead. See WP:LEADCITE for more information.

Inline citations Shortcuts WP:INCITE WP:INLINECITE Further information: Wikipedia:Inline citation Inline citations allow the reader to associate a given bit of material in an article with the specific reliable source(s) that support it. Inline citations are added using either footnotes (long or short) or parenthetical references. This section describes how to add either type, and also describes how to create a list of full bibliography citations to support shortened footnotes or parenthetical references. If long or short inline citations placed in footnotes are used, the first editor to add footnotes to an article must create a section where the list of those citations is to appear. This is not necessary for inline parenthetical references, as these appear directly inline in the article prose. Footnotes See also: Help:Footnotes How to create the list of citations This section, if needed, is usually titled "Notes" or "References", and is placed at or near the bottom of the article. For more about the order and titles of sections at the end of an article (which may also include "Further reading" and "External links" sections), see Wikipedia:Footers. Shortcut WP:ASL With some exceptions discussed below, citations appear in a single section containing only the <references /> tag or the {{Reflist}} template. For example: == References == {{Reflist}} The footnotes will then automatically be listed under that section heading. Each numbered footnote marker in the text is a clickable link to the corresponding footnote, and each footnote contains a caret that links back to the corresponding point in the text. Scrolling lists, or lists of citations appearing within a scroll box, should never be used. This is because of issues with readability, browser compatibility, accessibility, printing, and site mirroring.[2] If an article contains a list of general references, this is usually placed in a separate section, titled (for example) "References". This usually comes immediately after the section(s) listing footnotes, if any. (If the general references section is called "References", then the citations section is usually called "Notes".) How to place an inline citation using ref tags Shortcut WP:CITEFOOT Further information: Footnotes: the basics To create a footnote, use the <ref>...</ref> syntax at the appropriate place in the article text, for example: Justice is a human invention.<ref>Rawls, John. ''A Theory of Justice''. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 1.</ref> It... which will be displayed as something like: Justice is a human invention.[1] It... It will also be necessary to generate the list of footnotes (where the citation text is actually displayed); for this, see the previous section. As in the above example, citation markers are normally placed after adjacent punctuation such as periods and commas. Citations should not be placed within, or on the same line as, section headings. For exceptions, see the Punctuation and footnotes section of the Manual of Style. Note also that no space is added before the citation marker. The citation should be added close to the material it supports, offering text–source integrity. If a word or phrase is particularly contentious, an inline citation may be added next to that word or phrase within the sentence, but it is usually sufficient to add the citation to the end of the clause, sentence, or paragraph, so long as it's clear which source supports which part of the text. Repeated citations Further information: Footnotes: using a source more than once For multiple use of the same inline citation or footnote, you can use the named references feature, choosing a name to identify the inline citation, and typing <ref name="name">text of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same named reference may be reused any number of times either before or after the defining use by typing just <ref name="name" />. The use of the slash before the > means that the tag is self-closing, and the </ref> used to close other references must not be used in addition. The text of the name can be almost anything‍—‌apart from being completely numeric. If spaces are used in the text of the name, the text must be placed within double quotes. Placing all named references within double quotes may be helpful to future editors who do not know that rule. To help with page maintenance, it is recommended that the text of the name have a connection to the inline citation or footnote, for example "author year page": <ref name="Smith 2005 p94">text of the citation</ref>. Separating citations from explanatory footnotes If an article contains both footnoted citations and other (explanatory) footnotes, then it is possible (but not necessary) to divide them into two separate lists, using the grouping feature described in the Grouping footnotes section of the footnotes help page. The explanatory footnotes and the citations are then placed in separate sections, called (for example) "Notes" and "References" respectively. Avoiding clutter Inline references can significantly bloat the wikitext in the edit window and can become difficult and confusing. There are two main methods to avoid clutter in the edit window: Inserting short citations (see below) that then refer to a full list of source texts Parenthetical references (see below) are an established subformat of this, which forgoes the use of inline notes and simply puts the short citation in the main body. Using list-defined references by collecting the full citation code within the reference list template, and then inserting them in the text with <ref name="ABC" /> tags. As with other citation formats, articles should not undergo large-scale conversion between formats without consensus to do so. Citing multiple pages of the same source Shortcut WP:IBID Further information: Help:References and page numbers When an article cites many different pages from the same source, to avoid the redundancy of many big, nearly identical full citations, most Wikipedia editors use one of three options: Short citations in footnotes Named references in conjunction with the {{rp}} or {{r}} templates to specify the page Short citations in parenthesis The use of ibid. or Id. (or similar abbreviations) is discouraged, as these may become broken as new references are added (op. cit. is less problematic in that it should refer explicitly to a citation contained in the article; however, not all readers are familiar with the meaning of the terms). If the use of ibid is extensive, use the {{ibid}} template. Duplicate citations Shortcut WP:DUPCITES Please combine precisely duplicated full citations, in keeping with the existing citation style (if any). Do not discourage editors, particularly inexperienced ones, from adding duplicate citations when the use of the source is appropriate, because a duplicate is usually better than no citation. But any editor should feel free to combine them, and doing so is the best practice on Wikipedia. Citations to different pages or parts of the same source can also be combined (preserving the distinct parts of the citations), as described in the previous section. Any method that is consistent with the existing citation style (if any) may be used, or consensus can be sought to change the existing style. Short citations Shortcuts WP:CITESHORT WP:SFN Main page: Help:Shortened footnotes Some Wikipedia articles use short citations, giving summary information about the source together with a page number, as in <ref>Smith 2010, p. 1.</ref>. These are used together with full citations, which give full details of the sources, but without page numbers, and are listed in a separate "References" section. Short citations are used in articles that apply parenthetical referencing (see below), but they can also be used as footnote citations, as described here. Forms of short citations used include author-date referencing (APA style, Harvard style, or Chicago style), and author-title or author-page referencing (MLA style or Chicago style). As before, the list of footnotes is automatically generated in a "Notes" or "Footnotes" section, which immediately precedes the "References" section containing the full citations to the source. Short citations can be written manually, or by using the {{sfn}} or {{harvnb}} templates. (Note that templates should not be added without consensus to an article that already uses a consistent referencing style.) The short citations and full citations may be linked so that the reader can click on the short note to find full information about the source. See the template documentation for details and solutions to common problems. For variations with and without templates, see wikilinks to full references. For a set of realistic examples, see these. This is how short citations look in the edit box: The Sun is pretty big,<ref>Miller 2005, p. 23.</ref> but the Moon is not so big.<ref>Brown 2006, p. 46.</ref> The Sun is also quite hot.<ref>Miller 2005, p. 34.</ref> == Notes == {{Reflist}} == References == *Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78). *Miller, Edward (2005). ''The Sun''. Academic Press. This is how they look in the article: The Sun is pretty big,[1] but the Moon is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3] Notes ^ Miller 2005, p. 23. ^ Brown 2006, p. 46. ^ Miller 2005, p. 34. References Brown, Rebecca (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78). Miller, Edward (2005). The Sun. Academic Press. Shortened notes using titles rather than publication dates would look like this in the article: Notes ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 23. ^ Brown, "Size of the Moon", p. 46. ^ Miller, The Sun, p. 34. When using manual links it is easy to introduce errors such as duplicate anchors and unused references. The script User:Ucucha/HarvErrors will show many related errors. Duplicate anchors may be found by using the W3C Markup Validation Service. Parenthetical referencing Further information: Wikipedia:Parenthetical referencing While most articles use footnote citations as described in the above sections, some articles use a parenthetical referencing style. Here, short citations in parentheses, such as (Smith 2010, p. 1), are placed within the article text itself. Full details of each source used are given in a full citation, e.g., Smith, John. Name of Book. Cambridge University Press, 2010. The full citations are listed in alphabetical order, according to the authors' surnames, at the end of the article in a "References" section. Several forms of short citation are used in Wikipedia; see Short citations above. The inline citation and full citation may be linked using a template (see linking inline and full citations); as with other citation templates, these should not be added to articles without consensus. This is how it looks in the edit box: The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3). == References == *Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 51(78). *Miller, E (2005). ''The Sun'', Academic Press. This is how it looks in the article: The Sun is pretty big (Miller 2005, p. 1), but the Moon is not so big (Brown 2006, p. 2). The Sun is also quite hot (Miller 2005, p. 3). References Brown, R (2006). "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78). Miller, E (2005). The Sun, Academic Press. Notice that, unlike footnotes, parenthetical references are placed before adjacent punctuation such as commas and periods.

What information to include Shortcuts WP:CITEHOW WP:HOWCITE Listed below is the information that a typical inline citation or general reference will provide, though other details may be added as necessary. This information is included in order to identify the source, assist readers in finding it, and (in the case of inline citations) indicate the place in the source where the information is to be found. (If an article uses parenthetical referencing or short citations, then the inline citations will refer to this information in abbreviated form, as described in the relevant sections above.) Examples Books See also the template {{cite book}}. Citations for books typically include: name of author(s) title of book in italics translated title of book in square brackets after the title if not in English (optional) volume when appropriate name of publisher city of publication, e.g. London: Routledge (optional) year of publication of the edition you are citing original year of publication in square brackets, e.g. 2017 [1972] (optional) chapter or page numbers cited, if appropriate edition, if not the first edition ISBN (optional) Citations for individually authored chapters in books typically include: name of author(s) title of the chapter translated title of the chapter book if not in English (optional) name of book's editor name of book and other details as above chapter number or page numbers for the chapter (optional) In some instances, the verso of a book may record, "Reprinted with corrections XXXX" or similar, where 'XXXX' is a year. This is a different version of a book in the same way that different editions are different versions. In such a case, record: the year of the particular reprint, the edition immediately prior to this particular reprint (if not the first edition) and a note to say "Reprint with corrections". If {{cite}} (or similar) is being used, the notation, "Reprint with corrections", can be added immediately following the template. Reprints of older publications gives an example of appending a similar textual note. Journal articles See also the template {{cite journal}}. Citations for journal articles typically include: name of the author(s) year and sometimes month of publication title of the article within quotation marks translated title of the article in square brackets after the title if not in English name of the journal in italics volume number, issue number, and page numbers (article numbers in some electronic journals) DOI and/or other identifiers are optional Newspaper articles See also the template {{cite news}}. Citations for newspaper articles typically include: byline (author's name), if any title of the article within quotation marks translated title of the article in square brackets after the title if not in English name of the newspaper in italics city of publication (if not included in name of newspaper), in parentheses date of publication (the "{{Cite news}}" template places the date after the byline if there is one) page number(s) are optional Web pages Shortcut WP:CITEWEB See also the template {{cite web}}. Citations for World Wide Web pages typically include: URL of the web page – that is the URL of the web page where the referenced content can be found, not, e.g., the main page of a website when the content is on a subpage of that website (see Wikipedia:Shallow references) name of the author(s) title of the article within quotation marks translated title of the article in square brackets after the title if not in English title or domain name of the website publisher, if known date of publication page number(s) (if applicable) the date you retrieved (or accessed) the web page (required if the publication date is unknown) Sound recordings For more details on this topic, see Help:References and page numbers § Other in-source locations. Citations for sound recordings typically include: name of the composer(s), songwriter(s), script writer(s) or the like name of the performer(s) title of the song or individual track in quotation marks title of the album in italics (if applicable) name of the record label year of release medium (for example: LP, audio cassette, CD, MP3 file) approximate time at which event or point of interest occurs, where appropriate Do not cite an entire body of work by one performer. Instead, make one citation for each work your text relies on. Film, television, or video recordings See also the template {{cite AV media}}. Citations for films, TV episodes, or video recordings typically include: name of the director name of the producer, if relevant names of major performers for a TV episode, the title of the episode in quotation marks title of the film or TV series in italics name of the studio year of release medium (for example: film, videocassette, DVD) approximate time at which event or point of interest occurs, where appropriate Other See also the template {{cite album notes}}. See also the template {{cite comic}}. See also the template {{comic strip reference}}. See also the template {{cite conference}} for conference reports or papers. See also the template {{cite court}} for court cases or legal decisions. See also the template {{cite encyclopedia}}. See also the template {{cite episode}} for TV or radio series. See also the template {{cite mailing list}}. See also the template {{cite map}}. See also the template {{cite newsgroup}}. See also the template {{citation}} for patents. See also the template {{cite press release}}. See also the template {{cite thesis}}. See also the template {{cite video game}}. Identifying parts of a source Shortcuts WP:Page numbers WP:PAGENUM Further information: Help:References and page numbers When citing lengthy sources, you should identify which part of a source is being cited. Books and print articles Specify the page number or range of page numbers. Page numbers are not required for a reference to the book or article as a whole. When you specify a page number, it is helpful to specify the version (date and edition for books) of the source because the layout, pagination, length, etc. can change between editions. If there are no page numbers, whether in ebooks or print materials, then you can use other means of identifying the relevant section of a lengthy work, such as the chapter number or the section title. In some works, such as plays and ancient works, there are standard methods of referring to sections, such as "Act 1, scene 2" for plays and Bekker numbers for Aristotle's works. Use these methods whenever appropriate. Audio and video sources Specify the time at which the event or other point of interest occurs. Be as precise as possible about the version of the source that you are citing; for example, movies are often released in different editions or "cuts". Due to variations between formats and playback equipment, precision may not be accurate in some cases. However, many government agencies do not publish minutes and transcripts but do post video of official meetings online; generally the subcontractors who handle audio-visual are quite precise. Links and ID numbers A citation ideally includes a link or ID number to help editors locate the source. If you have a URL (web page) link, you can add it to the title part of the citation, so that when you add the citation to Wikipedia the URL becomes hidden and the title becomes clickable. To do this, enclose the URL and the title in square brackets—the URL first, then a space, then the title. For example: Carr A, Ory D (2006). [ "Does HIV cause cardiovascular disease?"] ''PLoS Medicine'', 3(11):e496. For web-only sources with no publication date, the "Retrieved" date (or the date you accessed the web page) should be included, in case the web page changes in the future. For example: Retrieved 15 July 2011 or you can use the accessdate parameter in the automatic Wikipedia:refToolbar 2.0 editing window feature. You can also add an ID number to the end of a citation. The ID number might be an ISBN for a book, a DOI (digital object identifier) for an article, or any of several ID numbers that are specific to particular article databases, such as a PMID number for articles on PubMed. It may be possible to format these so that they are automatically activated and become clickable when added to Wikipedia, for example by typing ISBN (or PMID) followed by a space and the ID number. If your source is not available online, it should be available in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unavailable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably available (though not necessarily reliable): providing an ISBN or OCLC number; linking to an established Wikipedia article about the source (the work, its author, or its publisher); or directly quoting the material on the talk page, briefly and in context. Linking to pages in PDF files Shortcuts WP:PAGELINKS WP:BOOKLINKS Links to long PDF documents can be made more convenient by taking readers to a specific page with the addition of #page=n to the document URL, where n is the page number. For example, using as the citation URL displays page five of the document in any PDF viewer that supports this feature. If the viewer or browser does not support it, it will display the first page instead. Linking to Google Books pages Further information: Wikipedia talk:Citing sources/Archive 29 § Linking to Google Books pages Google Books sometimes allows numbered book pages to be linked to directly. These can be added in several ways (with and without citation templates): Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 18. Or with a template: Rawls, John (1971). A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press. p. 18.  Rawls 1971, p. 18. Rawls 1971, p. 18. Rawls 1971, p. 18. Rawls 1971, 18. In edit mode, the URL for p. 18 of A Theory of Justice can be entered like this using the {{Cite book}} template: {{cite book |last=Rawls |first=John |title=A Theory of Justice |publisher=Harvard University Press |date=1971 |page=18 |url=}} or like this, in the first of the above examples, formatted manually: Rawls, John. [ ''A Theory of Justice'']. Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 18. When the page number is a Roman numeral, commonly seen at the beginning of books, the URL looks like this for page xvii (Roman numeral 17) of the same book: The &pg=PR17 indicates "page, Roman, 17", in contrast to the &pg=PA18, "page, Arabic, 18" the URL given earlier. You can also link to a tipped-in page, such as an unnumbered page of images between two regular pages. (If the page contains an image that is protected by copyright, it will be replaced by a tiny notice saying "copyrighted image".) The URL for eleventh tipped-in page inserted after page 304 of The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, looks like this: The &pg=PA304-IA11 can be interpreted as "page, Arabic, 304; inserted after: 11". Page links should only be added when the book is available for preview; they will not work with snippet view. Keep in mind that availability varies by location. No editor is required to add page links, but if another editor adds them, they should not be removed without cause; see the October 2010 RfC for further information. Note that the Citation Style 1, Citation Style 2 and Citation Style Vancouver templates properly support links only in the |url= and |archive-url= parameters. Placing links in the |page= or |pages= parameters may not link properly and will cause mangled COinS metadata output. There is a Wikipedia citation tool for Google Books that may be helpful. Say where you read it Shortcuts WP:SAYWHEREYOUREADIT WP:SAYWHEREYOUGOTIT WP:SWYRT WP:SWYGT WP:SAYWHERE "Say where you read it" follows the practice in academic writing of citing sources directly only if you have read the source yourself. If your knowledge of the source is secondhand—that is, if you have read Jones (2010), who cited Smith (2009), and you want to use what Smith (2009) said—make clear that your knowledge of Smith is based on your reading of Jones. When citing the source, write the following (this formatting is just an example): John Smith (2009). Name of Book I Haven't Seen, Cambridge University Press, p. 99, cited in Paul Jones (2010). Name of Encyclopedia I Have Seen, Oxford University Press, p. 29. Or if you are using short citations: Smith (2009), p. 99, cited in Jones (2010), p. 29. Note: The advice to "say where you read it" does not mean that you have to give credit to any sources, search engines, websites, library catalogs, archives, etc., that led you to Smith's book. If you have read Smith's book yourself, that's all you have to cite. You do not need to specify how you obtained and read Smith's book. So long as you are confident that you read a true and accurate copy, it does not matter whether you read the book using an online service like Google Books; using preview options at a bookseller's website like Amazon; on an e-reader (except to the extent that this affects page numbering); through your library; via online paid databases of scanned publications, such as JSTOR; using reading machines; or any other method. Dates and reprints of older publications Editors should be aware that older sources (especially those in the public domain) are sometimes reprinted with modern publication dates. When this occurs and the citation style being used requires it, cite both the original publication date, as well as the date of the re-publication. E.g.: Darwin, Charles (1964) [1859]. On the Origin of Species (facsimile of 1st ed.). Harvard University Press.  This is done automatically in the {{citation}} and {{cite book}} templates when you use the |orig-year= parameter. Alternately, information about the reprint can be appended as a textual note: Boole, George (1854). An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities. Macmillan.  Reprinted with corrections, Dover Publications, New York, NY, 1958. Seasonal publication dates and differing calendar systems Publication dates, for both older and recent sources, should be written with the goal of helping the reader find the publication and, once found, confirm that the correct publication has been located. For example, if the publication date bears a date in the Julian calendar, it should not be converted to the Gregorian calendar. If the publication date was given as a season or holiday, such as "Winter" or "Christmas" of a particular year or two-year span, it should not be converted to a month or date, such as July–August or December 25. If a publication provided both seasonal and specific dates, prefer the specific one. Additional annotation In most cases it is sufficient for a citation footnote simply to identify the source (as described in the sections above); readers can then consult the source to see how it supports the information in the article. Sometimes, however, it is useful to include additional annotation in the footnote, for example to indicate precisely which information the source is supporting (particularly when a single footnote lists more than one source – see § Bundling citations and § Text–source integrity, below). A footnote may also contain a relevant exact quotation from the source. This is especially helpful when the cited text is long or dense. A quotation allows readers to immediately identify the applicable portion of the reference. Quotes are also useful if the source is not easily accessible. In the case of non-English sources, it may be helpful to quote from the original text and then give an English translation. If the article itself contains a translation of a quote from such a source (without the original), then the original should be included in the footnote. (See the WP:Verifiability § Non-English sources policy for more information.)

Citation style Shortcut WP:CITESTYLE While citations should aim to provide the information listed above, Wikipedia does not have a single house style, though citations within any given article should follow a consistent style. A number of citation styles exist including those described in the Wikipedia articles for Citation, APA style, ASA style, MLA style, The Chicago Manual of Style, Author-date referencing, the Vancouver system and Bluebook. Although nearly any consistent style may be used, avoid all-numeric date formats other than YYYY-MM-DD, because of the ambiguity concerning which number is the month and which the day. For example, 2002-06-11 may be used, but not 11/06/2002. The YYYY-MM-DD format should in any case be limited to Gregorian calendar dates where the year is after 1582. Variation in citation methods Shortcut WP:CITEVAR Editors should not attempt to change an article's established citation style merely on the grounds of personal preference, to make it match other articles, or without first seeking consensus for the change. The arbitration committee ruled in 2006: Wikipedia does not mandate styles in many different areas; these include (but are not limited to) American vs. British spelling, date formats, and citation style. Where Wikipedia does not mandate a specific style, editors should not attempt to convert Wikipedia to their own preferred style, nor should they edit articles for the sole purpose of converting them to their preferred style, or removing examples of, or references to, styles which they dislike. As with spelling differences, it is normal practice to defer to the style used by the first major contributor or adopted by the consensus of editors already working on the page, unless a change in consensus has been achieved. If the article you are editing is already using a particular citation style, you should follow it; if you believe it is inappropriate for the needs of the article, seek consensus for a change on the talk page. If you are the first contributor to add citations to an article, you may choose whichever style you think best for the article. If all or most of the citations in an article consist of bare URLs, or otherwise fail to provide needed bibliographic data – such as the name of the source, the title of the article or web page consulted, the author (if known), the publication date (if known), and the page numbers (where relevant) – then that would not count as a "consistent citation style" and can be changed freely to insert such data. The data provided should be sufficient to uniquely identify the source, allow readers to find it, and allow readers to initially evaluate it without retrieving it. To be avoided When an article is already consistent, avoid: switching between major citation styles, e.g. parenthetical and <ref> tags, or replacing the preferred style of one academic discipline with another's; adding citation templates to an article that already uses a consistent system without templates, or removing citation templates from an article that uses them consistently; changing where the references are defined, e.g. moving reference definitions in the reflist to the prose, or moving reference definitions from the prose into the reflist. Generally considered helpful The following are standard practice: improving existing citations by adding missing information, such as by replacing bare URLs with full bibliographic citations: an improvement because it aids verifiability, and fights linkrot; replacing some or all general references with inline citations: an improvement because it provides more verifiable information to the reader, and helps maintain text–source integrity; imposing one style on an article with inconsistent citation styles (e.g., some of the citations in footnotes and others as parenthetical references): an improvement because it makes the citations easier to understand and edit; fixing errors in citation coding, including incorrectly used template parameters, and <ref> markup problems: an improvement because it helps the citations to be parsed correctly; combining duplicate citations (see § Duplicate citations, above).

Handling links in citations As noted above under What information to include, it is helpful to include hyperlinks to source material, when available. Here we note some issues concerning these links. Avoid embedded links Embedded links to external websites should not be used as a form of inline citation, because they are highly susceptible to linkrot. Wikipedia allowed this in its early years—for example by adding a link after a sentence, like this [,14173,1601858,00.html], which looks like this. [1] This is no longer recommended. Raw links are not recommended in lieu of properly written out citations, even if placed between ref tags, like this <ref>[,14173,1601858,00.html]</ref>. Since any citation that accurately identifies the source is better than none, do not revert the good-faith addition of partial citations. They should be considered temporary, and replaced with more complete, properly formatted citations as soon as possible. Embedded links should never be used to place external links in the content of an article, like this: "Apple, Inc. announced their latest product...". Convenience links Further information: Wikipedia:Copyrights § Linking to copyrighted works A convenience link is a link to a copy of your source on a web page provided by someone other than the original publisher or author. For example, a copy of a newspaper article no longer available on the newspaper's website may be hosted elsewhere. When offering convenience links, it is important to be reasonably certain that the convenience copy is a true copy of the original, without any changes or inappropriate commentary, and that it does not infringe the original publisher's copyright. Accuracy can be assumed when the hosting website appears reliable. Where several sites host a copy of the material, the site selected as the convenience link should be the one whose general content appears most in line with Wikipedia:Neutral point of view and Wikipedia:Verifiability. Indicating availability Shortcut WP:INDICATEAVAIL If your source is not available online, it should be available in reputable libraries, archives, or collections. If a citation without an external link is challenged as unavailable, any of the following is sufficient to show the material to be reasonably available (though not necessarily reliable): providing an ISBN or OCLC number; linking to an established Wikipedia article about the source (the work, its author, or its publisher); or directly quoting the material on the talk page, briefly and in context. Links to sources Shortcut WP:SOURCELINKS For a source available in hardcopy, microform, and/or online, omit, in most cases, which one you read. While it is useful to cite author, title, edition (1st, 2nd, etc.), and similar information, it generally is not important to cite a database such as ProQuest, EbscoHost, or JStor (see the list of academic databases and search engines) or to link to such a database requiring a subscription or a third party's login. The basic bibliographic information you provide should be enough to search for the source in any of these databases that have the source. Don't add a URL that has a part of a password embedded in the URL. However, you may provide the DOI, ISBN, or another uniform identifier, if available. If the publisher offers a link to the source or its abstract that does not require a payment or a third party's login for access, you may provide the URL for that link. If the source only exists online, give the link even if access is restricted (see WP:PAYWALL). Preventing and repairing dead links See also: Wikipedia:Link rot Shortcut WP:DEADREF To help prevent dead links, persistent identifiers are available for some sources. Some journal articles have a digital object identifier (DOI); some online newspapers and blogs, and also Wikipedia, have permalinks that are stable. When permanent links aren't available, consider archiving the referenced document when writing the article; on-demand web archiving services such as WebCite ( or the Wayback Machine ( are fairly easy to use (see pre-emptive archiving). Dead links should be repaired or replaced if possible. Do not delete a citation merely because the URL is not working. Follow these steps when you encounter a dead URL being used as a reliable source to support article content: Confirm status: First, check the link to confirm that it is dead and not temporarily down. Search the website to see whether it has been rearranged. The online service "Is it down right now?" can help to determine if a site is down, and any information known. Check for a changed URL on the same Web site: Pages are frequently moved to different location on the same site as they become archive content rather than news. The site's error page may have a "Search" box; alternatively, in the popular Google search engine the keyterm "site:" is used, as in ⟨ "New Zealand police vehicle markings and livery"⟩. Check for web archives: Many Web archiving services exist; link to their archive of the URL's content, if available. Examples: Internet Archive has billions of archived web pages. See Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine. WebCite has billions of archived web pages. See Wikipedia:Using WebCite. The UK Government Web Archive ( preserves 1500 UK central government websites. The Mementos interface allows you to search multiple archiving services with a single request using the Memento protocol. Unfortunately, the Mementos web page interface removes any parameters which are passed with the URL. If the URL contains a "?" it is unlikely to work properly. When entering the URL into the Mementos interface manually, the most common change needed is to change "?" to "%3F". While making only this change will not be sufficient in all cases, it will work most of the time. The bookmarklet in the table below will properly encode URLs such that searches will work. If multiple archive dates are available, try to use one that is most likely to be the contents of the page seen by the editor who entered the reference on the |access-date=. If that parameter is not specified, a search of the article's revision history can be performed to determine when the link was added to the article. For most citation templates, archive locations are entered using the |archive-url=, |archive-date= and |dead-url= parameters. The primary link is automatically switched to the archive when |dead-url=yes. This retains the original link location for reference. If the web page now leads to a completely different website, set |dead-url=usurped to hide the original website link in the citation. Note: Some archives currently operate with a delay of ~18 months before a link is made public. As a result, editors should wait ~24 months after the link is first tagged as dead before declaring that no web archive exists. Dead URLs to reliable sources should normally be tagged with {{dead link|date=February 2018}}, so that you can estimate how long the link has been dead. Bookmarklets to check common archive sites for archives of the current page: javascript:void('*/'+location.href)) WebCite javascript:void(''+location.href)) javascript:void(''+location.href)) Mementos interface javascript:void(''+encodeURIComponent(location.href)+'?referrer='+encodeURIComponent(document.referrer))) Remove convenience links: If the material was published on paper (e.g., academic journal, newspaper article, magazine, book), then the dead URL is not necessary. Simply remove the dead URL, leaving the remainder of the reference intact. Find a replacement source: Search the web for quoted text, the article title, and parts of the URL. Consider contacting the website/person that originally published the reference and asking them to republish it. Ask other editors for help finding the reference somewhere else, including the user who added the reference. Find a different source that says essentially the same thing as the reference in question. Remove hopelessly lost web-only sources: If the source material does not exist offline, and if there is no archived version of the web page (be sure to wait ~24 months), and if you cannot find another copy of the material, then the dead citation should be removed and the material it supports should be regarded as unverified if there is no other supporting citation. If it is material that is specifically required by policy to have an inline citation, then please consider tagging it with {{citation needed}}. It may be appropriate for you to move the citation to the talk page with an explanation, and notify the editor who added the now-dead link.

Text–source integrity Shortcut WP:INTEGRITY For WikiProject Integrity (which is not related to text–source integrity), go here. When using inline citations, it is important to maintain text–source integrity. The point of an inline citation is to allow readers and other editors to check that the material is sourced; that point is lost if the citation is not clearly placed. The distance between material and its source is a matter of editorial judgment, but adding text without clearly placing its source may lead to allegations of original research, of violations of the sourcing policy, and even of plagiarism. Editors should exercise caution when rearranging or inserting material to ensure that text–source relationships are maintained. References need not be moved solely to maintain the chronological order of footnotes as they appear in the article, and should not be moved if doing so might break the text-source relationship. If a sentence or paragraph is footnoted with a source, adding new material that is not supported by the existing source to the sentence/paragraph, without a source for the new text, is highly misleading if placed to appear that the cited source supports it. When new text is inserted into a paragraph, make sure it is supported by the existing or a new source. For example, when editing text originally reading The sun is pretty big.[1] Notes ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. an edit that does not imply that the new material is sourced by the same reference is The sun is pretty big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[2] Notes ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2. Do not add other facts or assertions into a fully cited paragraph or sentence: N The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big.[1] The sun is also quite hot.[2] Notes ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2. Include a source to support the new information. There are several ways to write this, including: Y The sun is pretty big,[1] but the moon is not so big.[2] The sun is also quite hot.[3] Notes ^ Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. ^ Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78):46. ^ Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

Bundling citations Shortcuts WP:CITEBUNDLE WP:BUNDLING Main page: Help:Citation merging Further information: Wikipedia:Citation overkill Sometimes the article is more readable if multiple citations are bundled into a single footnote. For example, when there are multiple sources for a given sentence, and each source applies to the entire sentence, the sources can be placed at the end of the sentence, like this.[4][5][6][7] Or they can be bundled into one footnote at the end of the sentence or paragraph, like this.[4] Bundling is also useful if the sources each support a different portion of the preceding text, or if the sources all support the same text. Bundling has several advantages: It helps readers and other editors see at a glance which source supports which point, maintaining text–source integrity; It avoids the visual clutter of multiple clickable footnotes inside a sentence or paragraph; It avoids the confusion of having multiple sources listed separately after sentences, with no indication of which source to check for each part of the text, such as this.[1][2][3][4] It makes it less likely that inline citations will be moved inadvertently when text is re-arranged, because the footnote states clearly which source supports which point. When formatting multiple citations in a footnote, there are several layouts available, as illustrated below. Within a given article, only a single layout should be used. The sun is pretty big, but the moon is not so big. The sun is also quite hot.[1] Notes Bullets ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2. Line breaks ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2. Paragraph ^ For the sun's size, see Miller, Edward. The Sun. Academic Press, 2005, p. 1. For the moon's size, see Brown, Rebecca. "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 51(78):46. For the sun's heat, see Smith, John. The Sun's Heat. Academic Press, 2005, p. 2.

In-text attribution Shortcut WP:INTEXT Further information: Wikipedia:Neutral point of view § Attributing and specifying biased statements In-text attribution is the attribution inside a sentence of material to its source, in addition to an inline citation after the sentence. In-text attribution should be used with direct speech (a source's words between quotation marks or as a block quotation); indirect speech (a source's words modified without quotation marks); and close paraphrasing. It can also be used when loosely summarizing a source's position in your own words. It avoids inadvertent plagiarism and helps the reader see where a position is coming from. An inline citation should follow the attribution, usually at the end of the sentence or paragraph in question. For example: N To reach fair decisions, parties must consider matters as if behind a veil of ignorance.[2] Y John Rawls says that, to reach fair decisions, parties must consider matters as if behind a veil of ignorance.[2] When using in-text attribution, make sure it doesn't lead to an inadvertent neutrality violation. For example, the following implies parity between the sources, without making clear that the position of Darwin is the majority view: N Charles Darwin says that human beings evolved through natural selection, but John Smith writes that we arrived here in pods from Mars. Y Humans evolved through natural selection, as first explained in Charles Darwin's The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Neutrality issues apart, there are other ways in-text attribution can mislead. The sentence below suggests The New York Times has alone made this important discovery: N According to The New York Times, the sun will set in the west this evening. Y The sun sets in the west each evening. It is preferable not to clutter articles with information best left to the references. Interested readers can click on the ref to find out the publishing journal: N In an article published in The Lancet in 2012, researchers announced the discovery of the new tissue type.[3] Y The discovery of the new tissue type was first published by researchers in 2012.[3] Simple facts such as this can have inline citations to reliable sources as an aid to the reader, but normally the text itself is best left as a plain statement without in-text attribution: Y By mass, oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium.[4]

General references Shortcut WP:GENREF A general reference is a citation to a reliable source that supports content, but is not linked to any particular text in the article through an inline citation. General references are usually listed at the end of the article in a "References" section, and are usually sorted by the last name of the author or the editor. General reference sections are most likely to be found in underdeveloped articles, especially when all article content is supported by a single source. The disadvantage of general references is that text–source integrity is lost, unless the article is very short. They are frequently reworked by later editors into inline citations. The appearance of a general references section is the same as those given above in the sections on short citations and parenthetical references. If both cited and uncited references exist, their distinction can be highlighted with separate section names, e.g., "References" and "General references".

Dealing with unsourced material Shortcuts WP:NOCITE WP:BLPCITE If an article has no references at all, then: If the entire article is "Patent Nonsense", tag it for speedy deletion using criterion G1. If the article is a biography of a living person, it can be tagged with {{subst:prod blp}} to propose deletion. If it's a biography of a living person and is an attack page, then it should be tagged for speedy deletion using criterion G10, which will blank the page. If the article doesn't fit into the above two categories, then consider finding references yourself, or commenting on the article talk page or the talk page of the article creator. You may also tag the article with the {{unreferenced}} template and consider nominating it for deletion. For individual unreferenced claims in an article: If the article is a biography of a living person, then any contentious material must be removed immediately: see Biographies of living persons. If the unreferenced material is seriously inappropriate, it may need to be hidden from general view, in which case request admin assistance. If the material added appears to be false or an expression of opinion, remove it and inform the editor who added the unsourced material. The {{uw-unsourced1}} template may be placed on their talk page. In any other case consider finding references yourself, or commenting on the article talk page or the talk page of the editor who added the unsourced material. You may place a {{citation needed}} or {{dubious}} tag against the added text.

Citation templates and tools Shortcut WP:CITECONSENSUS Further information: Wikipedia:Citation templates and Help:Citation tools For a comparison of citations using templates with citations written freehand, see Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods § Footnotes. Citation templates can be used to format citations in a consistent way. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged: an article should not be switched between templated and non-templated citations without good reason and consensus – see Variation in citation methods above. If citation templates are used in an article, the parameters should be accurate. It is inappropriate to set parameters to false values to cause the template to render as if it were written in some style other than the style normally produced by the template (e.g., MLA style). Metadata Citations may be accompanied by metadata, though it is not mandatory. Most citation templates on Wikipedia use the COinS standard. Metadata such as this allow browser plugins and other automated software to make citation data accessible to the user, for instance by providing links to their library's online copies of the cited works. In articles that format citations manually, metadata may be added manually in a span, according to the COinS specification. Citation processing tools User:Ark25/RefScript, a JavaScript bookmarklet – creates references in one click, works for many newspapers User:Badgettrg, Biomedical citation maker. uses Pubmed ID (PMID) or DOI or PMCID or NCT. Adds links to ACP Journal Club and Evidence-Based Medicine comments if present. User:Citation bot (formerly DOI bot) – a bot that automatically fixes common errors in individual citations and adds missing fields User:Zhaofeng Li/Reflinks – adds titles to bare url references and other cleanup Citation template generator – generates complete templates using identification numbers such as PMIDs (PubMed IDs). Wikipedia template filling – generates Vancouver style citations from PMIDs (PubMed IDs). Wikipedia citation tool for Google Books – converts bare Google book links into {{cite book}} format. DOI Wikipedia reference generator New York Times Wikipedia reference generator Yadkard: A web-based tool for generating shortened footnotes and citation using Google Books URLs, DOI or ISBN. Also supports some news websites. User:Salix alba/Citoid a client for the mw:citoid server which generates Citation Style 1 templates from urls. Template:Ref info, which can aid evaluating what kind of citation style was used to write the article Programming tools See also: Help:Citation tools § Tools Wikicite is a free program that helps editors to create citations for their Wikipedia contributions using citation templates. It is written in Visual Basic .NET, making it suitable only for users with the .NET Framework installed on Windows, or, for other platforms, the Mono alternative framework. Wikicite and its source code is freely available; see the developer's page for further details. Wikicite+ is a program based on the original Wikicite source code. It features extra validation, bug fixes, additional cite templates (such as cite episode) as well as tools for stub sorting and more. It is also available for free under the Apache License 2.0 and is open source. User:Richiez has tools to automatically handle citations for a whole article at a time. Converts occurrences of {{pmid XXXX}} or {{isbn XXXX}} to properly formatted footnote or Harvard-style references. Written in Ruby and requires a working installation with basic libraries. pubmed2wikipedia.xsl an XSL stylesheet transforming the XML output of PubMed to Wikipedia refs. RefTag by Apoc2400 creates a prefilled {{cite book}} template with various options from a Google Books URL. The page provides a bookmarklet for single-click transfer. wikiciter web interface, does Google Books, pdf files, beta. Citation export tools You can insert a link beside each citation in Wikipedia, allowing you to export the citation to a reference manager such as EndNote. To install the script just add the following line to Special:MyPage/skin.js (applies to the currently selected skin) or Special:MyPage/common.js (applies to all skins)" importScript("User:Smith609/endnote.js"); Then "Publish changes" and follow the instructions at the top of that page to bypass your browser's cache. Reference management software Reference management software can output formatted citations in several styles, including BibTeX, RIS, or Wikipedia citation template styles. Comparison of reference management software – side-by-side comparison of various reference management software Wikipedia:Citing sources with Zotero – essay on using Zotero to quickly add citations to articles. Zotero (by Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media; license: Affero GPL) is open-source software with local reference database which can be synchronized between several computers over the online database (up to 300 MB without payment). EndNote (by Thomson Reuters; license: proprietary) Mendeley (by Elsevier; license: proprietary) Paperpile (by Paperpile, LLC; license: proprietary) Papers (by Springer; license: proprietary)

See also How to cite Wikipedia:References dos and don'ts – a concise summary of some of the most important guidance on this page Wikipedia:Referencing for beginners – a simple practical guide to getting started Wikipedia:Citation templates – a full listing of various styles for citing all sorts of materials Wikipedia:Verification methods – listing examples of the most common ways that citations are used in Wikipedia articles Wikipedia:Citing sources/Example edits for different methods – showing comparative edit mode representations for different citation methods and techniques Wikipedia:Citing sources/Further considerations Wikipedia:Inline citation Wikipedia:External links – for information about the External links section Wikipedia:Improving referencing efforts Wikipedia:Layout § Further reading – for information about the Further reading section Wikipedia:List of sources Wikipedia:Nesting footnotes Wikipedia:Scientific citation guidelines – guidelines for dealing with scientific and mathematical articles Wikipedia:Plagiarism § Public-domain sources – guideline covering the inclusion of material in the public domain Wikipedia:How to mine a source – essay on getting maximum information from cited material Citation problems Template:Refimprove – template to add to article (or section) where citations are needed Template:Text-source – template to add to article (or section) where text–source integrity is questioned Wikipedia:Citation needed – explanation of template to tag statements that need a citation Wikipedia:Link rot – guide to preventing link rot Wikipedia:Copyright problems – in case of text that has been copied verbatim inappropriately Template:Irrelevant citation – citation does not say what it is claimed to say Wikipedia:WikiProject Citation cleanup – a group of people devoted to cleaning citations Wikipedia:Citation overkill – why too many citations on one fact can be a bad thing Wikipedia:Bombardment – an essay regarding the overuse of citations Wikipedia:You don't need to cite that the sky is blue – an essay advising: do not cite already obvious information Wikipedia:You do need to cite that the sky is blue – an essay advising: just because something appears obvious to you does not mean it is obvious to everyone Wikipedia:Video links – an essay discussing the use of citations linking to YouTube and other user-submitted video sites Wikipedia:Reference database – essay/proposal Changing citation style formats WP:CITEVAR

Notes ^ Words like citation and reference are used interchangeably on the English Wikipedia. On talk pages where the language can be more informal or in edit summaries or templates where space is a consideration, reference is often abbreviated ref with the plural refs. Footnote may refer specifically to citations using ref tag formatting or to explanatory text; endnotes specifically refers to citations placed at the end of the page. See also: Wikipedia:Glossary. ^ See this July 2007 discussion for more detail on why scrolling reference lists should not be used.

Further reading Concordia Libraries (Concordia University). Citation and Style Guides. New Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198767251 The Writers' Workshop, Center for Writing Studies. "Citation Styles Handbook: APA", University of Illinois. The Writers' Workshop, Center for Writing Studies. "Citation Styles Handbook: MLA", University of Illinois. University of Chicago Press. (2003). The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition. ISBN 978-0226104201 A writer's practical guide to MLA documentation AMA Citation Style Chicago/Turabian Documentation "Citation Guide – Turabian" (PDF).  Guide to Citation Style Guides Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals American Chemical Society reference style guidelines Citation Machine How to write citations

External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citation needed. reFill, expand bare references with ease Video tutorial on citing sources: Part 1, Part 2 v t e Wikipedia key policies and guidelines Five pillars What Wikipedia is not Ignore all rules Content Verifiability No original research Neutral point of view What Wikipedia is not Biographies of living persons Image use Wikipedia is not a dictionary Article titles Notability Autobiography Citing sources Identifying reliable sources medicine Do not include copies of primary sources Plagiarism Don't create hoaxes Fringe theories Patent nonsense External links Conduct Civility Consensus Editing policy Harassment Vandalism Ignore all rules No personal attacks Ownership of content Edit warring Dispute resolution Sock puppetry No legal threats Child protection Paid-contribution disclosure Assume good faith Conflict of interest Disruptive editing Do not disrupt Wikipedia to illustrate a point Etiquette Gaming the system Please do not bite the newcomers Courtesy vanishing Deletion Deletion policy Proposed deletion Criteria for speedy deletion Attack page Oversight Proposed deletion of BLP Proposed deletion (books) Revision deletion Enforcement Administrators Banning Blocking Page protection Editing Article size Be bold Disambiguation Hatnotes Set index articles Subpages User pages Talk page guidelines Signatures Broad-concept article Project namespace WikiProjects Style Manual of Style Contents Accessibility Understandability Dates and numbers Images Layout Lead section Linking Lists Classification Categories, lists, and navigation templates Categorization Template namespace WMF List of policies Friendly space policy Licensing and copyright Privacy policy Values FAQ List of all policies and guidelines List of policies List of guidelines Lists of attempts in creating fundamental principles v t e Wikipedia referencing Policies and guidelines Verifiability Biographies of living persons Identifying reliable sources Medicine Citing sources Scientific citations General advice Citation needed Find sources Combining sources Offline sources Referencing styles Citing sources Citation Style 1 Citation Style 2 Citation Style Vancouver LSA Comics Citation templates Reflist template Inline citations Footnotes Parenthetical referencing Punctuation and footnotes Shortened footnotes Nesting footnotes Help for beginners Reference-tags Citations quick reference Introduction to referencing Referencing with citation templates Referencing without using templates Referencing dos and don'ts Citing Wikipedia Advanced help Cite link labels Citation tools Cite errors Cite messages Converting between references formats Reference display customization References and page numbers Template documentation {{Edit refs}} {{Refref}} {{Refref2}} {{Refstart}} Tools Wikipedia Library v t e Citation Style 1 General templates {{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprints {{Cite AV media}} audio and visual {{Cite AV media notes}} audio and visual liner notes {{cite bioRxiv}} bioRxiv preprints {{Cite book}} books {{Cite conference}} conference papers {{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections {{Cite episode}} radio or television episodes {{Cite interview}} interviews {{Cite journal}} academic journals and papers {{Cite magazine}} magazines {{Cite mailing list}} public mailing lists {{Cite map}} maps {{Cite news}} news articles {{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups {{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast {{Cite press release}} press releases {{Cite report}} unpublished reports {{Cite serial}} audio or video serials {{Cite sign}} signs, plaques {{Cite speech}} speeches {{Cite techreport}} technical reports {{Cite thesis}} theses {{Cite web}} web sources Categories Citation Style 1 templates Documentation {{Citation Style documentation}} Citation Style 1 noticeboard Retrieved from "" Categories: Wikipedia content guidelinesWikipedia style guidelinesWikipedia citation administrationWikipedia how-toWikipedia verifiabilityHidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected project pagesWikipedia move-protected project pages

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces Project pageTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata item Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects WikinewsWikiquoteWikiversityWiktionary Languages Afrikaansالعربيةঅসমীয়াবাংলাБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎БългарскиBosanskiBrezhonegCatalàЧӑвашлаČeštinaDanskDavvisámegiellaDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGaeilgeGalegoગુજરાતી한국어ՀայերենHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIlokanoBahasa IndonesiaÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa Jawaಕನ್ನಡქართულიKurdîКыргызчаລາວLatinaLatviešuLietuviųMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиമലയാളംमराठीBahasa MelayuBaso MinangkabauMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄МонголNederlandsनेपाली日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNorskNorsk nynorskOccitanଓଡ଼ିଆOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаپښتوភាសាខ្មែរPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийShqipසිංහලSimple EnglishسنڌيSlovenčinaSlovenščinaŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaதமிழ்Татарча/tatarçaతెలుగుไทยТоҷикӣTürkçeУкраїнськаاردوTiếng Việt吴语ייִדיש粵語中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 13 February 2018, at 00:30. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.660","walltime":"0.955","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6387,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":207422,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":12669,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":15,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":42,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 710.051 1 -total"," 19.40% 137.730 25 Template:Shortcut"," 9.30% 66.000 10 Template:Navbox"," 8.73% 61.984 3 Template:Cite_book"," 7.57% 53.786 1 Template:Subcat_guideline"," 7.26% 51.524 1 Template:Ombox"," 5.58% 39.623 1 Template:Pp-semi-indef"," 5.03% 35.710 3 Template:For"," 5.02% 35.618 1 Template:Wikipedia_policies_and_guidelines"," 4.91% 34.880 2 Template:ISBN"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.280","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":6560498,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1266","timestamp":"20180218171714","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":89,"wgHostname":"mw1266"});});

Wikipedia:CITE - Photos and All Basic Informations

Wikipedia:CITE More Links

This Page Is Semi-protected.Help:FootnotesWikipedia:Inline CitationHelp:Referencing For BeginnersWikipedia:Citing WikipediaWikipedia:UCSWikipedia:COMPSCIWikipedia:RDCategory:Wikipedia Content GuidelinesWikipedia:What "Ignore All Rules" MeansWikipedia:Ignore All RulesWikipedia:ConsensusWikipedia Talk:Citing SourcesWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:Inline CitationWikipedia:CHALLENGEDWikipedia:MainspaceWikipedia:INCITEHelp:FootnotesHelp:Referencing For BeginnersCategory:Wikipedia GuidelinesWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesWikipedia:List Of PoliciesCategory:Wikipedia Behavioral GuidelinesWikipedia:Assume Good FaithWikipedia:Conflict Of InterestWikipedia:Courtesy VanishingWikipedia:Disruptive EditingWikipedia:Please Do Not Bite The NewcomersWikipedia:Do Not Disrupt Wikipedia To Illustrate A PointWikipedia:EtiquetteWikipedia:Gaming The SystemWikipedia:User PagesWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesCategory:Wikipedia DiscussionWikipedia:Talk Page GuidelinesWikipedia:SignaturesCategory:Wikipedia Content GuidelinesWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wikipedia:Fringe TheoriesWikipedia:Non-free ContentWikipedia:Offensive MaterialWikipedia:Do Not Include The Full Text Of Lengthy Primary SourcesWikipedia:Do Not Create HoaxesWikipedia:Patent NonsenseWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesCategory:Wikipedia Editing GuidelinesWikipedia:Article SizeWikipedia:Be BoldHelp:Edit SummaryWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Make Technical Articles UnderstandableWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesCategory:Wikipedia CategorizationWikipedia:Categories, Lists, And Navigation TemplatesWikipedia:CategorizationWikipedia:DisambiguationWikipedia:SubpagesCategory:Wikipedia Style GuidelinesWikipedia:Manual Of StyleWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ContentsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ListsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/TablesCategory:Wikipedia Deletion GuidelinesWikipedia:Deletion ProcessWikipedia:Speedy KeepWikipedia:Deletion Guidelines For AdministratorsWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesTemplate:Guideline ListTemplate Talk:Guideline ListWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:SOURCESHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:Parenthetical ReferencesWikipedia:Close ParaphrasingWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:VReliability Of WikipediaWikipedia:NORWikipedia:LINKWikipedia:PLAGFORMWikipedia:VWikipedia:QUOTEWikipedia:Close ParaphrasingWikipedia:BLPHelp:File PageWikipedia:CaptionWikipedia:Alternative Text For ImagesBelshazzar's Feast (Rembrandt)File:Rembrandt-Belsazar.jpgWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:MOSDABWikipedia:LEADWikipedia:LEADCITEWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Inline CitationHelp:SectionHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:FootersWikipedia:ShortcutTemplate:ReflistCaretScroll BoxWikipedia:AccessibilityWikipedia:Mirrors And ForksWikipedia:ShortcutHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:REFPUNCHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:NAMEDREFSHelp:FootnotesHelp:FootnotesTemplate:ReflistWikipedia:ShortcutHelp:References And Page NumbersWikipedia:CITESHORTWikipedia:NAMEDREFSTemplate:RpTemplate:RWikipedia:Parenthetical ReferencingIbid.Id.Op. Cit.Template:IbidWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:BITEWikipedia:ShortcutHelp:Shortened FootnotesAPA StyleHarvard StyleThe Chicago Manual Of StyleThe MLA Style ManualTemplate:Harvard Citation DocumentationTemplate:Harvard Citation DocumentationWikipedia:Citing Sources/Further ConsiderationsWikipedia:Citing Sources/Example Edits For Different MethodsUser:Ucucha/HarvErrorsW3C Markup Validation ServiceWikipedia:Parenthetical ReferencingParenthetical ReferencingWikipedia:Parenthetical ReferencingWikipedia:ShortcutTemplate:Cite BookWikipedia:ISBNRecto And VersoTemplate:CiteWikipedia:Citing SourcesTemplate:Cite JournalWikipedia:DOIList Of Academic Databases And Search EnginesTemplate:Cite NewsBylineTemplate:Cite NewsWikipedia:ShortcutTemplate:Cite WebWikipedia:Shallow ReferencesHelp:References And Page NumbersTemplate:Cite AV MediaTemplate:Cite Album NotesTemplate:Cite ComicTemplate:Comic Strip ReferenceTemplate:Cite ConferenceTemplate:Cite CourtTemplate:Cite EncyclopediaTemplate:Cite EpisodeTemplate:Cite Mailing ListTemplate:Cite MapTemplate:Cite NewsgroupTemplate:CitationTemplate:Cite Press ReleaseTemplate:Cite ThesisTemplate:Cite Video GameWikipedia:ShortcutHelp:References And Page NumbersEbookBekker NumberingWikipedia:RefToolbar 2.0Wikipedia:RefToolbar 2.0ISBNDigital Object IdentifierPubMedWikipedia:VerifiabilityISBNOCLCWikipedia:COPYVIOWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia Talk:Citing Sources/Archive 29Google BooksA Theory Of JusticeTemplate:Cite BookRoman NumeralArabic NumeralTipped-in PageWikipedia Talk:Citing Sources/Archive 29Help:Citation Style 1Help:Citation Style 2Help:Citation Style VancouverCOinSWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:PAYWALLJSTORReading MachineTemplate:CitationTemplate:Cite BookAnnotationWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:ShortcutStyle GuideCitationAPA StyleASA StyleMLA StyleThe Chicago Manual Of StyleAuthor-date ReferencingVancouver SystemBluebookGregorian CalendarWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:ConsensusWikipedia:Requests For Arbitration/SortanWikipedia:ENGVARWikipedia:PARENHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:LDRHOWWikipedia:VerifiabiltyWikipedia:Link RotWikipedia:LinkrotWikipedia:ELWikipedia:CopyrightsWikipedia:Neutral Point Of ViewWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:VerifiabilityISBNOCLCWikipedia:COPYVIOWikipedia:ShortcutHard CopyMicroformOnline And OfflineProQuestEBSCO PublishingJSTORList Of Academic Databases And Search EnginesWikipedia:Digital Object IdentifierWikipedia:ISBNWikipedia:PAYWALLWikipedia:Link RotWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Dead External LinksDigital Object IdentifierPermalinkWebCiteWayback MachineWikipedia:Citing Sources/Further ConsiderationsWeb ArchivingInternet ArchiveWikipedia:Using The Wayback MachineWebCiteWikipedia:Using WebCiteUK Government Web ArchiveWeb ArchivingMemento ProjectQuery StringTemplate:Dead LinkWikipedia:MINREFTemplate:Citation NeededWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:WikiProject IntegrityWikipedia:NORWikipedia:VWikipedia:PLAGFORMWikipedia:ShortcutHelp:Citation MergingWikipedia:Citation OverkillWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Neutral Point Of ViewWikipedia:INCITEDirect SpeechBlock QuotationIndirect SpeechWikipedia:Close ParaphrasingVeil Of IgnoranceJohn RawlsVeil Of IgnoranceWikipedia:UNDUECharles DarwinNatural SelectionNatural SelectionCharles DarwinThe Descent Of Man, And Selection In Relation To SexMedical JournalWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:PNWikipedia:CSDTemplate:UnreferencedWikipedia:AFDWikipedia:Biographies Of Living PersonsWikipedia:RFOTemplate:Uw-unsourced1Template:Citation NeededTemplate:DubiousWikipedia:ShortcutWikipedia:Citation TemplatesHelp:Citation ToolsWikipedia:Citing Sources/Example Edits For Different MethodsWikipedia:Citation TemplatesThe MLA Style ManualCOinSUser:Ark25/RefScriptUser:BadgettrgUser:Citation BotUser:Zhaofeng Li/ReflinksPubMedVancouver StylePubMedTemplate:Cite BookHelp:Shortened FootnotesUser:Salix Alba/CitoidHelp:Citation Style 1Template:Ref InfoHelp:Citation ToolsWikipedia:WikiciteWikipedia:Citation TemplatesVisual Basic .NET.NET FrameworkMono (software)Wikipedia:WikiciteUser:Nacimota/Wikicite+Wikipedia:WikiciteUser:RichiezRuby (programming Language)Extensible Stylesheet LanguagePubMedUser Talk:Apoc2400Template:Cite BookEndNoteSpecial:MyPage/skin.jsSpecial:MyPage/common.jsWikipedia:Bypass Your CacheBibTeXRIS (file Format)Comparison Of Reference Management SoftwareReference Management SoftwareWikipedia:Citing Sources With ZoteroZoteroRoy Rosenzweig Center For History And New MediaAffero GPLOpen-source SoftwareEndNoteMendeleyPaperpilePapers (software)Wikipedia:References Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Referencing For BeginnersWikipedia:Citation TemplatesWikipedia:Verification MethodsWikipedia:Citing Sources/Example Edits For Different MethodsWikipedia:Citing Sources/Further ConsiderationsWikipedia:Inline CitationWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:Improving Referencing EffortsWikipedia:LayoutWikipedia:List Of SourcesWikipedia:Nesting FootnotesWikipedia:Scientific Citation GuidelinesWikipedia:PlagiarismWikipedia:How To Mine A SourceTemplate:RefimproveTemplate:Text-sourceWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Link RotLink RotWikipedia:Copyright ProblemsTemplate:Irrelevant CitationWikipedia:WikiProject Citation CleanupWikipedia:Citation OverkillWikipedia:BombardmentWikipedia:You Don't Need To Cite That The Sky Is BlueWikipedia:You Do Need To Cite That The Sky Is BlueWikipedia:Video LinksWikipedia:Reference DatabaseWikipedia:CITEVARHelp:FootnoteWikipedia:GlossaryWikipedia Talk:Citing Sources/Archive 18International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0198767251The Chicago Manual Of StyleInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0226104201Template:Wikipedia Policies And GuidelinesTemplate Talk:Wikipedia Policies And GuidelinesWikipedia:Policies And GuidelinesWikipedia:Five PillarsWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:Ignore All RulesWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:No Original ResearchWikipedia:Neutral Point Of ViewWikipedia:What Wikipedia Is NotWikipedia:Biographies Of Living PersonsWikipedia:Image Use PolicyWikipedia:Wikipedia Is Not A DictionaryWikipedia:Article TitlesWikipedia:NotabilityWikipedia:AutobiographyWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wikipedia:Do Not Include The Full Text Of Lengthy Primary SourcesWikipedia:PlagiarismWikipedia:Do Not Create HoaxesWikipedia:Fringe TheoriesWikipedia:Patent NonsenseWikipedia:External LinksWikipedia:CivilityWikipedia:ConsensusWikipedia:Editing PolicyWikipedia:HarassmentWikipedia:VandalismWikipedia:Ignore All RulesWikipedia:No Personal AttacksWikipedia:Ownership Of ContentWikipedia:Edit WarringWikipedia:Dispute ResolutionWikipedia:Sock PuppetryWikipedia:No Legal ThreatsWikipedia:Child ProtectionWikipedia:Paid-contribution DisclosureWikipedia:Assume Good FaithWikipedia:Conflict Of InterestWikipedia:Disruptive EditingWikipedia:Do Not Disrupt Wikipedia To Illustrate A PointWikipedia:EtiquetteWikipedia:Gaming The SystemWikipedia:Please Do Not Bite The NewcomersWikipedia:Courtesy VanishingWikipedia:Deletion PolicyWikipedia:Proposed DeletionWikipedia:Criteria For Speedy DeletionWikipedia:Attack PageWikipedia:OversightWikipedia:Proposed Deletion Of Biographies Of Living PeopleWikipedia:Proposed Deletion (books)Wikipedia:Revision DeletionWikipedia:AdministratorsWikipedia:Banning PolicyWikipedia:Blocking PolicyWikipedia:Protection PolicyWikipedia:Article SizeWikipedia:Be BoldWikipedia:DisambiguationWikipedia:HatnoteWikipedia:Set Index ArticlesWikipedia:SubpagesWikipedia:User PagesWikipedia:Talk Page GuidelinesWikipedia:SignaturesWikipedia:Broad-concept ArticleWikipedia:Project NamespaceWikipedia:WikiProject Council/GuideWikipedia:Manual Of StyleWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ContentsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/AccessibilityWikipedia:Make Technical Articles UnderstandableWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ImagesWikipedia:Manual Of Style/LayoutWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Lead SectionWikipedia:Manual Of Style/LinkingWikipedia:Manual Of Style/ListsWikipedia:Categories, Lists, And Navigation TemplatesWikipedia:CategorizationWikipedia:Template NamespaceWikipedia:List Of Policies And GuidelinesWikipedia:List Of PoliciesWikipedia:List Of GuidelinesWikipedia:PrinciplesTemplate:Wikipedia ReferencingTemplate Talk:Wikipedia ReferencingWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:VerifiabilityWikipedia:Biographies Of Living PersonsWikipedia:Identifying Reliable SourcesWikipedia:Identifying Reliable Sources (medicine)Wikipedia:Scientific Citation GuidelinesWikipedia:Citation NeededHelp:Find SourcesWikipedia:Combining SourcesWikipedia:Offline SourcesHelp:Overview Of Referencing StylesHelp:Citation Style 1Help:Citation Style 2Help:Citation Style VancouverCategory:LSA Style Citation TemplatesCategory:Comics Citation TemplatesWikipedia:Citation TemplatesTemplate:ReflistWikipedia:Inline CitationHelp:FootnotesWikipedia:Parenthetical ReferencingMOS:PUNCTFOOTHelp:Shortened FootnotesWikipedia:Nesting FootnotesHelp:Referencing For BeginnersHelp:ReftagsHelp:Citations Quick ReferenceHelp:Introduction To Referencing/1Help:Referencing For Beginners With Citation TemplatesHelp:Referencing For Beginners Without Using TemplatesWikipedia:References Dos And Don'tsWikipedia:Citing WikipediaHelp:Cite Link LabelsHelp:Citation ToolsHelp:Cite ErrorsHelp:Cite MessagesHelp:Converting Between References FormatsHelp:Reference Display CustomizationHelp:References And Page NumbersTemplate:Edit RefsTemplate:RefrefTemplate:Refref2Template:RefstartWikipedia:The Wikipedia LibraryTemplate:Citation Style 1Template Talk:Citation Style 1Help:Citation Style 1Template:Cite ArXivArXivTemplate:Cite AV MediaTemplate:Cite AV Media NotesTemplate:Cite BioRxivBioRxivTemplate:Cite BookTemplate:Cite ConferenceTemplate:Cite EncyclopediaTemplate:Cite EpisodeTemplate:Cite InterviewTemplate:Cite JournalTemplate:Cite MagazineTemplate:Cite Mailing ListTemplate:Cite MapTemplate:Cite NewsTemplate:Cite NewsgroupTemplate:Cite PodcastTemplate:Cite Press ReleaseTemplate:Cite ReportTemplate:Cite SerialTemplate:Cite SignTemplate:Cite SpeechTemplate:Cite TechreportTemplate:Cite ThesisTemplate:Cite WebCategory:Citation Style 1 TemplatesTemplate:Citation Style DocumentationHelp Talk:Citation Style 1Help:CategoryCategory:Wikipedia Content GuidelinesCategory:Wikipedia Style GuidelinesCategory:Wikipedia Citation AdministrationCategory:Wikipedia How-toCategory:Wikipedia VerifiabilityCategory:Wikipedia Semi-protected Project PagesCategory:Wikipedia Move-protected Project PagesDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Project Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link