Contents 1 Types of links 1.1 Inline links 1.2 Anchor 2 Uses in various technologies 2.1 HTML 2.2 XLink: hyperlinks in XML 2.3 Wikis 2.4 Virtual worlds 2.5 Other document technologies 3 How hyperlinks work in HTML 3.1 Link behavior in web browsers 4 History 5 Legal issues 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading


Types of links[edit] Inline links[edit] An inline link displays remote content without the need for embedding the content. The remote content may be accessed with or without the user selecting the link. An inline link may display a modified version of the content; for instance, instead of an image, a thumbnail, low resolution preview, cropped section, or magnified section may be shown. The full content is then usually available on demand, as is the case with print publishing software – e.g., with an external link. This allows for smaller file sizes and quicker response to changes when the full linked content is not needed, as is the case when rearranging a page layout. Anchor[edit] An anchor hyperlink is a link bound to a portion of a document[2]—generally text, though not necessarily. For instance, it may also be a hot area in an image (image map in HTML), a designated, often irregular part of an image. One way to define it is by a list of coordinates that indicate its boundaries. For example, a political map of Africa may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. A separate invisible hot area interface allows for swapping skins or labels within the linked hot areas without repetitive embedding of links in the various skin elements.


Uses in various technologies[edit] HTML[edit] Tim Berners-Lee saw the possibility of using hyperlinks to link any information to any other information over the Internet. Hyperlinks were therefore integral to the creation of the World Wide Web. Web pages are written in the hypertext mark-up language HTML. This is what a hyperlink to the home page of the W3C organization could look like in HTML code: <a href="http://www.w3.org">W3C organization website</a> This HTML code consists of several tags: The hyperlink starts with an anchor opening tag <a, and includes a hyperlink reference href="http://www.w3.org" to the URL for the page. (Note that the URL is enclosed in quotes.) The URL is followed by >, marking the end of the anchor opening tag. The words that follow identify what is being linked; this is the only part of the code that is ordinarily visible on the screen when the page is rendered, but when the cursor hovers over the link, many browsers display the target URL somewhere on the screen, such as in the lower left-hand corner. Typically these words are underlined and colored (for example, blue for a link that has not yet been visited and purple for a link already visited). The anchor closing tag (</a>) terminates the hyperlink code. Webgraph is a graph, formed from web pages as vertices and hyperlinks, as directed edges. XLink: hyperlinks in XML[edit] Main article: XLink The W3C Recommendation called XLink describes hyperlinks that offer a far greater degree of functionality than those offered in HTML. These extended links can be multidirectional, linking from, within, and between XML documents. It can also describe simple links, which are unidirectional and therefore offer no more functionality than hyperlinks in HTML. Wikis[edit] How internal MediaWiki links work when you want to create a link that displays words different from the linked page's title. While wikis may use HTML-type hyperlinks, the use of wiki markup, a set of lightweight markup languages specifically for wikis, provides simplified syntax for linking pages within wiki environments—in other words, for creating wikilinks. The syntax and appearance of wikilinks may vary. Ward Cunningham's original wiki software, the WikiWikiWeb used CamelCase for this purpose. CamelCase was also used in the early version of Wikipedia and is still used in some wikis, such as TiddlyWiki, Trac, and PmWiki. A common markup syntax is the use of double square brackets around the term to be wikilinked. For example, the input "[[zebras]]" is converted by wiki software using this markup syntax to a link to a zebras article. Hyperlinks used in wikis are commonly classified as follows: Internal wikilinks or intrawiki links lead to pages within the same wiki website. Interwiki links are simplified markup hyperlinks that lead to pages of other wikis that are associated with the first. External links lead to other webpages (those not covered in the above two cases, wiki or not wiki). Wikilinks are visibly distinct from other text, and if an internal wikilink leads to a page that does not yet exist, it usually has a different specific visual appearance. For example, in Wikipedia wikilinks are displayed in blue, except those that link to pages that don't yet exist, which are instead shown in red.[3] Another possibility for linking is to display a highlighted clickable question mark after the wikilinked term. Virtual worlds[edit] Main article: Hyperlinks in virtual worlds Hyperlinks are being implemented in various 3D virtual world networks, including those that use the OpenSimulator[4] and Open Cobalt[5] platforms. Other document technologies[edit] Hyperlinks are used in the Gopher protocol, text editors, PDF documents, help systems such as Windows Help, word processing documents, spreadsheets, Apple's HyperCard and many other places.


How hyperlinks work in HTML[edit] A link from one domain to another is said to be outbound from its source anchor and inbound to its target. The most common destination anchor is a URL used in the World Wide Web. This can refer to a document, e.g. a webpage, or other resource, or to a position in a webpage. The latter is achieved by means of an HTML element with a "name" or "id" attribute at that position of the HTML document. The URL of the position is the URL of the webpage with a fragment identifier — "#id attribute" — appended. When linking to PDF documents from an HTML page the "id attribute" can be replaced with syntax that references a page number or another element of the PDF, for example, "#page=386". Link behavior in web browsers[edit] A web browser usually displays a hyperlink in some distinguishing way, e.g. in a different color, font or style. The behavior and style of links can be specified using the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language. In a graphical user interface, the appearance of a mouse cursor may change into a hand motif to indicate a link. In most graphical web browsers, links are displayed in underlined blue text when they have not been visited, but underlined purple text when they have. When the user activates the link (e.g., by clicking on it with the mouse) the browser displays the link's target. If the target is not an HTML file, depending on the file type and on the browser and its plugins, another program may be activated to open the file. The HTML code contains some or all of the five main characteristics of a link: link destination ("href" pointing to a URL) link label link title link target link class or link id It uses the HTML element "a" with the attribute "href" (HREF is an abbreviation for "Hypertext REFerence"[6]) and optionally also the attributes "title", "target", and "class" or "id": <a href="URL" title="link title" target="link target" class="link class">link label</a> To embed a link into a web page, blogpost, or comment, it may take this form: <a href="http://example.com/">Example</a> In a typical web browser, this would display as the underlined word "Example" in blue, which when clicked would take the user to the example.com website. This contributes to a clean, easy to read text or document. When the cursor hovers over a link, depending on the browser and graphical user interface, some informative text about the link can be shown, popping up, not in a regular window, but in a special hover box, which disappears when the cursor is moved away (sometimes it disappears anyway after a few seconds, and reappears when the cursor is moved away and back). Mozilla Firefox, IE, Opera, and many other web browsers all show the URL. In addition, the URL is commonly shown in the status bar. Normally, a link opens in the current frame or window, but sites that use frames and multiple windows for navigation can add a special "target" attribute to specify where the link loads. If no window exists with that name, a new window is created with the ID, which can be used to refer to the window later in the browsing session. Creation of new windows is probably the most common use of the "target" attribute. To prevent accidental reuse of a window, the special window names "_blank" and "_new" are usually available, and always cause a new window to be created. It is especially common to see this type of link when one large website links to an external page. The intention in that case is to ensure that the person browsing is aware that there is no endorsement of the site being linked to by the site that was linked from. However, the attribute is sometimes overused and can sometimes cause many windows to be created even while browsing a single site. Another special page name is "_top", which causes any frames in the current window to be cleared away so that browsing can continue in the full window.


History[edit] Douglas Engelbart and his team at SRI, 1969 The term "hyperlink" was coined in 1965 (or possibly 1964) by Ted Nelson at the start of Project Xanadu. Nelson had been inspired by "As We May Think", a popular 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush. In the essay, Bush described a microfilm-based machine (the Memex) in which one could link any two pages of information into a "trail" of related information, and then scroll back and forth among pages in a trail as if they were on a single microfilm reel. In a series of books and articles published from 1964 through 1980, Nelson transposed Bush's concept of automated cross-referencing into the computer context, made it applicable to specific text strings rather than whole pages, generalized it from a local desk-sized machine to a theoretical proprietary worldwide computer network, and advocated the creation of such a network. Though Nelson's Xanadu Corporation was eventually funded by Autodesk in the 1980s, it never created this proprietary public-access network. Meanwhile, working independently, a team led by Douglas Engelbart (with Jeff Rulifson as chief programmer) was the first to implement the hyperlink concept for scrolling within a single document (1966), and soon after for connecting between paragraphs within separate documents (1968), with NLS. Ben Shneiderman working with graduate student Dan Ostroff designed and implemented the highlighted link in the HyperTIES system in 1983. HyperTIES was used to produce the world's first electronic journal, the July 1988 Communications of ACM, which was cited as the source for the link concept in Tim Berners-Lee's Spring 1989 manifesto for the Web. In 1988, Ben Shneiderman and Greg Kearsley used HyperTIES to publish "Hypertext Hands-On!", the world's first electronic book. A database program HyperCard was released in 1987 for the Apple Macintosh that allowed hyperlinking between various pages within a document. In 1990, Windows Help, which was introduced with Microsoft Windows 3.0, had widespread use of hyperlinks to link different pages in a single help file together; in addition, it had a visually different kind of hyperlink that caused a popup help message to appear when clicked, usually to give definitions of terms introduced on the help page. The first widely used open protocol that included hyperlinks from any Internet site to any other Internet site was the Gopher protocol from 1991. It was soon eclipsed by HTML after the 1993 release of the Mosaic browser (which could handle Gopher links as well as HTML links). HTML's advantage was the ability to mix graphics, text, and hyperlinks, unlike Gopher, which just had menu-structured text and hyperlinks.


Legal issues[edit] Main article: Copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing While hyperlinking among webpages is an intrinsic feature of the web, some websites object to being linked by other websites; some have claimed that linking to them is not allowed without permission. Contentious in particular are deep links, which do not point to a site's home page or other entry point designated by the site owner, but to content elsewhere, allowing the user to bypass the site's own designated flow, and inline links, which incorporate the content in question into the pages of the linking site, making it seem part of the linking site's own content unless an explicit attribution is added.[7] In certain jurisdictions it is or has been held that hyperlinks are not merely references or citations, but are devices for copying web pages. In the Netherlands, Karin Spaink was initially convicted in this way of copyright infringement by linking, although this ruling was overturned in 2003. The courts that advocate this view see the mere publication of a hyperlink that connects to illegal material to be an illegal act in itself, regardless of whether referencing illegal material is illegal. In 2004, Josephine Ho was acquitted of 'hyperlinks that corrupt traditional values' in Taiwan.[8] In 2000, British Telecom sued Prodigy, claiming that Prodigy infringed its patent (U.S. Patent 4,873,662) on web hyperlinks. After litigation, a court found for Prodigy, ruling that British Telecom's patent did not cover web hyperlinks.[9] In United States jurisprudence, there is a distinction between the mere act of linking to someone else's website, and linking to content that is illegal (e.g., gambling illegal in the US) or infringing (e.g., illegal MP3 copies).[10] Several courts have found that merely linking to someone else's website, even if by bypassing commercial advertising, is not copyright or trademark infringement, regardless of how much someone else might object.[11][12][13] Linking to illegal or infringing content can be sufficiently problematic to give rise to legal liability.[14][15][16]Compare [17] For a summary of the current status of US copyright law as to hyperlinking, see the discussion regarding the Arriba Soft and Perfect 10 cases. Somewhat controversially, Vuestar Technologies has tried to enforce patents applied for by its owner, Ronald Neville Langford,[18] around the world relating to search techniques using hyperlinked images to other websites or web pages.[19]


See also[edit] Backlink Dead link Fragment identifier Internal link Link awareness Methods of website linking Object hyperlinking PageRank Xenu's Link Sleuth


References[edit] ^ "Cara Membuat Dan Membangun Backlink Di Blog Menurut Pakar SEO". Merriam-Webster.com. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.  ^ Brusilovski, Peter; Kommers, Piet; Streitz, Norbert (1996-05-15). Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Virtual Reality: Models, Systems, and Application: First International Conference, MHVR'94, Moscow, Russia September (14-16), 1996. Selected Papers. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783540612827. Archived from the original on 2018-02-07.  ^ Wikipedia: the missing manual By John Broughton, 2008, ISBN 0-596-51516-2, p. 75 Archived 2018-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Hypergrid - OpenSim". Opensimulator.org. 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ "Creating, Saving, and Loading Spaces - Cobalt - DukeWiki". Wiki.duke.edu. 2009-04-21. Archived from the original on 2012-12-21. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ Tim Berners-Lee. "Making a Server ("HREF" is for "hypertext reference")". W3.org. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ See Arriba Soft case. The Ninth Circuit decision in this case is the first important decision of a US court on linking. In it the Ninth Circuit held the deep linking by Arriba Soft to images on Kelly's website to be legal under the fair use doctrine. ^ "The prosecution of Taiwan sexuality researcher and activist Josephine Ho" (PDF). Sex.ncu.edu.tw. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 8, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-25.  ^ CNET News.com, Hyperlink patent case fails to click. August 23, 2002. ^ Cybertelecom:: Legal to Link?  The Internet Archive. Retrieved June 11, 2012. ^ Ford Motor Company v. 2600 Enterprises, 177 F.Supp.2d 661 (EDMi December 20, 2001) ^ American Civil Liberties Union v. Miller, 977 F.Supp. 1228 (ND Ga. 1997) ^ Ticketmaster Corp. v. Tickets.Com, Inc., No. 99-07654 (CD Calif. March 27, 2000) ^ Intellectual Reserve v. Utah Lighthouse Ministry, Inc. Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine., 75 FSupp2d 1290 (D Utah 1999) ^ Universal City Studios Inc v Reimerdes, 111 FSupp2d 294 (DCNY 2000) ^ Comcast of Illinois X LLC v. Hightech Elec. Inc. Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine., District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Decision of July 28, 2004, 03 C 3231 ^ Perfect 10 v. Google Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine., Decision of February 21, 2006, Case No. CV 04-9484 AHM (CD Cal. 2/21/06), CRI 2006, 76–88 No liability for thumbnail links to infringing content ^ TelecomTV - TelecomTV One - News Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine. ^ All your Interwibble is belong to us, Silvie Barak, The Inquirer, 21 February 2009


Further reading[edit] Weinreich, Harald; Hartmut Obendorf; Winfried Lamersdorf (2001). "The look of the link – concepts for the user interface of extended hyperlinks": 19. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.17.4220 . doi:10.1145/504216.504225. ISBN 9781581134209. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  v t e Widgets (List of …) Command input Adjustment handle Button Context menu Drop-down list Hamburger button Menu Pie menu Data input-output Checkbox Color picker Combo box Cycle button Date Picker Grid view List box List builder Radio button Scrollbar Search box Slider Spinner Text box Informational Balloon help Head-up display in computing Head-up display in video games Icon Infobar Label Loading screen Progress indicator Progress bar Splash screen Throbber Sidebar Status bar Toast Tooltip Containers Accordion Client-Side Decoration Disclosure widget Frame/Fieldset Menu bar Panel Popover Ribbon Tab Toolbar Window Workspace Navigational Address bar Breadcrumb Hyperlink Navigation bar Pager Tree view Special windows Alert dialog box Dialog box File dialog Inspector window Modal window Palette window Related concepts File viewer List of graphical user interface elements Layout manager Look and feel Mouseover Widget toolkit WIMP Authority control GND: 4617682-2 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hyperlink&oldid=825666709#Wikis" Categories: Graphical control elementsWorld Wide WebHypertextHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages using div col with deprecated parametersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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