Contents 1 Design features 1.1 Version changes 2 Internal structure 2.1 SubBytes 2.2 ShiftColumns 2.3 MixRows 2.4 AddRoundKey 3 Whirlpool hashes 4 Implementations 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Design features[edit] The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51), which inspired the name of the algorithm.[2] Whirlpool is a hash designed after the Square block cipher, and is considered to be in that family of block cipher functions. Whirlpool is a Miyaguchi-Preneel construction based on a substantially modified Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Whirlpool takes a message of any length less than 2256 bits and returns a 512-bit message digest.[3] The authors have declared that "WHIRLPOOL is not (and will never be) patented. It may be used free of charge for any purpose."[2] Version changes[edit] The original Whirlpool will be called Whirlpool-0, the first revision of Whirlpool will be called Whirlpool-T and the latest version will be called Whirlpool in the following test vectors. In the first revision in 2001, the s-box was changed from a randomly generated one with good cryptographic properties to one which has better cryptographic properties and is easier to implement in hardware. In the second revision (2003), a flaw in the diffusion matrix was found that lowered the estimated security of the algorithm below its potential.[4] Changing the 8x8 rotating matrix constants from (1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 8, 9, 5) to (1, 1, 4, 1, 8, 5, 2, 9) solved this issue.

Internal structure[edit] The Whirlpool hash function is a Merkle–Damgård construction based on an AES-like block cipher W in Miyaguchi-Preneel mode.[2] The block cipher W consists of an 8×8 state matrix S {\displaystyle S} of bytes, for a total of 512 bits. The encryption process consists of updating the state with four round functions over 10 rounds. The four round functions are SubBytes (SB), ShiftColumns (SC), MixRows (MR) and AddRoundKey (AK). During each round the new state is computed as S = A K ∘ M R ∘ S C ∘ S B ( S ) {\displaystyle S=AK\circ MR\circ SC\circ SB(S)} . SubBytes[edit] The SubBytes operation applies a non-linear permutation (the S-box) to each byte of the state independently. The 8-bit S-box is composed of 3 smaller 4-bit S-boxes. ShiftColumns[edit] The ShiftColumns operation cyclically shifts each byte in each column of the state. Column j has its bytes shifted downwards by j positions. MixRows[edit] The MixRows operation is a right-multiplication of each row by an 8×8 matrix over G F ( 2 8 ) {\displaystyle GF({2^{8}})} . The matrix is chosen such that the branch number (an important property when looking at resistance to differential cryptanalysis) is 9, which is maximal. AddRoundKey[edit] The AddRoundKey operation uses bitwise xor to add a key calculated by the key schedule to the current state. The key schedule is identical to the encryption itself, except the AddRoundKey function is replaced by an AddRoundConstant function that adds a predetermined constant in each round.

Whirlpool hashes[edit] The Whirlpool algorithm has undergone two revisions since its original 2000 specification. People incorporating Whirlpool will most likely use the most recent revision of Whirlpool; while there are no known security weaknesses in earlier versions of Whirlpool, the most recent revision has better hardware implementation efficiency characteristics, and is also likely to be more secure. As mentioned earlier, it is also the version adopted in the ISO/IEC 10118-3 international standard. The 512-bit (64-byte) Whirlpool hashes (also termed message digests) are typically represented as 128-digit hexadecimal numbers. The following demonstrates a 43-byte ASCII input (not including quotes) and the corresponding Whirlpool hashes: Version Input String Computed Hash Whirlpool-0 "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" 4F8F5CB531E3D49A61CF417CD133792CCFA501FD8DA53EE368FED20E5FE0248C 3A0B64F98A6533CEE1DA614C3A8DDEC791FF05FEE6D971D57C1348320F4EB42D Whirlpool-T "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" 3CCF8252D8BBB258460D9AA999C06EE38E67CB546CFFCF48E91F700F6FC7C183 AC8CC3D3096DD30A35B01F4620A1E3A20D79CD5168544D9E1B7CDF49970E87F1 Whirlpool "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" B97DE512E91E3828B40D2B0FDCE9CEB3C4A71F9BEA8D88E75C4FA854DF36725F D2B52EB6544EDCACD6F8BEDDFEA403CB55AE31F03AD62A5EF54E42EE82C3FB35 Even a small change in the message will (with an extremely high probability of 1 − 10 − 154 {\displaystyle 1-10^{-154}} ) result in a different hash, which will usually look completely different just like two unrelated random numbers do. The following demonstrates the result of changing the previous input by a single letter (a single bit, even, in ASCII-compatible encodings), replacing d with e: Version Input String Computed Hash Whirlpool-0 "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy eog" 228FBF76B2A93469D4B25929836A12B7D7F2A0803E43DABA0C7FC38BC11C8F2A 9416BBCF8AB8392EB2AB7BCB565A64AC50C26179164B26084A253CAF2E012676 Whirlpool-T "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy eog" C8C15D2A0E0DE6E6885E8A7D9B8A9139746DA299AD50158F5FA9EECDDEF744F9 1B8B83C617080D77CB4247B1E964C2959C507AB2DB0F1F3BF3E3B299CA00CAE3 Whirlpool "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy eog" C27BA124205F72E6847F3E19834F925CC666D0974167AF915BB462420ED40CC5 0900D85A1F923219D832357750492D5C143011A76988344C2635E69D06F2D38C The hash of a zero-length string is: Version Input String Computed Hash Whirlpool-0 "" B3E1AB6EAF640A34F784593F2074416ACCD3B8E62C620175FCA0997B1BA23473 39AA0D79E754C308209EA36811DFA40C1C32F1A2B9004725D987D3635165D3C8 Whirlpool-T "" 470F0409ABAA446E49667D4EBE12A14387CEDBD10DD17B8243CAD550A089DC0F EEA7AA40F6C2AAAB71C6EBD076E43C7CFCA0AD32567897DCB5969861049A0F5A Whirlpool "" 19FA61D75522A4669B44E39C1D2E1726C530232130D407F89AFEE0964997F7A7 3E83BE698B288FEBCF88E3E03C4F0757EA8964E59B63D93708B138CC42A66EB3

Implementations[edit] The authors provide reference implementations of the WHIRLPOOL algorithm, including a version written in C and a version written in Java.[2] These reference implementations have been released into the public domain.[2] Two of the first widely used mainstream cryptographic programs that started using Whirlpool were FreeOTFE, followed by TrueCrypt in 2005. The algorithm is also commonly used by many companies to hash simple data.[citation needed]

See also[edit] Digital timestamping

References[edit] ^ Florian Mendel1, Christian Rechberger, Martin Schläffer, Søren S. Thomsen (2009-02-24). The Rebound Attack: Cryptanalysis of Reduced Whirlpool and Grøstl (PDF). Fast Software Encryption: 16th International Workshop. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e Paulo S. L. M. Barreto (2008-11-25). "The WHIRLPOOL Hash Function". Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Barreto, Paulo S.L.M. & Rijmen, Vincent (2003-05-24). "The WHIRLPOOL Hashing Function" (ZIP). Retrieved 2017-03-03.  ^ Kyoji, Shibutani & Shirai, Taizo (2003-03-11). "On the diffusion matrix employed in the Whirlpool hashing function" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-03-03. 

External links[edit] Whirlpool homepage Includes detailed algorithm information, C and Java implementations, the paper, etc. Jacksum on, a Java implementation of all three revisions of Whirlpool whirlpool on GitHub - An open source Go implementation of the latest revision of Whirlpool A Matlab Implementation of the Whirlpool Hashing Function RHash on, an open source command-line tool, which can calculate and verify Whirlpool hash. Perl Whirlpool module at CPAN Digest module implementing the Whirlpool hashing algorithm in Ruby Ironclad a Common Lisp cryptography package containing a Whirlpool implementation The ISO/IEC 10118-3:2004 standard Test vectors for the Whirlpool hash from the NESSIE project Managed C# implementation v t e Cryptographic hash functions & message authentication codes List Comparison Known attacks Common functions MD5 SHA-1 SHA-2 SHA-3 BLAKE2 SHA-3 finalists BLAKE Grøstl JH Skein Keccak (winner) Other functions CubeHash ECOH FSB GOST HAS-160 HAVAL Kupyna LM hash MD2 MD4 MD6 MDC-2 N-Hash RIPEMD RadioGatún SWIFFT Snefru Streebog Tiger VSH Whirlpool Key derivation functions bcrypt crypt PBKDF2 scrypt Argon2 MAC functions DAA CBC-MAC HMAC OMAC/CMAC PMAC VMAC UMAC Poly1305 SipHash Authenticated encryption modes CCM CWC EAX GCM IAPM OCB Attacks Collision attack Preimage attack Birthday attack Brute-force attack Rainbow table Side-channel attack Length extension attack Design Avalanche effect Hash collision Merkle–Damgård construction Sponge function HAIFA construction Unique Block Iteration Standardization CRYPTREC NESSIE NIST hash function competition Utilization Hash-based cryptography Key stretching Merkle tree Message authentication Proof of work Salt v t e Cryptography History of cryptography Cryptanalysis Outline of cryptography Symmetric-key algorithm Block cipher Stream cipher Public-key cryptography Cryptographic hash function Message authentication code Random numbers Steganography Crypto-shredding Category Portal WikiProject v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "" Categories: Cryptographic hash functionsHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2017

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