Contents 1 History 2 Boundaries 3 Activities 3.1 New West End Company 4 Notable streets 5 Notable squares and circuses 6 Transport 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Shaftesbury Avenue from Piccadilly Circus in 1949 Historically, medieval London comprised two adjacent cities - the City of London (cathedral: St. Paul's) to the East, and the City of Westminster (cathedral: Westminster Abbey) to the West. Dragon statue on the Temple Bar monument, which marks the boundary between the City of Westminster and City of London. Over time these cities came to form the centre of modern London, although each also kept its own distinct character and in a number of ways also their separate legal identity (for example, the City of London still has its own police force and is a distinct county).The City of London came to be a centre for the banking, financial, legal and professional sectors, while Westminster came to be closely associated with the leisure, shopping, commerce, and entertainment sectors, the government, and home to universities and embassies. The modern West End is closely associated with this latter area of central London. Lying to the west of the historic Roman and medieval City of London, the West End was long favoured by the rich elite as a place of residence because it was usually upwind of the smoke drifting from the crowded City.[4] It was also close to the royal seat of power at the Palace of Westminster (now home to Parliament), and is largely contained within the City of Westminster (one of the 32 London boroughs). Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was originally built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops and places of entertainment. The areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, and Covent Garden historically contained poorer communities that were cleared and redeveloped in the 19th century. See also: Cities of London and Westminster (UK Parliament constituency)

Boundaries[edit] As the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate. Westminster City Council's 2005 report Vision for the West End included the following areas in its definition of the West End: Covent Garden, Soho, Chinatown, Leicester Square, the shopping streets of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, the area encompassing Trafalgar Square, the Strand and Aldwych, and the district known as Theatreland. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were also covered by the document but were treated as "adjacent areas" to the West End.[5] According to Ed Glinert's West End Chronicles (2006) the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Soho, Covent Garden, Fitzrovia and Marylebone.[6] By this definition, the West End borders Temple, Holborn and Bloomsbury to the east, Regent's Park to the north, Paddington, Hyde Park and Knightsbridge to the west, and Victoria and Westminster to the south. One of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called "West End". This covers a similar area that defined by Glinert: Mayfair, Soho, and parts of Fitzrovia and Marylebone.[7] The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575.[8]

Activities[edit] Her Majesty's Theatre in Haymarket, home to Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom of the Opera Taking a fairly broad definition of the West End, the area contains the main concentrations of most of London's metropolitan activities apart from financial and many types of legal services, which are concentrated primarily in the City of London. There are major concentrations of the following buildings and activities in the West End: Art galleries and museums Company headquarters outside the financial services sector (although London's many hedge funds are based mainly in the West End) Educational institutions Embassies Government buildings (mainly around Whitehall) Hotels Institutes, learned societies and think tanks Legal institutions Media establishments Places of entertainment: theatres; cinemas; nightclubs; bars and restaurants Shops The annual New Year's Day Parade takes place on the streets of the West End. New West End Company[edit] The New West End Company (NWEC) is a business improvement district and runs services including street cleaning and security on Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street. NWEC also runs the Red Caps service.

Notable streets[edit] Albemarle Street Baker Street Bond Street Carnaby Street Charing Cross Road Denmark Street Gower Street Great Marlborough Street Great Portland Street Harley Street Haymarket High Holborn King's Road Kingsway Old Compton Street Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Regent Street Savile Row Shaftesbury Avenue The Strand Tottenham Court Road Wardour Street

Notable squares and circuses[edit] Marble Arch The West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. Berkeley Square Cambridge Circus Grosvenor Square Hyde Park Corner Leicester Square Manchester Square Marble Arch Oxford Circus Piccadilly Circus Russell Square Soho Square St Giles Circus Trafalgar Square

Transport[edit] London Underground stations in the West End include: Baker Street Bond Street Charing Cross Covent Garden Embankment Edgware Road (Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines) Goodge Street Great Portland Street Green Park Holborn Hyde Park Corner Leicester Square Marble Arch Oxford Circus Piccadilly Circus Regent's Park Russell Square Tottenham Court Road

References[edit] ^ Mills, A., Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names, (2001) ^ Greater London Authority, The London Plan: The Sub Regions ^ "Venture Capital: Sand Hill Road Rules the Valley". Bloomberg News. 4 December 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ Robert O. Bucholz and Joseph P. Ward: London: A Social and Cultural History, 1550–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2012, p. 333 ^ Vision for the West End (PDF), Westminster City Council, October 2005, retrieved 14 December 2016  ^ E. Gilnert, West End Chronicles (Penguin, 2006) ^ Westminster City Council ward boundary information ^ "City of Westminstee ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2016. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to West End of London. London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End v t e Sub-regions of London NUTS 2 Inner London Outer London Boundary Commission North London South London London Plan Sub-regions used in the London Plan Other Central London Docklands East End South Bank Thames Gateway (London Riverside Lower Lea Valley) West End Mayor of London, (April 2009), A new plan for London: Proposals for the Mayor's London Plan, (PDF; 1,4 MB), Greater London Authority, ISBN=978-1-84781-249-0 v t e Areas of London Central activities zone Bloomsbury City of London wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster Town centre network International Belgravia Knightsbridge West End Metropolitan Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green Major Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich Districts (principal) Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden Green Woodford Neighbourhoods (principal) Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley Lists of areas by borough Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster Fictional Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford (borough) (EastEnders: TV soap) The London Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greater London Authority Coordinates: 51°30′48″N 0°07′43″W / 51.51333°N 0.12861°W / 51.51333; -0.12861 Retrieved from "" Categories: Areas of LondonBusiness improvement districts in LondonDistricts of the London Borough of CamdenDistricts of the City of WestminsterInternational centres of LondonLondon sub-regionsRetailing in LondonHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from February 2016All articles needing additional referencesEngvarB from June 2013Use dmy dates from June 2013Pages using div col with small parameterCoordinates on Wikidata

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