Contents 1 Provenance and development 2 Collecting the web 3 Methods of collection 3.1 Remote harvesting 3.2 Database archiving 3.3 Transactional archiving 4 Difficulties and limitations 4.1 Crawlers 4.2 General limitations 5 Aspects of web curation 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Provenance and development[edit] Early practice of web archiving involved the highlighting of a “site of the week award” as a record for the contest. Besides that, another early practice was the professional link list (for example Amnesty International’s list of human rights groups) and (Yahoo!) directory and Open Directory Project. In the mid-1990s, one of the more important listing sites of its kind continually updated an index of worthwhile website destinations organized by content category. In 1998, Yahoo directory was considered to have made a significant contribution to emerging online library science, not only by its classification scheme but also by the means of the content “navigation” it developed. Soliciting, evaluating, and categorizing websites - the large-scale collecting, hand-sorting, and display of websites - could be considered an original form of website analysis. The rise of the algorithmic search engine has largely led to the disappearance of such manual methods.

Collecting the web[edit] Web archivists generally archive various types of web content including HTML web pages, style sheets, JavaScript, images, and video. They also archive metadata about the collected resources such as access time, MIME type, and content length. This metadata is useful in establishing authenticity and provenance of the archived collection.

Methods of collection[edit] See also: List of Web archiving initiatives Remote harvesting[edit] The most common web archiving technique uses web crawlers to automate the process of collecting web pages. Web crawlers typically access web pages in the same manner that users with a browser see the Web, and therefore provide a comparatively simple method of remote harvesting web content. Examples of web crawlers used for web archiving include: Heritrix HTTrack Wget There exist various free services which may be used to archive web resources "on-demand", using web crawling techniques. These services include the Wayback Machine and WebCite. Database archiving[edit] Database archiving refers to methods for archiving the underlying content of database-driven websites. It typically requires the extraction of the database content into a standard schema, often using XML. Once stored in that standard format, the archived content of multiple databases can then be made available using a single access system. This approach is exemplified by the DeepArc and Xinq tools developed by the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the National Library of Australia respectively. DeepArc enables the structure of a relational database to be mapped to an XML schema, and the content exported into an XML document. Xinq then allows that content to be delivered online. Although the original layout and behavior of the website cannot be preserved exactly, Xinq does allow the basic querying and retrieval functionality to be replicated. Transactional archiving[edit] Transactional archiving is an event-driven approach, which collects the actual transactions which take place between a web server and a web browser. It is primarily used as a means of preserving evidence of the content which was actually viewed on a particular website, on a given date. This may be particularly important for organizations which need to comply with legal or regulatory requirements for disclosing and retaining information. A transactional archiving system typically operates by intercepting every HTTP request to, and response from, the web server, filtering each response to eliminate duplicate content, and permanently storing the responses as bitstreams.

Difficulties and limitations[edit] Crawlers[edit] Web archives which rely on web crawling as their primary means of collecting the Web are influenced by the difficulties of web crawling: The robots exclusion protocol may request crawlers not access portions of a website. Some web archivists may ignore the request and crawl those portions anyway. Large portions of a web site may be hidden in the Deep Web. For example, the results page behind a web form can lie in the Deep Web if crawlers cannot follow a link to the results page. Crawler traps (e.g., calendars) may cause a crawler to download an infinite number of pages, so crawlers are usually configured to limit the number of dynamic pages they crawl. However, it is important to note that a native format web archive, i.e., a fully browsable web archive, with working links, media, etc., is only really possible using crawler technology. The Web is so large that crawling a significant portion of it takes a large amount of technical resources. The Web is changing so fast that portions of a website may change before a crawler has even finished crawling it. General limitations[edit] Some web servers are configured to return different pages to web archiver requests than they would in response to regular browser requests.[3] This is typically done to fool search engines into directing more user traffic to a website, and is often done to avoid accountability, or to provide enhanced content only to those browsers that can display it. Not only must web archivists deal with the technical challenges of web archiving, they must also contend with intellectual property laws. Peter Lyman[4] states that "although the Web is popularly regarded as a public domain resource, it is copyrighted; thus, archivists have no legal right to copy the Web". However national libraries in some countries [5] have a legal right to copy portions of the web under an extension of a legal deposit. Some private non-profit web archives that are made publicly accessible like WebCite, the Internet Archive or the Internet Memory Foundation allow content owners to hide or remove archived content that they do not want the public to have access to. Other web archives are only accessible from certain locations or have regulated usage. WebCite cites a recent lawsuit against Google's caching, which Google won.[6]

Aspects of web curation[edit] Web curation, like any digital curation, entails: Certification of the trustworthiness and integrity of the collection content Collecting verifiable Web assets Providing Web asset search and retrieval Semantic and ontological continuity and comparability of the collection content Thus, besides the discussion on methods of collecting the Web, those of providing access, certification, and organizing must be included. There are a set of popular tools that addresses these curation steps: A suite of tools for Web Curation by International Internet Preservation Consortium: Heritrix - collecting Web asset NutchWAX - search Web archive collections Open source Wayback Machine - search and navigate Web archive collections using NutchWax Web Curator Tool - Selection and Management of Web Collection[7] Other open source tools for manipulating web archives: WARC Tools - for creating, reading, parsing and manipulating, WARC archives programmatically Google Search Tools - for indexing and searching full-text and metadata within web archives[citation needed] Free but not open source tools also exist: WARC Software Development Kit (WSDK) represents a set of simple, compact, and highly optimized Erlang modules to manipulate (create/read/write) the WARC ISO 28500:2009 file format.

See also[edit] Archive site Archive Team Collective memory Common Crawl Digital preservation Google Cache List of Web archiving initiatives Memento Project Minerva Initiative Mirror website National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) National Digital Library Program (NDLP) PADICAT Pandora Archive Portuguese Web Archive UK Web Archiving Consortium Virtual artifact Wayback Machine Web crawling WebCite

References[edit] ^ Habibzadeh, P.; Sciences, Schattauer GmbH - Publishers for Medicine and Natural (2013-01-01). "Decay of References to Web sites in Articles Published in General Medical Journals: Mainstream vs Small Journals". Applied Clinical Informatics. 4 (4). doi:10.4338/aci-2013-07-ra-0055.  ^ "Truman, Gail. 2016. Web Archiving Environmental Scan. Harvard Library Report".  ^ Habibzadeh, Parham (2015-07-30). "Are current archiving systems reliable enough?". International Urogynecology Journal: 1–1. doi:10.1007/s00192-015-2805-7. ISSN 0937-3462.  ^ Lyman (2002) ^ "Legal Deposit | IIPC". Retrieved 2017-01-31.  ^ FAQ ^ "Web Curator Tool". Retrieved 2011-12-10.  Bibliography Brown, A. (2006). Archiving Websites: a practical guide for information management professionals. London: Facet Publishing. ISBN 1-85604-553-6.  Brügger, N. (2005). Archiving Websites. General Considerations and Strategies. Aarhus: The Centre for Internet Research. ISBN 87-990507-0-6. Archived from the original on 2009-01-29.  Day, M. (2003). "Preserving the Fabric of Our Lives: A Survey of Web Preservation Initiatives" (PDF). Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference (ECDL): 461–472.  Eysenbach, G. & Trudel, M. (2005). "Going, going, still there: using the WebCite service to permanently archive cited web pages". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 7 (5): e60. doi:10.2196/jmir.7.5.e60. PMC 1550686 . PMID 16403724.  Fitch, Kent (2003). "Web site archiving — an approach to recording every materially different response produced by a website". Ausweb 03.  Jacoby, Robert (August 19, 2010). "Archiving a Web Page". Archived from the original on 2011-01-03. Retrieved 23 October 2010.  Lyman, P. (2002). "Archiving the World Wide Web". Building a National Strategy for Preservation: Issues in Digital Media Archiving.  Masanès, J. (ed.) (2006). Web Archiving. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-23338-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Pennock, Maureen (2013). Web-Archiving. DPC Technology Watch Reports. Great Britain: Digital Preservation Coalition. doi:10.7207/twr13-01. ISSN 2048-7916.  Toyoda, M., Kitsuregawa, M. (2012). "The History of Web Archiving". Proceedings of the IEEE. 100 (special centennial issue). doi:10.1109/JPROC.2012.2189920. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

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(March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Library resources about Web archiving Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) - International consortium whose mission is to acquire, preserve, and make accessible knowledge and information from the Internet for future generations International Web Archiving Workshop (IWAW) - Annual workshop that focuses on web archiving National Library of Australia, Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI) Library of Congress - Web Archiving Web archiving bibliography - Lengthy list of web-archiving resources Julien Masanès, Bibliothèque Nationale de France - Towards continuous web archiving Comparison of web archiving services List of blogs about web archiving, 2015 Authority control NDL: 00981807 v t e Digital preservation Concepts Artifactual value Curation Dark age Obsolescence Open Archival Information System Techniques Forensics Emulation By type Artworks Email Websites Organizations Computer museums Digital Curation Centre National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (USA) Lists Preservation initiatives Timeline Timeline of audio formats Web archiving initiatives Years in home video Category v t e Conservation-restoration of cultural heritage Collection care and management Collecting Collection (artwork) Collections care Collection catalog Collections maintenance Collections management (museum) Collection Management Policy Collections Management System Cultural heritage management Cultural resources management Deaccessioning (museum) Digital repository audit method based on risk assessment Display case Documentation of cultural property Emergency response (museum) Exhibition of cultural heritage objects Found in collection Inherent vice Inventory (museum) Museum integrated pest management Preservation metadata Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies Preservation of meaning Preservation survey Provenance Repatriation Restoration (cultural heritage) Storage of cultural heritage objects Expertise Art handler Collection manager Conservator-restorer Conservation scientist Conservation technician Curator Exhibition designer Mount maker Objects conservator Paintings conservator Photograph conservator Preservationist Registrar (museum) Textile conservator Area specialities Antiques restoration Archaeological science Archaeology Bioarchaeology Building restoration Conservation science Digital photograph restoration Digital preservation Database preservation Film preservation Frame conservation Heritage science Historic preservation Media preservation Object conservation Optical media preservation Painting conservation Preservation (library and archival science) Restoration Sustainable preservation Web archiving Techniques Aging (artwork) Anastylosis Arrested decay Archaeological sites Architecture Ancient Greek pottery Automobiles Bone, horn, and antler objects Books, manuscripts, documents and ephemera Ceramic objects Clocks Copper-based objects Feathers Film Flags and banners Frescos Fur objects Glass objects Herbarium Historic gardens Human remains Illuminated manuscripts Insect specimens Iron and steel objects Ivory objects Judaica Lacquerware Leather objects Lighthouses Metals Musical instruments Neon objects New media art Outdoor artworks Outdoor bronze objects Outdoor murals Paintings Painting frames Panel paintings Papyrus Parchment Performance art Photographs Plastic objects Shipwreck artifacts Silver objects Stained glass Taxidermy Textiles Tibetan thangkas Time-based media art Totem poles Vehicles Vinyl discs Woodblock prints Wooden furniture Cradling (paintings) Detachment of wall paintings Desmet method Fabric restoration Historic paint analysis Imaging of cultural heritage Inpainting Kintsugi Leafcasting Lining of paintings Mass deacidification Mold control and prevention in libraries Mold prevention Overpainting Paper splitting Radiography of cultural objects Reconstruction (architecture) Textile stabilization Transfer of panel paintings UVC-based preservation Notable projects Conservation issues of Pompeii and Herculaneum Conservation-restoration of Ecce Homo by Elías García Martínez Conservation-restoration of Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper Conservation-restoration of the Shroud of Turin Conservation-restoration of the Sistine Chapel frescoes Conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty Conservation-restoration of the H.L. 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