Contents 1 Etymology 2 Geography 2.1 Western Washington 2.2 Eastern Washington 2.3 Climate 2.3.1 Rain shadow effects 2.3.2 Temperatures 2.4 Flora and fauna 3 History 3.1 Early history 3.2 European exploration 3.3 Settlement 3.4 Statehood 3.5 Industrial era 3.6 Mount St. Helens eruption, 1980 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.2 Birth data 4.3 Areas of concentration 4.4 Cities and towns 4.5 Languages 4.6 Religion 5 Economy 5.1 Taxes 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Wine 5.4 Internet access 6 Transportation 7 Environment 8 Government and politics 8.1 State government 8.2 United States Congress 8.3 Politics 8.4 Passed bills 9 Education 9.1 Elementary and secondary 9.2 Higher education 10 Healthcare 11 Culture 11.1 Arts 11.2 Sports 11.2.1 Major professional teams 11.2.2 Minor professional and amateur teams 11.2.3 College sports teams 11.2.4 Individual sports 12 Symbols, honors, and names 12.1 The Evergreen State 12.2 State symbols 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] Washington was named after President George Washington by an act of the United States Congress during the creation of Washington Territory in 1853. The territory was originally to be named "Columbia", for the Columbia River and the Columbia District, but Kentucky representative Richard H. Stanton found the name too similar to the District of Columbia (the national capital, itself containing the city of Washington) and proposed naming the new territory after President Washington.[4][5][6] Washington is the only U.S. state named after a president.[7] Confusion over the state of Washington and the city of Washington, D.C. led to renaming proposals during the statehood process for Washington in 1889, including David Dudley Field II's suggestion to name the new state "Tacoma." These proposals failed to garner support.[8] Washington, D.C.'s own statehood movement in the 21st century includes a proposal to use the name "State of Washington, Douglass Commonwealth", which would conflict with the current state of Washington.[9] To distinguish it from the national capital, Washington may be referred to as "Washington state", or, in more formal contexts, as "the State of Washington".[citation needed] Residents of Washington (known as "Washingtonians") and the Pacific Northwest simply refer to the state as "Washington",[citation needed] and the nation's capital "Washington, D.C.", "the other Washington",[10] or simply "D.C.".[citation needed]

Geography[edit] See also: Geology of the Pacific Northwest Major cities in Washington Bellingham Ephrata Forks Paradise Richland Seattle Spokane Vancouver Winthrop Yakima The Pacific coast of Westport, Washington Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Washington is the northwestern-most state of the contiguous United States. It borders Idaho to the east, bounded mostly by the meridian running north from the confluence of the Snake River and Clearwater River (about 116°57' west), except for the southernmost section where the border follows the Snake River. Oregon is to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the Oregon-Washington border. To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean.[11] Its northern border lies mostly along the 49th parallel, and then via marine boundaries through the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait and Strait of Juan de Fuca, with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north.[12] Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest, a term which always includes Washington and Oregon and may or may not include some or all of the following, depending on the user's intent: Idaho, western Montana, northern California, British Columbia, and Alaska. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. In addition to Western Washington and Eastern Washington residents call the two parts of the state the "West side" and "East side", "Wet side" and "Dry side", or "Timberland" and "Wheatland", the latter pair more commonly in the names of region-specific businesses and institutions. Western Washington[edit] Major volcanoes in Washington Mount Baker Glacier Peak Mount Rainier Mount St. Helens Mount Adams From the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers. The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. From the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. All are active volcanoes. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state,[13] is 50 miles (80 km) south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible. The USGS considers 14,411-foot-tall (4,392 m) Mt. Rainier the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range, due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area, and most dangerous in the continental U.S. according to the Decade Volcanoes list.[14] It is also covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states.[15] Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula, which support dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rainforest. These deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States.[16] Eastern Washington[edit] Southeastern Washington Eastern Washington – the part of the state east of the Cascades – has a relatively dry climate, in distinct contrast to the west side. It includes large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades; the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of 6 to 7 inches (150 to 180 mm). Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches (540 mm) in Pullman, near the Washington-Idaho border.[17] The Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state. The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland, and extends to the Blue Mountains.[18] Climate[edit] See also: Climate change in Washington Köppen climate types of Washington state As described above, Washington's climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called "west coast marine climate") predominates in western Washington, and a much drier semi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range. Major factors determining Washington's climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressure systems of the north Pacific Ocean, the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclone system dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bring relatively cool air and a predictably dry season. Dryland farming caused a large dust storm in arid parts of eastern Washington on October 4, 2009. Courtesy: NASA/GSFC, MODIS Rapid Response.[19] In the autumn and winter, a low-pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion. This causes Washington's prevailing winds, the Chinooks, to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term "Pineapple Express" is used colloquially to describe the extreme form of the wet-season Chinook winds.[20] Despite western Washington's having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the "Big Snow" events of 1880, 1881, 1893 and 1916 and the "deep freeze" winters of 1883–84, 1915–16, 1949–50 and 1955–56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to 6 feet (1.8 m) of snow, sub-zero (−18 °C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.[21] Seattle's lowest officially recorded temperature is 0 °F (−18 °C) set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as −48 °F (−44 °C).[22] Weather during the cold season is greatly influenced by the Southern Oscillation. During the El Niño phase, the jet stream enters the U.S. farther south through California, therefore late fall and winter are drier than normal with less snowpack. The La Niña phase reinforces the jet stream through the Pacific Northwest, causing Washington to have even more rain and snow than average. In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington's Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.[23] Rain shadow effects[edit] Main article: Rain shadow Washington experiences extensive variation in rainfall. Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as 160 inches (4,100 mm) of precipitation annually, making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than 200 inches or 5,100 millimeters water equivalent) in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches (150 mm). Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains. The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causing orographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels. This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. (Mount Baker, near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season: 1,140 inches (95 ft; 29 m).)[24] East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects. Semi-arid conditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau—especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe. Temperatures[edit] The average annual temperature ranges from 51 °F (11 °C) on the Pacific coast to 40 °F (4 °C) in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was −48 °F (−44 °C) in Winthrop and Mazama. The highest recorded temperature in the state was 118 °F (48 °C) at Ice Harbor Dam. Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and warm, temperate summers. The Eastern region occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. In the Western region, temperatures have reached as high as 105 °F (41 °C) in Aberdeen.[25] and as low as −6 °F (−21 °C) in Longview.[26] Climate data for Washington State (1895-2015) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 74 (23) 83 (28) 95 (35) 103 (39) 107 (42) 113 (45) 118 (48) 118 (48) 111 (44) 99 (37) 83 (28) 74 (23) 118 (48) Mean maximum °F (°C) 60 (16) 64 (18) 73 (23) 86 (30) 94 (34) 102 (39) 109 (43) 106 (41) 98 (37) 84 (29) 67 (19) 60 (16) 112 (44) Average high °F (°C) 34.8 (1.6) 40.6 (4.8) 47.7 (8.7) 55.9 (13.3) 63.6 (17.6) 69.9 (21.1) 78.0 (25.6) 77.3 (25.2) 69.4 (20.8) 57.2 (14) 43.2 (6.2) 36.2 (2.3) 56.15 (13.43) Average low °F (°C) 23.0 (−5) 26.0 (−3.3) 29.6 (−1.3) 34.2 (1.2) 40.1 (4.5) 45.7 (7.6) 50.5 (10.3) 50.0 (10) 44.7 (7.1) 37.2 (2.9) 29.9 (−1.2) 25.3 (−3.7) 36.35 (2.42) Mean minimum °F (°C) −19 (−28) −8 (−22) −2 (−19) 14 (−10) 21 (−6) 26 (−3) 31 (−1) 31 (−1) 24 (−4) 16 (−9) 2 (−17) −8 (−22) −20 (−29) Record low °F (°C) −42 (−41) −40 (−40) −25 (−32) −7 (−22) 11 (−12) 20 (−7) 22 (−6) 20 (−7) 11 (−12) −5 (−21) −29 (−34) −48 (−44) −48 (−44) Average precipitation inches (mm) 6.08 (154.4) 4.61 (117.1) 4.23 (107.4) 2.87 (72.9) 2.31 (58.7) 1.89 (48) 0.85 (21.6) 1.02 (25.9) 1.93 (49) 3.67 (93.2) 6.22 (158) 6.52 (165.6) 42.2 (1,071.8) Source #1: "Office of the Washington State Climatologist". OWSC. Retrieved July 27, 2016.  Source #2: "Comparative Data for the Western States". WRCC. Retrieved July 27, 2016.  Average daily high and low temperatures in °F (°C) in cities and other locations in Washington colored and sortable by average temperature Place Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Bellingham[27] 48 / 36 (9 / 2) 50 / 36 (10 / 2) 54 / 39 (12 / 4) 59 / 42 (15 / 6) 64 / 47 (18 / 8) 69 / 51 (21 / 11) 73 / 54 (23 / 12) 74 / 54 (23 / 12) 68 / 50 (20 / 10) 59 / 45 (15 / 7) 51 / 39 (11 / 4) 46 / 35 (8 / 2) Ephrata[28] 35 / 22 (2 / −6) 43 / 26 (6 / −3) 54 / 32 (12 / 0) 63 / 38 (17 / 3) 72 / 46 (22 / 8) 80 / 54 (27 / 12) 88 / 60 (31 / 16) 87 / 59 (31 / 15) 78 / 50 (26 / 10) 62 / 39 (17 / 4) 45 / 29 (7 / −2) 34 / 21 (1 / −6) Forks[29] 47 / 36 (8 / 2) 49 / 35 (9 / 2) 51 / 37 (11 / 3) 55 / 39 (13 / 4) 60 / 43 (16 / 6) 63 / 48 (17 / 9) 67 / 51 (19 / 11) 69 / 51 (21 / 11) 66 / 47 (19 / 8) 58 / 42 (14 / 6) 50 / 38 (10 / 3) 46 / 35 (8 / 2) Paradise[30] 35 / 23 (2 / −5) 36 / 22 (2 / −6) 38 / 24 (3 / −4) 42 / 26 (6 / −3) 49 / 32 (9 / 0) 55 / 36 (13 / 2) 63 / 43 (17 / 6) 65 / 44 (18 / 7) 58 / 40 (14 / 4) 48 / 33 (9 / 1) 37 / 25 (3 / −4) 34 / 21 (1 / −6) Richland[31] 41 / 29 (5 / −2) 47 / 30 (8 / −1) 58 / 35 (14 / 2) 65 / 41 (18 / 5) 73 / 48 (23 / 9) 80 / 54 (27 / 12) 88 / 59 (31 / 15) 88 / 58 (31 / 14) 78 / 50 (26 / 10) 64 / 40 (18 / 4) 49 / 34 (9 / 1) 38 / 27 (3 / −3) Seattle[32] 47 / 37 (8 / 3) 50 / 37 (10 / 3) 54 / 39 (12 / 4) 59 / 42 (15 / 6) 65 / 47 (18 / 8) 70 / 52 (21 / 11) 76 / 56 (24 / 13) 76 / 56 (24 / 13) 71 / 52 (22 / 11) 60 / 46 (16 / 8) 51 / 40 (11 / 4) 46 / 36 (8 / 2) Spokane[33] 35 / 24 (2 / −4) 40 / 25 (4 / −4) 49 / 31 (9 / −1) 57 / 36 (14 / 2) 67 / 43 (19 / 6) 74 / 50 (23 / 10) 83 / 55 (28 / 13) 83 / 55 (28 / 13) 73 / 46 (23 / 8) 58 / 36 (14 / 2) 42 / 29 (6 / −2) 32 / 22 (0 / −6) Vancouver[34] 47 / 33 (8 / 1) 51 / 33 (11 / 1) 56 / 37 (13 / 3) 60 / 40 (16 / 4) 67 / 45 (19 / 7) 72 / 50 (22 / 10) 78 / 54 (26 / 12) 79 / 53 (26 / 12) 75 / 48 (24 / 9) 63 / 41 (17 / 5) 52 / 37 (11 / 3) 46 / 32 (8 / 0) Winthrop[35] 31 / 15 (−1 / −9) 39 / 18 (4 / −8) 51 / 26 (11 / −3) 62 / 32 (17 / 0) 71 / 40 (22 / 4) 78 / 46 (26 / 8) 86 / 50 (30 / 10) 86 / 49 (30 / 9) 78 / 41 (26 / 5) 62 / 32 (17 / 0) 42 / 25 (6 / −4) 29 / 14 (−2 / −10) Yakima[36] 39 / 23 (4 / −5) 46 / 26 (8 / −3) 56 / 30 (13 / −1) 64 / 34 (18 / 1) 72 / 42 (22 / 6) 80 / 48 (27 / 9) 88 / 53 (31 / 12) 87 / 52 (31 / 11) 78 / 44 (26 / 7) 64 / 34 (18 / 1) 48 / 27 (9 / −3) 36 / 21 (2 / −6) Flora and fauna[edit] Map of the National Forests located in the State of Washington Black-tailed deer graze at Deer Park in Olympic National Park See also: List of flora of Washington (state), List of fauna of Washington (state), and List of federal lands in Washington (state) Forests cover 52% of the state's land area, mostly west of the North Cascades. Approximately two-thirds of Washington's forested area is publicly owned, including 64% of federal land.[37] Other common trees and plants in the region are camassia, Douglas fir, hemlock, penstemon, ponderosa pine, western red cedar, and many species of ferns.[38] The state's various areas of wilderness offer sanctuary, with substantially large populations of shorebirds and marine mammals. The Pacific shore surrounding the San Juan Islands are heavily inhabited with killer, gray and humpback whales.[39] Mammals native to the state include the bat, black bear, bobcat, cougar, coyote, deer, elk, gray wolf, moose, mountain beaver, muskrat, opossum, pocket gopher, raccoon, river otter, skunk, and tree squirrel.[40] Because of the wide range of geography, the State of Washington is home to several different ecoregions which allow for a varied range of bird species. This range includes raptors, shorebirds, woodland birds, grassland birds, ducks, and others.[41] There have also been a large number of species introduced to Washington, dating back to the early 18th century, including horses and burros.[42] The channel catfish, lamprey, and sturgeon are among the 400 known freshwater fishes.[43][44] Along with the Cascades frog, there are several forms of snakes that define the most prominent reptiles and amphibians.[45][46] Coastal bays and islands are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of shellfish and whales. There are five species of salmon that ascend the Western Washington area, from streams to spawn.[39] Washington has a variety of National Park Service units. Among these are the Alta Lake State Park, Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area, San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuge, as well as three national parks, the Olympic National Park, North Cascades National Park and Mount Rainier National Park.[47] The three national parks were established between 1899 and 1968. Almost 95% (876,517 acres, 354,714 hectares, 3,547.14 square kilometers) of Olympic National Park's area has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.[48] Additionally, there are 143 state parks and 9 national forests, run by the Washington State Park System and the United States Forest Service.[49] The Okanogan National Forest is the largest national forest located on the West Coast, encompassing 1,499,023 acres (606,633 ha). It is managed together as the Okanogan–Wenatchee National Forest, encompassing a considerablely larger area of around 3,239,404 acres (1,310,940 ha).[50]

History[edit] Main article: History of Washington (state) Early history[edit] A farm and barren hills near Riverside, in north central Washington The skeletal remains of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human remains ever found in North America, were discovered in Washington.[51] Before the coming of Europeans, the region had many established tribes of aboriginal Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among the Makah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries. The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Native American population.[52] European exploration[edit] The first recorded European landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound for Spain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a "Spanish lake" and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire. In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook did not realize the strait existed. It was not discovered until Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787. The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792. Settlement[edit] The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notably Britain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. American captain Robert Gray (for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805. Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the confluence with the Snake River on July 9, 1811, and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site. Fur trading at Fort Nez Percés in 1841 Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time. Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession. Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decades. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson's Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District. Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846. In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman's own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes. Whitman's settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients – lacking immunity to new, 'European' diseases – died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held 'medicine man' Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians. Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833. Black pioneer George Washington Bush and his Caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouri and Tennessee, respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's discriminatory settlement laws.[53] After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area. Statehood[edit] See also: Washington Territory Yesler Way, Seattle, 1887 The growing populace of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory, which was granted by the U.S. government in 1853.[6] The boundary of Washington Territory initially extended farther east than the present state's, including what is now the Idaho Panhandle and parts of western Montana, and picked up more land to the southeast that was left behind when Oregon was admitted as a state. The creation of Idaho Territory in 1863 established the final eastern border. A Washington State constitution was drafted and ratified in 1878, but it was never officially adopted.[54] Although never approved by Congress, the 1878 constitution is an important historical document which shows the political thinking of the time. It was used extensively during the drafting of Washington State's 1889 constitution, the one and only official Constitution of the State of Washington. Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.[55] Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry farming techniques became particularly productive. Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas fir. Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. Industrial era[edit] Boeing B-17E Flying Fortress bombers under construction, c. 1942 For a long period, Tacoma had large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War I and World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area. During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity. This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States. During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many of the nation's heavy bombers, ports in Seattle, Bremerton, Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of whom were quartered at Golden Gardens Park. In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs. Mount St. Helens eruption, 1980[edit] Main article: 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens erupted violently, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano. The eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington eastward and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.[56][57]

Demographics[edit] Historical population Census Pop. %± 1850 1,201 — 1860 11,594 865.4% 1870 23,955 106.6% 1880 75,116 213.6% 1890 357,232 375.6% 1900 518,103 45.0% 1910 1,141,990 120.4% 1920 1,356,621 18.8% 1930 1,563,396 15.2% 1940 1,736,191 11.1% 1950 2,378,963 37.0% 1960 2,853,214 19.9% 1970 3,409,169 19.5% 1980 4,132,156 21.2% 1990 4,866,692 17.8% 2000 5,894,121 21.1% 2010 6,724,540 14.1% Est. 2017 7,405,743 [3][58][59][60] 10.1% Source: 1910–2010[61] Population[edit] The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Washington was 7,288,000 on July 1, 2016, an 8.4% increase since the 2010 Census.[62] In 2015, the state ranked 13th overall in population, and was the third most populous, after California and Texas, west of the Mississippi River.[63] Washington has the largest Pacific Northwest population, followed by Oregon, then Idaho. The Washington state Office of Financial Management pegged the state population at 7,310,300 as of April 1, 2017.[64] As of the 2010 Census, the population of Washington was 6,724,540. The Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area population was 3,439,809 in the 2010 Census, half the state total.[65] The center of population of Washington in 2000 was in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.[66] Washington's proportion of residents under age five was 6.7%, and 25.7% under 18, and 11.2% 65 or older. Female residents were 50.2% of the population. The racial makeup of the population as of the 2010 Census was:[67] White: 77.3% (72.5% non-Hispanic) Black or African American: 3.6% American Indian and Alaska Native: 1.5% Asian: 7.2% (0.9% Asian Indian, 1.4% Chinese, 1.4% Filipino, 0.5% Japanese, 0.9% Korean, 1.0% Vietnamese, 1% other) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.6% (0.1% Native Hawaiian, 0.1% Guamanian, 0.2% Samoan, 0.2% other) Other race: 5.2% Two or more races: 4.7% Washington racial breakdown of population Racial composition 1990[68] 2000[69] 2010[70] White 88.5% 81.8% 77.3% Black or African American 3.1% 3.2% 3.6% American Indian and Alaska Native 1.7% 1.6% 1.5% Asian 4.3% 5.5% 7.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander – 0.4% 0.6% Other race 2.4% 3.9% 5.2% Two or more races – 3.6% 4.7% Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.2% of the population in 2010: 8.9% were of Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 1.8% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German (18.1%), Irish (11.0%), English (10.5%), Norwegian (5.4%), and American (4.9%).[71] Birth data[edit] Estimated 2016 population of Washington counties shown by size, and race and ethnic origin shown by color[72] In 2011, 44.3% of Washington's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[73] Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Live births by race or ethnicity of the mother Race 2013[74] 2014[75] 2015[76] White: 69,376 (80.1%) 70,966 (80.1%) 71,041 (78.9%) > Non-Hispanic White 54,779 (63.2%) 55,872 (63.1%) 55,352 (62.2%) Asian 9,820 (11.3%) 10,306 (11.6%) 10,611 (11.9%) Black 5,241 (6.0%) 5,254 (5.9%) 5,302 (6.0%) Native 2,140 (2.5%) 2,059 (2.3%) 2,036 (2.3%) Hispanic (of any race) 15,575 (18.0%) 15,779 (17.8%) 16,073 (18.1%) Total Washington 86,577 (100%) 88,585 (100%) 88,990 (100%) Areas of concentration[edit] Washington population density map While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is scarce overall, they are mostly concentrated in the South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma.[77] The black community of Seattle consisted of one individual in 1858, Manuel Lopes, and grew to a population of 406 by 1900.[78] It developed substantially during and after World War II when wartime industries and the U.S. Armed Forces employed and recruited tens of thousands of African Americans from the Southeastern United States. They moved west in the second wave of the Great Migration left a high influence in West Coast rock music and R&B and soul in the 1960s, including Seattle native Jimi Hendrix, a pioneer in hard rock, who was of African American and Cherokee Indian descent. American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people, Spokane Indian Reservation, and Yakama Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook, Lummi, and Salish. But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American peoples to this diverse metropolis. The city was named for Chief Seattle in the very early 1850s when European Americans settled the sound. Chinese New Year, Seattle, 2011 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are mostly concentrated in the Seattle−Tacoma metropolitan area of the state. Seattle, Bellevue, and Redmond, which are all located within King County, have sizable Chinese communities (including Taiwanese), as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities. The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the 1860s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong Province in southern China, and is home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community. Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn to the south and in Lynnwood to the north. Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians, and has one of the largest Cambodian-American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California and Lowell, Massachusetts.[79] The Vietnamese and Filipino populations of Washington are mostly concentrated within the Seattle metropolitan area.[80] Washington state has the second highest percentage of Pacific Islander people in the mainland U.S. (behind Utah); the Seattle-Tacoma area is home to over 15,000 people of Samoan ancestry, who mainly reside in southeast Seattle, Tacoma, Federal Way, and in SeaTac.[81][82] The most numerous (ethnic, not racial, group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americans formed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley and Eastern Washington. They were reported to at least date as far back as the 1800s.[83] But it was in the late 20th century, that large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King, Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region's real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s. Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well.[84] Both emerged in the late 1960s and developed since 1980.[85] The number of Somali immigrants residing in the Seattle area are estimated to being in the several thousands to over 30,000.[86] Cities and towns[edit] See also: List of cities in Washington   v t e Largest cities or towns in Washington Source:[87] Rank County Pop. Seattle Spokane 1 Seattle King 704,352 Tacoma Vancouver 2 Spokane Spokane 215,973 3 Tacoma Pierce 211,277 4 Vancouver Clark 174,826 5 Bellevue King 141,400 6 Kent King 127,514 7 Everett Snohomish 109,043 8 Renton King 100,953 9 Federal Way King 96,757 10 Spokane Valley Spokane 96,340 Languages[edit] Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Washington Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[88] Spanish 7.79% Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin) 1.19% Vietnamese 0.94% Tagalog 0.84% Korean 0.83% Russian 0.80% German 0.55% Japanese 0.39% French 0.33% Ukrainian 0.27% In 2010, 82.51% (5,060,313) of Washington residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.79% (477,566) spoke Spanish, 1.19% (72,552) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 0.94% (57,895) Vietnamese, 0.84% (51,301) Tagalog, 0.83% (50,757) Korean, 0.80% (49,282) Russian, and German was spoken as a main language by 0.55% (33,744) of the population over the age of five. In total, 17.49% (1,073,002) of Washington's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[88] Religion[edit] Further information: Pacific Northwest § Spirituality and religion Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are:[89] Christian: 60% Protestant: 40% Evangelical Protestant: 25% Mainline Protestant: 13% Black church: 2% Catholic: 17% Mormon: 4% Unaffiliated: 32% Jewish: 1% Hinduism: 1% Muslim: 0.5% Other religions 3% The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 784,332; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) with 282,356;[90] and the Assemblies of God with 125,005.[91] Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.[92] As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as "non-religious" is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is one of the highest in the United States.

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Washington (state) See also: Mountain recreation economy of Washington, Washington locations by per capita income, and List of Washington (state) companies Microsoft Corporation headquarters in Redmond, an Eastside suburb of Seattle. The 2014 total gross state product for Washington was $425.017 billion, placing it 14th in the nation.[93] The per capita GDP in 2009 was $52,403, 10th in the nation. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft (Boeing), automotive (Paccar), computer software development (Microsoft, Bungie, Amazon, Nintendo of America, Valve Corporation, ArenaNet), telecom (T-Mobile US), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), mining, beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), real estate (John L. Scott, Colliers International, Windermere Real Estate, Kidder Mathews), retail (Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Car Toys, Costco, R.E.I.), and tourism (Alaska Airlines, Expedia, Inc.). A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has four Washington-based companies: Amazon, Starbucks, Microsoft, and Costco.[94] The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation at over 80%. Also, significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound leading to a number 6 ranking of US ports (ranking combines Twenty-foot Equivalent Units moved and Infrastructure index).[95] With the passage of Initiative 1183, the Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) ended its monopoly of all-state liquor store and liquor distribution operations on June 1, 2012. Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Jeff Bezos Chairman & CEO of Amazon, who, with a net worth of $99.6 billion, is the wealthiest man in the world, and Bill Gates, technology advisor and former Chairman & CEO of Microsoft, who, with a net worth of $91.3 billion, is the second wealthiest man in the world as of December 2017.[96] Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen (Microsoft), Steve Ballmer (Microsoft), Craig McCaw (McCaw Cellular Communications), James Jannard (Oakley), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Charles Simonyi (Microsoft).[97] As of January 2015[update], the state's unemployment rate is 6.3 percent.[98] Taxes[edit] Starbucks headquarters, Seattle The state of Washington is one of seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. The state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax either. Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including the business and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses. Washington's state base sales tax is 6.5 percent which is combined with a local sales tax which varies by locality. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 7.5 and 10 percent.[99] As of March 2017, the combined sales tax rate in Seattle and Tacoma was 10.1 percent.[100] The cities of Lynwood and Mill Creek have the highest sale tax rate in the state at 10.4 percent.[100] These taxes apply to services as well as products.[101] Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington's total state and local revenue. It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection, libraries, parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts. All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law. All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax. Washington's tax policy differs from neighboring Oregon's, which levies no sales tax but does levy a personal income tax. This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area.[citation needed] Additional border economies exist with neighboring Canada and Idaho.[citation needed] Agriculture[edit] Azwell, Washington, a small community of pickers' cabins and apple orchards. Washington is a leading agricultural state. (The following figures are from the Washington State Department of Agriculture and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.) For 2013, the total value of Washington's agricultural products was $10.2 billion. In 2013, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (92.7 percent of total U.S. production), hops (79.2 percent), spearmint oil (72.9 percent), wrinkled seed peas (60 percent), apples (57 percent), sweet cherries (50.9 percent), pears (49.5 percent), Concord grapes (36.5 percent), carrots for processing (36.5 percent), green peas for processing (34.4 percent), and peppermint oil (31.4 percent). Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of fall potatoes (a quarter of the nation's production), nectarines, apricots, grapes (all varieties taken together), sweet corn for processing (a quarter of the nation's production), and summer onions (a fifth of the nation's production). The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.S. in apple production since the 1920s.[102] Two areas account for the vast majority of the state's apple crop: the Wenatchee–Okanogan region (comprising Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, and Grant counties), and the Yakima region (comprising Yakima, Benton and Kittitas counties).[103] Wine[edit] Main article: Washington wine Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California.[104] By 2006, the state had over 31,000 acres (130 km2) of vineyards, a harvest of 120,000 short tons (109,000 t) of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 600 wineries located in the state. While there are some viticultural activities in the cooler, wetter western half of the state, the majority (99%) of wine grape production takes place in the desert-like eastern half.[105] The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around 8 inches (200 mm) of annual rain fall, making irrigation and water rights of paramount interest to the Washington wine industry. Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures.[106] Internet access[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2017) As of December 2014, there are 124 broadband providers that offer service to Washington state, with 93% of consumers having access to broadband speeds of 25/3mbps or more. From 2009–2014 the Washington State Broadband Project was awarded $7.3M in federal grants but the program was discontinued in 2014.[107] For infrastructure, another $166M has been awarded since 2011 for broadband infrastructure projects in Washington state.[108] U.S. News & World Report ranked Washington 2nd nationally for household internet access, and 6th for online download speed based on data from 2014 and 2015.[109]

Transportation[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Washington has the largest ferry system in the United States. Floating bridges on Lake Washington. Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation[110] and the third largest in the world. There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) is the major commercial airport of greater Seattle.[111] Boeing Field in Seattle is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the US.[112] There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington's largest cities, including Seattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to 147,000 sailings each year. Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge which connects the Olympic Peninsula and Kitsap Peninsula. Washington has a number of seaports on the Pacific Ocean, including Seattle, Tacoma, Kalama, Anacortes, Vancouver, Longview, Greys County, Olympia, and Port Angeles. The Cascade Mountain Range also impedes transportation. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven[vague] major mountain passes and eight minor passes. During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway, State Route 20, closes every year due to snowfall and avalanches in the area of Washington Pass. The Cayuse and Chinook Passes east of Mount Rainier also close in winter. Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads, and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, Oregon and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the US, and one of the few profitable routes in the system.[citation needed] Public transportation has generally lagged, although the much-delayed link light rail system in the greater Seattle region opened its first line in 2009. Residents of Vancouver have resisted proposals to extend Portland's mass transit system into Washington.[citation needed]

Environment[edit] In 2007, Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used. A 2004 study of 40 mothers from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana found PBDEs in the breast milk of every woman tested. Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecology showed that toxic chemicals banned decades ago continue to linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish collected from 45 sites. The toxic substances included PCBs; dioxins, two chlorinated pesticides, DDE and dieldrin, and PBDEs. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish. Based on the 2007 information and a previous 2004 Ecology study, the Washington State Department of Health is advising the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs. Study results also indicated high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.[113] On March 27, 2006, Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law the recently approved House Bill 2322. This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0.5 percent over the next six years. Though the ban would be effective statewide in 2010, it would take place in Whatcom County, Spokane County, and Clark County in 2008.[114] A recent discovery had linked high contents of phosphorus in water to a boom in algae population. An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would eventually lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.[115]

Government and politics[edit] State government[edit] Main article: Government of Washington (state) The Washington State Capitol building in Olympia. Washington's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The current statewide elected officers are: Jay Inslee, Governor (D) Cyrus Habib, Lieutenant Governor (D) Kim Wyman, Secretary of State (R) Duane Davidson, State Treasurer (R) Patrice McCarthy, State Auditor (D)[116] Bob Ferguson, Attorney General (D) Chris Reykdal, Superintendent of Public Instruction (non-partisan office) Hilary Franz, Commissioner of Public Lands (D) Mike Kreidler, Insurance Commissioner (D) The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state's legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate. The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator. Representatives serve two-year terms, whilst senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. As of the 2013 and 2014 session, the Democratic Party held the majority in the House, while the Republicans had control of the state Senate with a coalition of some Democrats. In the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took full control of the Senate. The Republican Party maintained control of the state Senate until the Democratic Party won a majority in a 2017 special election. The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide. United States Congress[edit] See also: United States congressional delegations from Washington The two United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray (D) and Maria Cantwell (D). Washington's ten representatives in the United States House of Representatives (see map of districts) are Suzan DelBene (D-1), Richard Ray (Rick) Larsen (D-2), Jaime Herrera (R-3), Dan Newhouse (R-4), Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-5), Derek Kilmer (D-6), Pramila Jayapal (D-7), Dave Reichert (R-8), Adam Smith (D-9), and Dennis Heck (D-10). Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the 2010 Census, Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives. With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote. Politics[edit] Gubernatorial election results[117] Year Democratic Republican 1952 47.4% 510,675 52.7% 567,822 1956 54.6% 616,773 45.0% 508,041 1960 50.3% 611,987 48.9% 594,122 1964 43.9% 548,692 55.8% 697,256 1968 46.7% 881,994 53.3% 1,006,993 1972 42.8% 630,613 50.8% 747,825 1976 53.1% 821,797 44.4% 687,039 1980 43.3% 749,813 56.7% 981,083 1984 53.3% 1,006,993 46.7% 881,994 1988 62.2% 1,166,448 37.8% 708,481 1992 52.2% 1,184,315 47.8% 1,086,216 1996 58.0% 1,296,492 42.0% 940,538 2000 58.4% 1,441,973 39.7% 980,060 2004 48.9% 1,373,361 48.9% 1,373,232 2008 53.2% 1,598,738 46.8% 1,404,124 2012 51.5% 1,582,802 48.5% 1,488,245 2016 54.4% 1,760,520 45.6% 1,476,346 Presidential election results[117] Year Democratic Republican 1952 44.7% 492,845 54.3% 599,107 1956 45.4% 523,002 53.9% 620,430 1960 48.3% 599,298 52.7% 629,273 1964 62.0% 779,881 37.4% 470,366 1968 47.2% 616,037 45.1% 588,510 1972 38.6% 568,334 56.9% 837,135 1976 46.1% 717,323 50.0% 777,732 1980 37.3% 650,193 49.7% 865,244 1984 42.9% 807,352 55.8% 1,051,670 1988 50.1% 933,516 48.5% 903,835 1992 43.4% 993,037 32.0% 731,234 1996 49.8% 1,123,323 37.3% 840,712 2000 50.1% 1,247,652 44.6% 1,108,864 2004 52.8% 1,510,201 45.6% 1,304,894 2008 57.3% 1,750,848 40.3% 1,229,216 2012 56.2% 1,755,396 41.3% 1,290,670 2016 54.3% 1,742,718 38.1% 1,221,747 See also: Political party strength in Washington (state) The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal (particularly the I-5 Corridor) and Eastern Washington being conservative. Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1988. Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide. The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area, home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington. This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle and almost a third of the state's population. Washington was considered a key swing state in 1968, and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon. Washington was considered a part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, and had the biggest pickup in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.[118] However, this dominance did not last for long as Democrats picked up one seat in the 1996 election[119] and two more in 1998, giving the Democrats a 5–4 majority.[120] The two current United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, both Democrats. The governorship is held by Democrat Jay Inslee, who was elected to his first term in the 2012 gubernatorial election. In 2013 and 2014 both houses of the Washington State Legislature (the Washington Senate and the Washington House of Representatives) were controlled by a Democratic majority. The state senate was under Republican control, due to two Democrats joining Republicans to form a Majority Coalition Caucus. After the 2014 elections, the Democrats retained control of the House, while Republicans took a majority in the Senate without the need for a coalition. In November 2017 a special election gave Democrats a one seat majority in the Senate and complete control over state government. No state has gone longer without a Republican governor than Washington state. Democrats have controlled the Washington Governor's Mansion for more than 32 years. The last Republican Governor was John Spellman. Washington has not voted for a Republican senator, governor, or presidential candidate since 1994 - tying Delaware for the longest streak in the country.[121] Passed bills[edit] Washington is one of three states to have legalized assisted suicide. In 2008 voted on by initiative the Washington Death with Dignity Act passed and became law. In November 2009, Washington state voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71, marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box. Three years later, in November 2012, same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74, making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote. Also In November 2012, Washington state became one of just two states to pass by initiative the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both medical and non-medical use with Initiative 502. The law took effect in December 2012. Although marijuana is still illegal under U.S. Federal law, persons 21 and older in Washington state can possess up to one ounce of marijuana, 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form, or any combination of all three, and to legally consume marijuana and marijuana-infused products.[122] Some 334 legal recreational marijuana retail outlets are projected to open by June 2014. Washington state was the first state in the United States where assisted suicide, same-sex marriage, and recreational cannabis use were all legal at the same time. After the 2014 elections, it was joined by Oregon.

Education[edit] Elementary and secondary[edit] As of the 2008–2009 school year, 1,040,750 students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 59,562 teachers employed to educate them.[123] As of August 2009, there were 295 school districts in the state, serviced by nine Educational Service Districts.[124] Washington School Information Processing Cooperative (a non-profit, opt-in, State agency) provides information management systems for fiscal & human resources and student data. Elementary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), led by State School Superintendent Randy Dorn.[125] High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of utilizing the state's Running Start program. Initiated by the state legislature in 1990, the program allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.[126] The state also has several public arts focused high schools including Tacoma School of the Arts, Vancouver school of Arts and Academics, and The Center School. There are also four Science and Math based high schools: one in the Tri-Cities, Washington, known as Delta, one in Tacoma, Washington, known as SAMI, another in Seattle known as Raisbeck Aviation High School, and one in Redmond, Washington known as Tesla STEM High School. Higher education[edit] There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington. The state has major research universities, technical schools, religious schools, and private career colleges. Colleges and Universities include the University of Washington, Seattle University, Washington State University, Western Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Central Washington University, Gonzaga University, and The Evergreen State College. v t e Education in Washington State school administration Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction Department of Early Learning State Board of Education School Information Processing Cooperative Local school administration School districts Educational service districts Rural school districts Higher education Colleges and universities Higher Education Coordinating Board Other Office of the Education Ombudsman Homeschooling Washington Assessment of Student Learning High schools Private schools

Healthcare[edit] See also: Washington Healthplanfinder The state of Washington reformed its healthcare system in 1993 through the Washington Health Services Act. The legislation required individuals to obtain health insurance or face penalties and required employers to provide insurance to employees. In addition, health insurance companies were required to sell policies to all individuals, regardless of pre-existing conditions, and cover basic benefits.[127] The act was mostly repealed in 1995 before it could go into full effect. The state adopted the Washington Healthplanfinder system in 2014 after the passage of the federal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as "Obamacare").

Culture[edit] Arts[edit] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2017) Sports[edit] Major professional teams[edit] Club Sport League City & Stadium Seattle Mariners Baseball Major League Baseball; AL Seattle, Safeco Field Seattle Seahawks Football National Football League; NFC Seattle, CenturyLink Field Seattle Sounders FC Soccer Major League Soccer Seattle, CenturyLink Field Minor professional and amateur teams[edit] Club Sport League City & Stadium Everett AquaSox Baseball Northwest League; A Everett, Everett Memorial Stadium Everett Silvertips Ice hockey Western Hockey League Everett, Xfinity Arena Seattle Majestics American football Women's Football Alliance Kent, French Field Seattle Mist Indoor football Legends Football League Kent, ShoWare Center Seattle Reign FC Soccer National Women's Soccer League Seattle, Memorial Stadium Seattle Saracens Rugby union Canadian Direct Insurance Premier League Seattle, Magnuson Park Seattle Sounders Women Soccer Women's Premier Soccer League Tukwila, Starfire Sports Complex Seattle Storm Basketball Women's National Basketball Association Seattle, KeyArena Seattle Thunderbirds Ice hockey Western Hockey League Kent, ShoWare Center Spokane Chiefs Ice hockey Western Hockey League Spokane, Spokane Arena Spokane Indians Baseball Northwest League; A Spokane, Avista Stadium Tacoma Rainiers Baseball Pacific Coast League; AAA Tacoma, Cheney Stadium Tacoma Stars Indoor soccer Major Arena Soccer League Kent, ShoWare Center Tri-City Americans Ice hockey Western Hockey League Kennewick, Toyota Center Tri-City Dust Devils Baseball Northwest League; A Pasco, Gesa Stadium Wenatchee Wild Ice hockey British Columbia Hockey League Wenatchee, Town Toyota Center College sports teams[edit] NCAA Division I Washington Huskies (Pac-12 Conference; Football Bowl Subdivision) Washington State Cougars (Pac-12 Conference; Football Bowl Subdivision) Gonzaga Bulldogs (West Coast Conference) Seattle Redhawks (Western Athletic Conference) Eastern Washington Eagles (Big Sky Conference; Football Championship Subdivision) NCAA Division II Central Washington Wildcats Saint Martin's Saints Seattle Pacific Falcons Western Washington Vikings NCAA Division III Pacific Lutheran Lutes Puget Sound Loggers Whitman Missionaries Whitworth Pirates Individual sports[edit] The Seattle Open Invitational golf tournament was part of the PGA Tour from the 1930s to the 1960s. The GTE Northwest Classic was part of the Senior PGA Tour from 1986 to 1995, and the Boeing Classic since 2005. In addition, the 2015 U.S. Open was held at Chambers Bay, and several major tournaments were held at Sahalee Country Club. Pacific Raceways is a motorsports venue that has hosted the Northwest Nationals of the NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series and a round of the Trans-Am Series. The WTA Seattle tennis tournament was part of the WTA Tour from 1977 to 1982. The KeyArena has hosted several mixed martial arts events, such as UFC Fight Night: Nogueira vs. Davis, UFC on Fox: Henderson vs. Diaz, and UFC on Fox: Johnson vs. Moraga.

Symbols, honors, and names[edit] Reverse side of the Washington State Quarter Four ships of the United States Navy, including two battleships, have been named USS Washington in honor of the state. Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington. The Evergreen State[edit] The state's nickname, "The Evergreen State",[1][128] was proposed in 1890 by Charles T. Conover of Seattle, Washington. The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year.[129] Although that nickname is widely used by the state, appearing on vehicle license plates for instance, it has not been officially adopted.[1] The publicly funded The Evergreen State College in Olympia also takes its name from this nickname. State symbols[edit] Main article: List of Washington state symbols The state song is "Washington, My Home", the state bird is the American goldfinch, the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion.[130] The state dance, adopted in 1979, is the square dance. The state tree is the western hemlock. The state flower is the coast rhododendron. The state fish is the steelhead.[1] The state folk song is "Roll On, Columbia, Roll On" by Woody Guthrie. The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie.[131] The state grass is bluebunch wheatgrass. The state insect is the green darner dragonfly. The state gem is petrified wood. The state fossil is the Columbian mammoth. The state marine mammal is the orca. The state land mammal is the Olympic marmot.[1] The state seal (featured in the state flag as well) was inspired by the unfinished portrait by Gilbert Stuart.[132]

See also[edit] Washington portal Index of Washington-related articles Outline of Washington – organized list of topics about Washington

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Further reading[edit] Evans, Elwood; Meany, Edmond S (1893), The State of Washington: A Brief History of the Discovery, Settlement and Organization of Washington, the "Evergreen State", as well as a Compilation of Official Statistics Showing the Material Development of the State up to Date, Tacoma, WA: World's Fair Commission of the State of Washington . Hawthorne, Julian; Brewerton, George Douglas (1893), History of Washington: The Evergreen State, from Early Dawn to Daylight: With Portraits and Biographies, 1, New York: American Historical Publishing  | Volume 2. Edmond S. Meany, History of the State of Washington, New York: Macmillan, 1909. Meany, Edmond S.; Condon, John T. (eds.), Washington's First Constitution, 1878 and Proceedings of the Convention (PDF) . Reprinted from the Washington Historical Quarterly, 1918–1919.

External links[edit] Find more aboutWashington (state)at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity State of Washington website The official tourism site of the State of Washington Washington State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Washington state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. Secretary of State's Washington History website Constitution of the State of Washington Washington Administrative Code (State Administrative Rules) State Code Search Tool Energy Profile for Washington – Economic, environmental, and energy data USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Washington Washington State Facts from USDA U.S. Census Bureau Quick Facts: Washington Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History Police Scanner Information for Washington state CWU Brooks Library Edward W. Nolan Photograph Collection The collection contains images of the State of Washington and the American West from the 1880s to the 1930s. Washington (state) at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Washington (state) at OpenStreetMap Preceded by Montana List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on November 11, 1889 (42nd) Succeeded by Idaho Places adjacent to Washington (state)  British Columbia,  Canada  British Columbia,  Canada Pacific Ocean  Washington: Outline • Index  Idaho Pacific Ocean  Hawaii  Oregon Topics related to Washington (state) The Evergreen State v t e  State of Washington Olympia (capital) Topics Cities Towns Census-designated places Federal lands Indian reservations History Geography Earthquakes People Music Parks Highways Symbols Tourist attractions Society Cannabis Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Politics Government Law Governors Legislature Legislative districts Senate House Legislative initiatives Popular initiatives Congressional delegation Congressional districts City governments State agencies Agriculture Archaeology and Historic Preservation Commerce Corrections Early Learning Ecology Employment Security Enterprise Services Financial Institutions Fish and Wildlife Health Higher Education Coordinating Board Information Services Labor and Industries Licensing Liquor and Cannabis Board Military Natural Resources Parks Institute for Public Policy Public Stadium Authority Public Disclosure Commission Retirement Systems Revenue Services for the Blind Social and Health Services Transportation Utilities and Transportation Regions Western Kitsap Peninsula Long Beach Peninsula Olympic Peninsula Puget Sound San Juan Islands Skagit Valley Eastern/Inland Central Washington Columbia Plateau Methow Valley Okanogan Country Palouse Yakima Valley Shared Cascade Range Columbia Gorge Columbia River Largest cities Seattle Spokane Tacoma Vancouver Bellevue Kent Everett Renton Yakima Federal Way Spokane Valley Kirkland Bellingham Kennewick Auburn Pasco Marysville Lakewood Redmond Shoreline Richland Metropolitan areas Greater Seattle Greater Spokane Tri-Cities Wenatchee metropolitan area Greater Portland and Vancouver Counties Adams Asotin Benton Chelan Clallam Clark Columbia Cowlitz Douglas Ferry Franklin Garfield Grant Grays Harbor Island Jefferson King Kitsap Kittitas Klickitat Lewis Lincoln Mason Okanogan Pacific Pend Oreille Pierce San Juan Skagit Skamania Snohomish Spokane Stevens Thurston Wahkiakum Walla Walla Whatcom Whitman Yakima v t e Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Washington State capital: Stephen Buxbaum (Olympia) Jenny Durkan (Seattle) David Condon (Spokane) Victoria Woodards (Tacoma) Anne McEnerny-Ogle (Vancouver) John Chelminiak (Bellevue) Dana Ralph (Kent) Cassie Franklin (Everett) v t e Protected areas of Washington Federal National Parks Mount Rainier North Cascades Olympic National Monuments Hanford Reach (USFWS) Mount St. Helens Volcanic (USFS) San Juan Islands (BLM) National Historical Parks & Sites Fort Vancouver NHS Klondike Gold Rush NHP Manhattan Project NHP Nez Perce NHP San Juan Island NHP Whitman Mission NHS National Historical Reserves Ebey's Landing National Trails Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Pacific Crest Trail Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail NPS National Recreation Areas Lake Chelan Lake Roosevelt Ross Lake National Wildlife Refuges Billy Frank Jr. Nisqually Columbia Conboy Lake Copalis Dungeness Flattery Rocks Franz Lake Grays Harbor Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer Little Pend Oreille McNary Pierce Protection Island Quillayute Needles Ridgefield Saddle Mountain San Juan Islands Steigerwald Lake Toppenish Turnbull Umatilla Willapa National Forests Colville Gifford Pinchot Idaho Panhandle Kaniksu Mount Baker-Snoqualmie Okanogan Olympic Umatilla Wenatchee USFS National Recreation Areas Mount Baker National Wilderness Alpine Lakes Boulder River Brothers Buckhorn Clearwater Colonel Bob Daniel J. Evans Glacier Peak Glacier View Goat Rocks Henry M. Jackson Indian Heaven Juniper Dunes Lake Chelan-Sawtooth Ridge Mount Adams Mount Baker Mount Rainier Mount Skokomish Noisy-Diobsud Norse Peak Pasayten Salmo-Priest San Juan Stephen Mather Tatoosh Trapper Creek Washington Islands Wenaha–Tucannon Wild Sky William O. Douglas Wonder Mountain National Marine Sanctuary & Estuarine Research Reserve Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve National Wild and Scenic Rivers Klickitat Skagit White Salmon State State Parks Alta Lake Anderson Lake Battle Ground Lake Bay View Beacon Rock Belfair Birch Bay Blake Island Blind Island Bogachiel Bottle Beach Bridgeport Bridle Trails Brooks Memorial Cama Beach Camano Island Camp Wooten Retreat Center Cape Disappointment Centennial Trail Clark Island Columbia Hills Columbia Plateau Trail Conconully Crawford Curlew Lake Cutts Island Daroga Dash Point Deception Pass Doe Island Dosewallips Doug's Beach Eagle Island Federation Forest Fields Spring Flaming Geyser Fort Casey Fort Columbia Fort Ebey Fort Flagler Fort Simcoe Fort Townsend Fort Worden Ginkgo Petrified Forest Goldendale Observatory Grayland Beach Griffiths-Priday Ocean Harstine Island Hope Island (Mason County) Hope Island (Skagit County) Ike Kinswa Illahee Iron Horse James Island Jarrell Cove Joemma Beach Jones Island Joseph Whidbey Kanaskat-Palmer Kinney Point Kitsap Memorial Kopachuck Lake Chelan Lake Easton Lake Sammamish Lake Sylvia Lake Wenatchee Larrabee Leadbetter Point Lewis and Clark Lewis and Clark Trail Lime Kiln Point Lincoln Rock Manchester Maryhill Matia Island McMicken Island Millersylvania Moran Mount Pilchuck Mount Spokane Mystery Bay Nine Mile Recreation Area Nolte Obstruction Pass Ocean City Olallie Olmstead Place Pacific Beach Pacific Pines Palouse Falls Paradise Point Patos Island Peace Arch Pearrygin Lake Penrose Point Peshastin Pinnacles Pleasant Harbor Posey Island Potholes Potlatch Rainbow Falls Rasar Reed Island Riverside Rockport Sacajawea Saddlebag Island Saint Edward Saltwater Scenic Beach Schafer Seaquest Sequim Bay Shine Tidelands Skagit Island Skull Island South Whidbey Island Spencer Spit Spring Creek Hatchery Squak Mountain Squilchuck Steamboat Rock Steptoe Battlefield Steptoe Butte Stretch Point Stuart Island Sucia Island Sun Lakes-Dry Falls Tolmie Triton Cove Turn Island Twanoh Twenty-Five Mile Creek Twin Harbors Upright Channel Wallace Falls Wanapum Recreational Area Wenatchee Confluence Westhaven Westport Light Yakima Sportsman State Forests Ahtanum Capitol Elbe Hills Green Mountain Loomis Loup Loup Tahuya Tiger Mountain Yacolt Burn Natural Area Preserves Admiralty Inlet Badger Gulch Bald Hill Barker Mountain Bone River Camas Meadows Carlisle Bog Castle Rock Charley Creek Chehalis River Surge Plain Chopaka Mountain Clearwater Bogs Cleveland Shrub Steppe Columbia Falls Columbia Hills Cypress Highlands Dabob Bay Dailey Prairie Davis Canyon Entiat Slopes Goose Island Gunpowder Island Hamma Hamma Balds Ink Blot Kahlotus Ridgetop Kennedy Creek Kings Lake Bog Kitsap Forest Lacamas Prairie Natural Area Little Pend Oreille River Marcellus Shrub Steppe Methow Rapids Mima Mounds Monte Cristo Niawiakum River North Bay Oak Patch Olivine Bridge Pinecroft Point Doughty Riverside Breaks Rocky Prairie Sand Island Schumacher Creek Selah Cliffs Skagit Bald Eagle Skookum Inlet Snoqualmie Bog Spring Creek Canyon Trout Lake The Two-Steppe Upper Dry Gulch Washougal Oaks Natural Area Whitcomb Flats Willapa Divide Natural Resources Conservation Areas Cattle Point Clearwater Corridor Cypress Island Devils Lake Dishman Hills Elk River Ellsworth Creek Granite Lakes Hat Island Hendrickson Canyon Klickitat Canyon Lake Louise Loomis Lummi Island Merrill Lake Middle Fork Snoqualmie Morning Star Mount Si Rattlesnake Mountain Scenic Area Shipwreck Point South Nemah South Nolan Stavis Table Mountain Tahoma Forest Teal Slough Washougal Oaks Natural Area West Tiger Mountain White Salmon Oak Woodard Bay Other Former state parks Damon Point Fay Bainbridge Fort Okanogan Fort Ward Park Griffin Bay Lyons Ferry Park Mukilteo Lighthouse Park Osoyoos Lake Veteran's Memorial Park Wenberg Blanchard Forest Cascadia Marine Trail The Enchantments Goose Island Les Hilde Trail & Trailheads Little Pend Oreille Mount Adams Recreation Area Sehome Hill Arboretum Walker Valley ORV Riding Area Withrow Moraine Yellow Island Category Seattle Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission Commons v t e Operational military installations of Washington Army Fort Fort Lewis Airfield Gray Army Airfield Vagabond Army Airfield Joint Base Joint Base Lewis-McChord Range Yakima Training Center Navy Naval air station Naval Air Station Whidbey Island Region Navy Region Northwest Outlying Field Coupeville Station Naval Station Everett Base Naval Base Kitsap Munitions facilities Indian Island Shipyard Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility Air Force Air Force Base McChord Field Fairchild Air Force Base National Guard Army Camp Murray Air Fairchild Air Force Base State Guard Camp Murray Sector Joint Base Lewis-McChord Coast Guard Air Station Port Angeles Sector Thirteenth District Seattle Station Bellingham Everett Ilwaco La Push Neah Bay Port Angeles Port Townsend Seattle Tacoma Westport Support Center Seattle v t e George Washington 1st President of the United States, 1789–1797 Senior Officer of the Army, 1798–1799 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775 First Continental Congress, 1774 Military career Revolutionary War Military career French and Indian War Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-Camp Washington's headquarters Boston campaign Siege of Boston New York and New Jersey campaign Delaware River crossing Battle of Trenton Philadelphia campaign Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of White Marsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown campaign Siege of Yorktown Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy Newburgh letter Resignation as commander-in-chief Badge of Military Merit Purple Heart Washington Before Boston Medal Horses: Nelson and Blueskin Other 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home Mount Vernon Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion President's House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Lee University Electoral history of George Washington Memorials and depictions Washington, D.C. 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Washington (brother) Charles Washington (brother) Lawrence Washington (grandfather) John Washington (great-grandfather) Bushrod Washington (nephew) John Adams → Category v t e Western United States Regions Rocky Mountains Great Basin West Coast Pacific Northwest Mountain States States Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Major metropolitan areas Los Angeles Phoenix San Francisco Bay Area San Bernardino-Riverside Seattle San Diego Denver Portland Las Vegas Sacramento Major cities Anchorage Albuquerque Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Long Beach Oakland Phoenix Portland Reno Riverside Sacramento San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Jose Salt Lake City Seattle Spokane Tucson State capitals Boise Carson City Cheyenne Denver Helena Honolulu Juneau Olympia Phoenix Sacramento Salem Salt Lake City Santa Fe v t e Political divisions of the United States States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Federal district Washington, D.C. 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