Contents 1 History 1.1 Foundation 1.2 Retrocession and the Civil War 1.3 Growth and redevelopment 1.4 Civil rights and home rule era 2 Geography 2.1 Climate 3 Cityscape 3.1 Architecture 4 Demographics 4.1 Crime 5 Economy 6 Culture 6.1 Historic sites and museums 6.2 Arts 6.3 Sports 7 Media 8 Government and politics 8.1 Politics 8.2 Budgetary issues 8.3 Voting rights debate 8.4 Sister cities 9 Education 10 Infrastructure 10.1 Transportation 10.2 Utilities 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links


History Further information: History of Washington, D.C. and Timeline of Washington, D.C. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people (also known as the Conoy) inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank (also called the Nacostines by Catholic missionaries) maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland.[5] In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.[6] Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security.[7] Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States".[8] However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the Southern United States.[9][a] Foundation Map of the District of Columbia in 1835, prior to the retrocession On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16. Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles (16 km) on each side, totaling 100 square miles (259 km2).[10][b] Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751,[11] and the city of Alexandria, Virginia, founded in 1749.[12] During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point.[13] Many of the stones are still standing.[14] A new federal city was then constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington. The federal district was named Columbia, which was a poetic name for the United States commonly in use at that time.[15][16] Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.[17] Congress passed the Organic Act of 1801, which officially organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal government. Further, the unincorporated area within the District was organized into two counties: the County of Washington to the east of the Potomac and the County of Alexandria to the west.[18] After the passage of this Act, citizens living in the District were no longer considered residents of Maryland or Virginia, which therefore ended their representation in Congress.[19] Ford's Theatre in the 19th century, site of the 1865 assassination of President Lincoln On August 24–25, 1814, in a raid known as the Burning of Washington, British forces invaded the capital during the War of 1812. The Capitol, Treasury, and White House were burned and gutted during the attack.[20] Most government buildings were repaired quickly; however, the Capitol was largely under construction at the time and was not completed in its current form until 1868.[21] Retrocession and the Civil War See also: District of Columbia retrocession and Washington, D.C., in the American Civil War In the 1830s, the District's southern territory of Alexandria went into economic decline partly due to neglect by Congress.[22] The city of Alexandria was a major market in the American slave trade, and pro-slavery residents feared that abolitionists in Congress would end slavery in the District, further depressing the economy. Alexandria's citizens petitioned Virginia to take back the land it had donated to form the District, through a process known as retrocession.[23] The Virginia General Assembly voted in February 1846 to accept the return of Alexandria and on July 9, 1846, Congress agreed to return all the territory that had been ceded by Virginia. Therefore, the District's current area consists only of the portion originally donated by Maryland.[22] Confirming the fears of pro-slavery Alexandrians, the Compromise of 1850 outlawed the slave trade in the District, although not slavery itself.[24] The outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861 led to expansion of the federal government and notable growth in the District's population, including a large influx of freed slaves.[25] President Abraham Lincoln signed the Compensated Emancipation Act in 1862, which ended slavery in the District of Columbia and freed about 3,100 enslaved persons, nine months prior to the Emancipation Proclamation.[26] In 1868, Congress granted the District's African American male residents the right to vote in municipal elections.[25] Growth and redevelopment Crowds surrounding the Reflecting Pool during the 1963 March on Washington By 1870, the District's population had grown 75% from the previous census to nearly 132,000 residents.[27] Despite the city's growth, Washington still had dirt roads and lacked basic sanitation. Some members of Congress suggested moving the capital further west, but President Ulysses S. Grant refused to consider such a proposal.[28] Congress passed the Organic Act of 1871, which repealed the individual charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and created a new territorial government for the whole District of Columbia.[29] President Grant appointed Alexander Robey Shepherd to the position of governor in 1873. Shepherd authorized large-scale projects that greatly modernized Washington, but ultimately bankrupted the District government. In 1874, Congress replaced the territorial government with an appointed three-member Board of Commissioners.[30] The city's first motorized streetcars began service in 1888 and generated growth in areas of the District beyond the City of Washington's original boundaries. Washington's urban plan was expanded throughout the District in the following decades.[31] Georgetown was formally annexed by the City of Washington in 1895.[32] However, the city had poor housing conditions and strained public works. Washington was the first city in the nation to undergo urban renewal projects as part of the "City Beautiful movement" in the early 1900s.[33] Increased federal spending as a result of the New Deal in the 1930s led to the construction of new government buildings, memorials, and museums in Washington.[34] World War II further increased government activity, adding to the number of federal employees in the capital;[35] by 1950, the District's population reached its peak of 802,178 residents.[27] Civil rights and home rule era The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1961, granting the District three votes in the Electoral College for the election of president and vice president, but still no voting representation in Congress.[36] After the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on April 4, 1968, riots broke out in the District, primarily in the U Street, 14th Street, 7th Street, and H Street corridors, centers of black residential and commercial areas. The riots raged for three days until more than 13,600 federal troops stopped the violence. Many stores and other buildings were burned; rebuilding was not completed until the late 1990s.[37] In 1973, Congress enacted the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, providing for an elected mayor and 13-member council for the District.[38] In 1975, Walter Washington became the first elected and first black mayor of the District.[39] On September 11, 2001, terrorists hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 and deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in nearby Arlington, Virginia. United Airlines Flight 93, believed to be destined for Washington, D.C., crashed in Pennsylvania when passengers tried to recover control of the plane from hijackers.[40][41]


Geography Main article: Geography of Washington, D.C. Calvert Charles Frederick Montgomery Prince George's Alexandria Arlington Clarke Fairfax Fairfax County Falls Church Fauquier Loudoun Manassas Manassas Park Prince William Spotsylvania Stafford Fredericksburg Warren Washington Jefferson Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area[42] The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal passes through the Georgetown neighborhood. Washington, D.C., is located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. East Coast. Due to the District of Columbia retrocession, the city has a total area of 68.34 square miles (177.0 km2), of which 61.05 square miles (158.1 km2) is land and 7.29 square miles (18.9 km2) (10.67%) is water.[43] The District is bordered by Montgomery County, Maryland, to the northwest; Prince George's County, Maryland, to the east; and Arlington and Alexandria, Virginia, to the south and west. The south bank of the Potomac River forms the District's border with Virginia and has two major tributaries: the Anacostia River and Rock Creek.[44] Tiber Creek, a natural watercourse that once passed through the National Mall, was fully enclosed underground during the 1870s.[45] The creek also formed a portion of the now-filled Washington City Canal, which allowed passage through the city to the Anacostia River from 1815 until the 1850s.[46] The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal starts in Georgetown and was used during the 19th century to bypass the Little Falls of the Potomac River, located at the northwest edge of Washington at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line.[47] The highest natural elevation in the District is 409 feet (125 m) above sea level at Fort Reno Park in upper northwest Washington.[48] The lowest point is sea level at the Potomac River.[49] The geographic center of Washington is near the intersection of 4th and L Streets NW.[50][51][52] The District has 7,464 acres (30.21 km2) of parkland, about 19% of the city's total area and the second-highest percentage among high-density U.S. cities.[53] The National Park Service manages most of the 9,122 acres (36.92 km2) of city land owned by the U.S. government.[54] Rock Creek Park is a 1,754-acre (7.10 km2) urban forest in Northwest Washington, which extends 9.3 miles (15.0 km) through a stream valley that bisects the city. Established in 1890, it is the country's fourth-oldest national park and is home to a variety of plant and animal species including raccoon, deer, owls, and coyotes.[55] Other National Park Service properties include the C&O Canal National Historical Park, the National Mall and Memorial Parks, Theodore Roosevelt Island, Columbia Island, Fort Dupont Park, Meridian Hill Park, Kenilworth Park and Aquatic Gardens, and Anacostia Park.[56] The D.C. Department of Parks and Recreation maintains the city's 900 acres (3.6 km2) of athletic fields and playgrounds, 40 swimming pools, and 68 recreation centers.[57] The U.S. Department of Agriculture operates the 446-acre (1.80 km2) U.S. National Arboretum in Northeast Washington.[58] Climate See also: List of Maryland hurricanes (1950–present) and List of tornadoes of Washington, D.C. The National Cherry Blossom Festival is celebrated around the city each spring. Washington is in the northern part of the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa)[59] However, under the Trewartha climate classification, the city has a temperate maritime climate (Do).[60] Winters are usually chilly with light snow, and summers are hot and humid. The District is in plant hardiness zone 8a near downtown, and zone 7b elsewhere in the city, indicating a humid subtropical climate.[61] Spring and fall are mild to warm, while winter is chilly with annual snowfall averaging 15.5 inches (39 cm). Winter temperatures average around 38 °F (3.3 °C) from mid-December to mid-February.[62] Summers are hot and humid with a July daily average of 79.8 °F (26.6 °C) and average daily relative humidity around 66%, which can cause moderate personal discomfort.[63] The combination of heat and humidity in the summer brings very frequent thunderstorms, some of which occasionally produce tornadoes in the area.[64] Blizzards affect Washington on average once every four to six years. The most violent storms are called "nor'easters", which often affect large sections of the East Coast.[65] From January 27 to 28, 1922, the city officially received 28 inches (71 cm) of snowfall, the largest snowstorm since official measurements began in 1885.[66] According to notes kept at the time, the city received between 30 and 36 inches (76 and 91 cm) from a snowstorm in January 1772.[67] Hurricanes (or their remnants) occasionally track through the area in late summer and early fall, but are often weak by the time they reach Washington, partly due to the city's inland location.[68] Flooding of the Potomac River, however, caused by a combination of high tide, storm surge, and runoff, has been known to cause extensive property damage in the neighborhood of Georgetown.[69] Precipitation occurs throughout the year.[70] The highest recorded temperature was 106 °F (41 °C) on August 6, 1918, and on July 20, 1930.[71] while the lowest recorded temperature was −15 °F (−26 °C) on February 11, 1899, right before the Great Blizzard of 1899.[65] During a typical year, the city averages about 37 days at or above 90 °F (32.2 °C) and 64 nights at or below freezing.[62] v t e Climate data for Washington, D.C. (Reagan National Airport), 1981−2010 normals,[c] extremes 1871−present[d] Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 79 (26) 84 (29) 93 (34) 95 (35) 99 (37) 104 (40) 106 (41) 106 (41) 104 (40) 96 (36) 86 (30) 79 (26) 106 (41) Mean maximum °F (°C) 65.5 (18.6) 67.5 (19.7) 78.0 (25.6) 85.8 (29.9) 90.3 (32.4) 95.2 (35.1) 97.5 (36.4) 96.5 (35.8) 91.6 (33.1) 83.7 (28.7) 74.9 (23.8) 66.4 (19.1) 98.8 (37.1) Average high °F (°C) 43.4 (6.3) 47.1 (8.4) 55.9 (13.3) 66.6 (19.2) 75.4 (24.1) 84.2 (29) 88.4 (31.3) 86.5 (30.3) 79.5 (26.4) 68.4 (20.2) 57.9 (14.4) 46.8 (8.2) 66.8 (19.3) Daily mean °F (°C) 36.1 (2.3) 39.1 (3.9) 46.9 (8.3) 56.9 (13.8) 66.1 (18.9) 75.3 (24.1) 79.8 (26.6) 78.2 (25.7) 71.1 (21.7) 59.6 (15.3) 49.6 (9.8) 39.8 (4.3) 58.2 (14.6) Average low °F (°C) 28.6 (−1.9) 30.9 (−0.6) 37.6 (3.1) 47.0 (8.3) 56.5 (13.6) 66.3 (19.1) 71.1 (21.7) 69.7 (20.9) 62.4 (16.9) 50.6 (10.3) 41.2 (5.1) 32.5 (0.3) 49.6 (9.8) Mean minimum °F (°C) 12.9 (−10.6) 16.6 (−8.6) 22.9 (−5.1) 33.9 (1.1) 44.6 (7) 54.8 (12.7) 62.1 (16.7) 60.1 (15.6) 49.7 (9.8) 38.0 (3.3) 28.7 (−1.8) 18.2 (−7.7) 9.9 (−12.3) Record low °F (°C) −14 (−26) −15 (−26) 4 (−16) 15 (−9) 33 (1) 43 (6) 52 (11) 49 (9) 36 (2) 26 (−3) 11 (−12) −13 (−25) −15 (−26) Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.81 (71.4) 2.62 (66.5) 3.48 (88.4) 3.06 (77.7) 3.99 (101.3) 3.78 (96) 3.73 (94.7) 2.93 (74.4) 3.72 (94.5) 3.40 (86.4) 3.17 (80.5) 3.05 (77.5) 39.74 (1,009.4) Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.6 (14.2) 5.7 (14.5) 1.3 (3.3) trace 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (1.3) 2.3 (5.8) 15.4 (39.1) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.6 9.0 10.5 10.4 11.1 10.7 10.3 8.2 8.3 7.7 8.6 9.7 114.1 Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.0 2.4 0.9 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1.5 8.1 Average relative humidity (%) 62.1 60.5 58.6 58.0 64.5 65.8 66.9 69.3 69.7 67.4 64.7 64.1 64.3 Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.6 151.8 204.0 228.2 260.5 283.2 280.5 263.1 225.0 203.6 150.2 133.0 2,527.7 Percent possible sunshine 48 50 55 57 59 64 62 62 60 59 50 45 57 Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990)[62][73][70][74]


Cityscape See also: Streets and highways of Washington, D.C.; Neighborhoods in Washington, D.C.; and List of tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. Facsimile of manuscript of L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887)[75] Washington, D.C., is a planned city. In 1791, President Washington commissioned Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant, a French-born architect and city planner, to design the new capital. He enlisted Scottish surveyor Alexander Ralston to help layout the city plan.[76] The L'Enfant Plan featured broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping.[77] He based his design on plans of cities such as Paris, Amsterdam, Karlsruhe, and Milan that Thomas Jefferson had sent to him.[78] L'Enfant's design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide in the area that is now the National Mall.[79] L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott in 1792 President Washington dismissed L'Enfant in March 1792 due to conflicts with the three commissioners appointed to supervise the capital's construction. Andrew Ellicott, who had worked with L'Enfant surveying the city, was then tasked with completing the design. Though Ellicott made revisions to the original plans, including changes to some street patterns, L'Enfant is still credited with the overall design of the city.[80] By the early 1900s, L'Enfant's vision of a grand national capital had become marred by slums and randomly placed buildings, including a railroad station on the National Mall. Congress formed a special committee charged with beautifying Washington's ceremonial core.[33] What became known as the McMillan Plan was finalized in 1901 and included re-landscaping the Capitol grounds and the National Mall, clearing slums, and establishing a new citywide park system. The plan is thought to have largely preserved L'Enfant's intended design.[77] The construction of the 12-story Cairo Apartment Building in 1894 spurred the city's first building height restrictions. By law, Washington's skyline is low and sprawling. The federal Height of Buildings Act of 1910 allows buildings that are no taller than the width of the adjacent street, plus 20 feet (6.1 m).[81] Despite popular belief, no law has ever limited buildings to the height of the United States Capitol or the 555-foot (169 m) Washington Monument,[52] which remains the District's tallest structure. City leaders have criticized the height restriction as a primary reason why the District has limited affordable housing and traffic problems caused by urban sprawl.[81] The District is divided into four quadrants of unequal area: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), and Southwest (SW). The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building.[82] All road names include the quadrant abbreviation to indicate their location and house numbers generally correspond with the number of blocks away from the Capitol. Most streets are set out in a grid pattern with east–west streets named with letters (e.g., C Street SW), north–south streets with numbers (e.g., 4th Street NW), and diagonal avenues, many of which are named after states.[82] The City of Washington was bordered by Boundary Street to the north (renamed Florida Avenue in 1890), Rock Creek to the west, and the Anacostia River to the east.[31][77] Washington's street grid was extended, where possible, throughout the District starting in 1888.[83] Georgetown's streets were renamed in 1895.[32] Some streets are particularly noteworthy, such as Pennsylvania Avenue, which connects the White House to the Capitol and K Street, which houses the offices of many lobbying groups.[84] Washington hosts 177 foreign embassies, constituting approximately 297 buildings beyond the more than 1,600 residential properties owned by foreign countries, many of which are on a section of Massachusetts Avenue informally known as Embassy Row.[85] Architecture The White House ranked second on the AIA's "List of America's Favorite Architecture" in 2007. The architecture of Washington varies greatly. Six of the top 10 buildings in the American Institute of Architects' 2007 ranking of "America's Favorite Architecture" are in the District of Columbia:[86] the White House, the Washington National Cathedral, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial, the United States Capitol, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The neoclassical, Georgian, gothic, and modern architectural styles are all reflected among those six structures and many other prominent edifices in Washington. Notable exceptions include buildings constructed in the French Second Empire style such as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.[87] Outside downtown Washington, architectural styles are even more varied. Historic buildings are designed primarily in the Queen Anne, Châteauesque, Richardsonian Romanesque, Georgian revival, Beaux-Arts, and a variety of Victorian styles. Rowhouses are especially prominent in areas developed after the Civil War and typically follow Federalist and late Victorian designs.[88] Georgetown's Old Stone House was built in 1765, making it the oldest-standing original building in the city.[89] Founded in 1789, Georgetown University features a mix of Romanesque and Gothic Revival architecture.[87] The Ronald Reagan Building is the largest building in the District with a total area of approximately 3.1 million square feet (288,000 m2).[90]


Demographics Main article: Demographics of Washington, D.C. Historical population Census Pop. %± 1800 8,144 — 1810 15,471 90.0% 1820 23,336 50.8% 1830 30,261 29.7% 1840 33,745 11.5% 1850 51,687 53.2% 1860 75,080 45.3% 1870 131,700 75.4% 1880 177,624 34.9% 1890 230,392 29.7% 1900 278,718 21.0% 1910 331,069 18.8% 1920 437,571 32.2% 1930 486,869 11.3% 1940 663,091 36.2% 1950 802,178 21.0% 1960 763,956 −4.8% 1970 756,510 −1.0% 1980 638,333 −15.6% 1990 606,900 −4.9% 2000 572,059 −5.7% 2010 601,723 5.2% Est. 2016 681,170 [91] 13.2% Source:[27][92] Note:[e] The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that the District's population was 681,170 on July 1, 2016, a 13.2% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[3] The increase continues a growth trend since 2000, following a half-century of population decline.[94] The city was the 24th most populous place in the United States as of 2010[update].[95] According to data from 2010, commuters from the suburbs increase the District's daytime population to over one million people.[96] If the District were a state it would rank 49th in population, ahead of Vermont and Wyoming.[3] Row houses on Logan Circle The Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes the District and surrounding suburbs, is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the United States with an estimated 6 million residents in 2014.[4] When the Washington area is included with Baltimore and its suburbs, the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area had a population exceeding 9.5 million residents in 2014, the fourth-largest combined statistical area in the country.[97] According to 2016 Census Bureau data, the population of Washington, D.C., was 47.7% Black or African American, 44.6% White (36.4% non-Hispanic White), 4.1% Asian, 0.6% American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.2% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Individuals from two or more races made up 2.7% of the population. Hispanics of any race made up 10.9% of the District's population.[98] Map of racial distribution in Washington, D.C., 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Washington has had a significant African American population since the city's foundation.[99] African American residents composed about 30% of the District's total population between 1800 and 1940.[27] The black population reached a peak of 70% by 1970, but has since steadily declined due to many African Americans moving to the surrounding suburbs. Partly as a result of gentrification, there was a 31.4% increase in the non-Hispanic white population and an 11.5% decrease in the black population between 2000 and 2010.[100] About 17% of D.C. residents were age 18 or younger in 2010; lower than the U.S. average of 24%. However, at 34 years old, the District had the lowest median age compared to the 50 states.[101] As of 2010[update], there were an estimated 81,734 immigrants living in Washington, D.C.[102] Major sources of immigration include El Salvador, Vietnam, and Ethiopia, with a concentration of Salvadorans in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood.[103] Researchers found that there were 4,822 same-sex couples in the District of Columbia in 2010; about 2% of total households.[104] Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009 and the District began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in March 2010.[105] A 2007 report found that about one-third of District residents were functionally illiterate, compared to a national rate of about one in five. This is attributed in part to immigrants who are not proficient in English.[106] As of 2011[update], 85% of D.C. residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language.[107] Half of residents had at least a four-year college degree in 2006.[102] D.C. residents had a personal income per capita of $55,755; higher than any of the 50 states.[108] However, 19% of residents were below the poverty level in 2005, higher than any state except Mississippi.[109] Of the District's population, 17% is Baptist, 13% is Catholic, 6% is Evangelical Protestant, 4% is Methodist, 3% is Episcopalian/Anglican, 3% is Jewish, 2% is Eastern Orthodox, 1% is Pentecostal, 1% is Buddhist, 1% is Adventist, 1% is Lutheran, 1% is Muslim, 1% is Presbyterian, 1% is Mormon, and 1% is Hindu.[110][f] Over 90% of D.C. residents have health insurance coverage, the second-highest rate in the nation. This is due in part to city programs that help provide insurance to low-income individuals who do not qualify for other types of coverage.[111] A 2009 report found that at least 3% of District residents have HIV or AIDS, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) characterizes as a "generalized and severe" epidemic.[112] Pew Research Center 2014 Religious Landscape Study on religion in the Washington, D.C.[113] Affiliation % of Washington, D.C. adult population Total 100 100   Christian 65 65   Protestant 41 41   Historically Black Protestant 23 23   Catholic 20 20   Mormon 2 2   Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1 1   Other Mormon 1 1   Orthodox Christian 1 1   Greek Orthodox 1 1   Other Christian 1 1   Unaffiliated 25 25   Nontheist 10 10   Atheist 4 4   Agnostic 6 6   Nothing in particular 6 6   Nothing in particular (religion not important) 9 9   Nothing in particular (religion important) 6 6   Don't know 1 1   Non-Christian faiths 9 9   Jewish 5 5   Muslim 2 2   Hindu 1 1   Other non-Christian faiths 1 1   Crime Main article: Crime in Washington, D.C. Crime in Washington, D.C., is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug abuse, and gangs. A 2010 study found that 5% of city blocks accounted for over one-quarter of the District's total crime.[114] The more affluent neighborhoods of Northwest Washington are typically safe, but reports of violent crime increase in poorer neighborhoods generally concentrated in the eastern portion of the city.[114] Approximately 60,000 residents are ex-convicts.[115] Washington was often described as the "murder capital" of the United States during the early 1990s.[116] The number of murders peaked in 1991 at 479, but the level of violence then began to decline significantly.[117] By 2012, Washington's annual murder count had dropped to 88, the lowest total since 1961.[118] The murder rate has since risen from that historic low, though it remains close to half the rate of the early 2000s.[119] In 2016, the District's Metropolitan Police Department tallied 135 homicides, a 53% increase from 2012 but a 17% decrease from 2015.[120] Many neighborhoods such as Columbia Heights and Logan Circle are becoming safer and vibrant. However, incidents of robberies and thefts have remained higher in these areas because of increased nightlife activity and greater numbers of affluent residents.[121] Even still, citywide reports of both property and violent crimes have declined by nearly half since their most recent highs in the mid-1990s.[122] On June 26, 2008, the Supreme Court of the United States held in District of Columbia v. Heller that the city's 1976 handgun ban violated the right to keep and bear arms as protected under the Second Amendment.[123] However, the ruling does not prohibit all forms of gun control; laws requiring firearm registration remain in place, as does the city's assault weapon ban.[124] In addition to the District's own Metropolitan Police Department, many federal law enforcement agencies have jurisdiction in the city as well – most visibly the U.S. Park Police, founded in 1791.[125]


Economy See also: Category:Companies based in Washington, D.C. and Category:Non-profit organizations based in Washington, D.C. Washington has a growing, diversified economy with an increasing percentage of professional and business service jobs.[126] The gross state product of the District in 2010 was $103.3 billion, which would rank it No. 34 compared to the 50 states.[127] The gross product of the Washington Metropolitan Area was $435 billion in 2014, making it the sixth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.[128] Between 2009 and 2016, GDP per capita in Washington, D.C has consistently ranked on the very top among U.S. states.[129] In 2016, at $160,472, its GDP per capita is almost three times as high as that of Massachusetts, which ranked second place in the country.[129] As of June 2011, the Washington Metropolitan Area had an unemployment rate of 6.2%; the second-lowest rate among the 49 largest metro areas in the nation.[130] The District of Columbia itself had an unemployment rate of 9.8% during the same time period.[131] Eastern Market on Capitol Hill houses food vendors and artisan stalls. In 2012, the federal government accounted for about 29% of the jobs in Washington, D.C.[132] This is thought to immunize Washington to national economic downturns because the federal government continues operations even during recessions.[133] Many organizations such as law firms, independent contractors (both defense and civilian), non-profit organizations, lobbying firms, trade unions, industry trade groups, and professional associations have their headquarters in or near D.C. to be close to the federal government.[84] Tourism is Washington's second largest industry. Approximately 18.9 million visitors contributed an estimated $4.8 billion to the local economy in 2012.[134] The District also hosts nearly 200 foreign embassies and international organizations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Pan American Health Organization. In 2008, the foreign diplomatic corps in Washington employed about 10,000 people and contributed an estimated $400 million annually to the local economy.[85] The District has growing industries not directly related to government, especially in the areas of education, finance, public policy, and scientific research. Georgetown University, George Washington University, Washington Hospital Center, Children's National Medical Center and Howard University are the top five non-government-related employers in the city as of 2009[update].[135] According to statistics compiled in 2011, four of the largest 500 companies in the country were headquartered in the District.[136] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Washington was ranked as having the 12th most competitive financial center in the world, and fifth most competitive in the United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, and Boston).[137]


Culture Historic sites and museums See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C.; National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington, D.C.; and List of museums in Washington, D.C. The Lincoln Memorial had over six million visitors in 2012.[134] The National Mall is a large, open park in downtown Washington between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol. Given its prominence, the mall is often the location of political protests, concerts, festivals, and presidential inaugurations. The Washington Monument and the Jefferson Pier are near the center of the mall, south of the White House. Also on the mall are the National World War II Memorial at the east end of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, the Korean War Veterans Memorial, and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.[138] Directly south of the mall, the Tidal Basin features rows of Japanese cherry blossom trees that originated as gifts from the nation of Japan.[139] The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, George Mason Memorial, Jefferson Memorial, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, and the District of Columbia War Memorial are around the Tidal Basin.[138] The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history including the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.[140] Located in three buildings on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress is the largest library complex in the world with a collection of over 147 million books, manuscripts, and other materials.[141] The United States Supreme Court Building was completed in 1935; before then, the court held sessions in the Old Senate Chamber of the Capitol.[142] The Smithsonian Institution operates 19 museums and the National Zoo, all free to the public. The Smithsonian Institution is an educational foundation chartered by Congress in 1846 that maintains most of the nation's official museums and galleries in Washington, D.C. The U.S. government partially funds the Smithsonian and its collections are open to the public free of charge.[143] The Smithsonian's locations had a combined total of 30 million visits in 2013. The most visited museum is the National Museum of Natural History on the National Mall.[144] Other Smithsonian Institution museums and galleries on the mall are: the National Air and Space Museum; the National Museum of African Art; the National Museum of American History; the National Museum of the American Indian; the Sackler and Freer galleries, which both focus on Asian art and culture; the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden; the Arts and Industries Building; the S. Dillon Ripley Center; and the Smithsonian Institution Building (also known as "The Castle"), which serves as the institution's headquarters.[145] The Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery are housed in the Old Patent Office Building, near Washington's Chinatown.[146] The Renwick Gallery is officially part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum but is in a separate building near the White House. Other Smithsonian museums and galleries include: the Anacostia Community Museum in Southeast Washington; the National Postal Museum near Union Station; and the National Zoo in Woodley Park.[145] The National Gallery of Art is on the National Mall near the Capitol and features works of American and European art. The gallery and its collections are owned by the U.S. government but are not a part of the Smithsonian Institution.[147] The National Building Museum, which occupies the former Pension Building near Judiciary Square, was chartered by Congress and hosts exhibits on architecture, urban planning, and design.[148] There are many private art museums in the District of Columbia, which house major collections and exhibits open to the public such as the National Museum of Women in the Arts; the Corcoran Gallery of Art, the largest private museum in Washington;[149] and The Phillips Collection in Dupont Circle, the first museum of modern art in the United States.[150] Other private museums in Washington include the Newseum, the O Street Museum Foundation, the International Spy Museum, the National Geographic Society Museum, the Marian Koshland Science Museum and the Museum of the Bible. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum near the National Mall maintains exhibits, documentation, and artifacts related to the Holocaust.[151] Arts Main articles: Theater in Washington, D.C. and Music of Washington, D.C. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on the Potomac River Mural of Duke Ellington on U Street Washington, D.C., is a national center for the arts. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet. The Kennedy Center Honors are awarded each year to those in the performing arts who have contributed greatly to the cultural life of the United States.[152] The historic Ford's Theatre, site of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, continues to operate as a functioning performance space as well as museum.[153] The Marine Barracks near Capitol Hill houses the United States Marine Band; founded in 1798, it is the country's oldest professional musical organization.[154] American march composer and Washington-native John Philip Sousa led the Marine Band from 1880 until 1892.[155] Founded in 1925, the United States Navy Band has its headquarters at the Washington Navy Yard and performs at official events and public concerts around the city.[156] Washington has a strong local theater tradition. Founded in 1950, Arena Stage achieved national attention and spurred growth in the city's independent theater movement that now includes organizations such as the Shakespeare Theatre Company, Woolly Mammoth Theatre Company, and the Studio Theatre.[157] Arena Stage opened its newly renovated home in the city's emerging Southwest waterfront area in 2010.[158] The GALA Hispanic Theatre, now housed in the historic Tivoli Theatre in Columbia Heights, was founded in 1976 and is a National Center for the Latino Performing Arts.[159] The U Street Corridor in Northwest D.C., known as "Washington's Black Broadway", is home to institutions like the Howard Theatre, Bohemian Caverns, and the Lincoln Theatre, which hosted music legends such as Washington-native Duke Ellington, John Coltrane, and Miles Davis.[160] Washington has its own native music genre called go-go; a post-funk, percussion-driven flavor of rhythm and blues that was popularized in the late 1970s by D.C. band leader Chuck Brown.[161] The District is an important center for indie culture and music in the United States. The label Dischord Records, formed by Ian MacKaye, was one of the most crucial independent labels in the genesis of 1980s punk and eventually indie rock in the 1990s.[162] Modern alternative and indie music venues like The Black Cat and the 9:30 Club bring popular acts to the U Street area.[163] Sports Main article: Sports in Washington, D.C. The Capital One Arena in Chinatown Washington is one of 13 cities in the United States with teams from all four major professional men's sports and is home to one major professional women's team. The Washington Wizards (National Basketball Association), the Washington Capitals (National Hockey League), and the Washington Mystics (Women's National Basketball Association), play at the Capital One Arena in Chinatown. Nationals Park, which opened in Southeast D.C. in 2008, is home to the Washington Nationals (Major League Baseball). D.C. United (Major League Soccer) plays at RFK Stadium. The Washington Redskins (National Football League) play at FedExField in nearby Landover, Maryland. Current D.C. teams have won a combined ten professional league championships: the Washington Redskins have won five;[164] D.C. United has won four;[165] and the Washington Wizards (then the Washington Bullets) have won a single championship.[166] Other professional and semi-professional teams in Washington include: the Washington Kastles (World TeamTennis); the Washington D.C. Slayers (USA Rugby League); the Baltimore Washington Eagles (U.S. Australian Football League); the D.C. Divas (Independent Women's Football League); and the Potomac Athletic Club RFC (Rugby Super League). The William H.G. FitzGerald Tennis Center in Rock Creek Park hosts the Citi Open. Washington is also home to two major annual marathon races: the Marine Corps Marathon, which is held every autumn, and the Rock 'n' Roll USA Marathon held in the spring. The Marine Corps Marathon began in 1976 and is sometimes called "The People's Marathon" because it is the largest marathon that does not offer prize money to participants.[167] The District's four NCAA Division I teams, American Eagles, George Washington Colonials, Georgetown Hoyas and Howard Bison and Lady Bison, have a broad following. The Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team is the most notable and also plays at the Capital One Arena. From 2008 to 2012, the District hosted an annual college football bowl game at RFK Stadium, called the Military Bowl.[168] The D.C. area is home to one regional sports television network, Comcast SportsNet (CSN), based in Bethesda, Maryland.


Media Main article: Media in Washington, D.C. See also: List of newspapers in Washington, D.C. and List of television shows set in Washington, D.C. Washington's Newspaper Row on Pennsylvania Avenue in 1874 Washington, D.C., is a prominent center for national and international media. The Washington Post, founded in 1877, is the oldest and most-read local daily newspaper in Washington.[169] "The Post", as it is popularly called, is well known as the newspaper that exposed the Watergate scandal.[170] It had the sixth-highest readership of all news dailies in the country in 2011.[171] The Washington Post Company also publishes a daily free commuter newspaper called the Express, which summarizes events, sports and entertainment, as well as the Spanish-language paper El Tiempo Latino. Another popular local daily is The Washington Times, the city's second general interest broadsheet and also an influential paper in political circles.[172] The alternative weekly Washington City Paper also have substantial readership in the Washington area.[173][174] Some community and specialty papers focus on neighborhood and cultural issues, including the weekly Washington Blade and Metro Weekly, which focus on LGBT issues; the Washington Informer and The Washington Afro American, which highlight topics of interest to the black community; and neighborhood newspapers published by The Current Newspapers. Congressional Quarterly, The Hill, Politico and Roll Call newspapers focus exclusively on issues related to Congress and the federal government. Other publications based in Washington include the National Geographic magazine and political publications such as The Washington Examiner, The New Republic and Washington Monthly.[175] The Washington Metropolitan Area is the ninth-largest television media market in the nation, with two million homes, approximately 2% of the country's population.[176] Several media companies and cable television channels have their headquarters in the area, including C-SPAN; Black Entertainment Television (BET); Radio One; the National Geographic Channel; Smithsonian Networks; National Public Radio (NPR); Travel Channel (in Chevy Chase, Maryland); Discovery Communications (in Silver Spring, Maryland); and the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) (in Arlington, Virginia). The headquarters of Voice of America, the U.S. government's international news service, is near the Capitol in Southwest Washington.[177]


Government and politics Main article: Government of the District of Columbia Politics Mayoral election results[178] Year Democratic Republican 1974 82.5% 79,065 3.7% 3,501 1978 70.2% 68,354 28.1% 27,366 1982 81.0% 95,007 14.1% 16,502 1986 61.4% 79,142 32.8% 42,354 1990 86.2% 140,011 11.5% 18,653 1994 56.0% 102,884 41.9% 76,902 1998 66.2% 92,504 30.2% 42,280 2002 60.6% 79,841 34.5% 45,407 2006 89.7% 98,740 6.1% 6,744 2010 74.2% 97,978 2014 54.5% 96,666 [g] Presidential election results[178][180] Year Democratic Republican 1964 85.5% 169,796 14.5% 28,801 1968 81.8% 139,566 18.2% 31,012 1972 78.1% 127,627 21.6% 35,226 1976 81.6% 137,818 16.5% 27,873 1980 74.9% 130,231 13.4% 26,218 1984 85.4% 180,408 13.7% 29,009 1988 82.6% 159,407 14.3% 27,590 1992 84.6% 192,619 9.1% 20,698 1996 85.2% 158,220 9.3% 17,339 2000 85.2% 171,923 9.0% 18,073 2004 89.0% 202,970 9.3% 21,256 2008 92.5% 245,800 6.5% 17,367 2012 90.9% 267,070 7.3% 21,381 2016 90.5% 282,830 4.1% 12,723 See also: District of Columbia home rule; List of mayors of Washington, D.C.; and List of District of Columbia symbols The John A. Wilson Building houses the offices of the mayor and council of the District of Columbia. Article One, Section Eight of the United States Constitution grants the United States Congress "exclusive jurisdiction" over the city. The District did not have an elected local government until the passage of the 1973 Home Rule Act. The Act devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor, currently Muriel Bowser, and the thirteen-member Council of the District of Columbia. However, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.[181] Each of the city's eight wards elects a single member of the council and residents elect four at-large members to represent the District as a whole. The council chair is also elected at-large.[182] There are 37 Advisory Neighborhood Commissions (ANCs) elected by small neighborhood districts. ANCs can issue recommendations on all issues that affect residents; government agencies take their advice under careful consideration.[183] The Attorney General of the District of Columbia, currently Karl Racine, is elected to a four-year term.[184] Washington, D.C., observes all federal holidays and also celebrates Emancipation Day on April 16, which commemorates the end of slavery in the District.[26] The flag of Washington, D.C., was adopted in 1938 and is a variation on George Washington's family coat of arms.[185] Budgetary issues The mayor and council set local taxes and a budget, which must be approved by Congress. The Government Accountability Office and other analysts have estimated that the city's high percentage of tax-exempt property and the Congressional prohibition of commuter taxes create a structural deficit in the District's local budget of anywhere between $470 million and over $1 billion per year. Congress typically provides additional grants for federal programs such as Medicaid and the operation of the local justice system; however, analysts claim that the payments do not fully resolve the imbalance.[186][187] The city's local government, particularly during the mayoralty of Marion Barry, was criticized for mismanagement and waste.[188] During his administration in 1989, The Washington Monthly magazine claimed that the District had "the worst city government in America."[189] In 1995, at the start of Barry's fourth term, Congress created the District of Columbia Financial Control Board to oversee all municipal spending.[190] Mayor Anthony Williams won election in 1998 and oversaw a period of urban renewal and budget surpluses. The District regained control over its finances in 2001 and the oversight board's operations were suspended.[191] Voting rights debate See also: District of Columbia voting rights and Political party strength in Washington, D.C. The United States Congress has ultimate authority over the District. The District is not a state and therefore has no voting representation in Congress. D.C. residents elect a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives, currently Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-D.C. At-Large), who may sit on committees, participate in debate, and introduce legislation, but cannot vote on the House floor. The District has no official representation in the United States Senate. Neither chamber seats the District's elected "shadow" representative or senators. Unlike residents of U.S. territories such as Puerto Rico or Guam, which also have non-voting delegates, D.C., residents are subject to all federal taxes.[192] In the financial year 2012, D.C., residents and businesses paid $20.7 billion in federal taxes; more than the taxes collected from 19 states and the highest federal taxes per capita.[193] A 2005 poll found that 78% of Americans did not know that residents of the District of Columbia have less representation in Congress than residents of the 50 states.[194] Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and featuring the city's unofficial motto, "Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. vehicle license plates.[195] There is evidence of nationwide approval for D.C. voting rights; various polls indicate that 61 to 82% of Americans believe that D.C. should have voting representation in Congress.[194][196] Despite public support, attempts to grant the District voting representation, including the D.C. statehood movement and the proposed District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment, have been unsuccessful. Opponents of D.C. voting rights propose that the Founding Fathers never intended for District residents to have a vote in Congress since the Constitution makes clear that representation must come from the states. Those opposed to making D.C. a state claim that such a move would destroy the notion of a separate national capital and that statehood would unfairly grant Senate representation to a single city.[197] Sister cities Washington, D.C., has fourteen official sister city agreements. Listed in the order each agreement was first established, they are: Bangkok, Thailand (1962, renewed 2002); Dakar, Senegal (1980, renewed 2006); Beijing, China (1984, renewed 2004); Brussels, Belgium (1985, renewed 2002); Athens, Greece (2000); Paris, France (2000 as a friendship and cooperation agreement, renewed 2005);[198] Pretoria, South Africa (2002, renewed 2008); Seoul, South Korea (2006); Accra, Ghana (2006); Sunderland, United Kingdom (2006); Rome, Italy (2011); Ankara, Turkey (2011); Brasília, Brazil (2013); and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (2013).[199] Each of the listed cities is a national capital except for Sunderland, which includes the town of Washington, the ancestral home of George Washington's family.[200] Paris and Rome are each formally recognized as a "partner city" due to their special one sister city policy.[201]


Education See also: List of colleges and universities in Washington, D.C. and List of parochial and private schools in Washington, D.C. Founders Library at Howard University, an historically black university District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) operates the city's 123 public schools.[202] The number of students in DCPS steadily decreased for 39 years until 2009. In the 2010–11 school year, 46,191 students were enrolled in the public school system.[203] DCPS has one of the highest-cost yet lowest-performing school systems in the country, both in terms of infrastructure and student achievement.[204] Mayor Adrian Fenty's administration made sweeping changes to the system by closing schools, replacing teachers, firing principals, and using private education firms to aid curriculum development.[205] The District of Columbia Public Charter School Board monitors the 52 public charter schools in the city.[206] Due to the perceived problems with the traditional public school system, enrollment in public charter schools has steadily increased.[207] As of fall 2010, D.C., charter schools had a total enrollment of about 32,000, a 9% increase from the prior year.[203] The District is also home to 92 private schools, which enrolled approximately 18,000 students in 2008.[208] The District of Columbia Public Library operates 25 neighborhood locations including the landmark Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library.[209] Private universities include American University (AU), the Catholic University of America (CUA), Gallaudet University, George Washington University (GW), Georgetown University (GU), Howard University, the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), and Trinity Washington University. The Corcoran College of Art and Design provides specialized arts instruction and other higher-education institutions offer continuing, distance and adult education. The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) is a public university providing undergraduate and graduate education. D.C. residents may also be eligible for a grant of up to $10,000 per year to offset the cost of tuition at any public university in the country.[210] The District is known for its medical research institutions such as Washington Hospital Center and the Children's National Medical Center, as well as the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. In addition, the city is home to three medical schools and associated teaching hospitals at George Washington, Georgetown, and Howard universities.[211]


Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transportation in Washington, D.C. Metro Center is the transfer station for the Red, Orange, Silver, and Blue Metrorail lines. There are 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of streets, parkways, and avenues in the District.[212] Due to the freeway revolts of the 1960s, much of the proposed interstate highway system through the middle of Washington was never built. Interstate 95 (I-95), the nation's major east coast highway, therefore bends around the District to form the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. A portion of the proposed highway funding was directed to the region's public transportation infrastructure instead.[213] The interstate highways that continue into Washington, including I-66 and I-395, both terminate shortly after entering the city.[214] The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) operates the Washington Metro, the city's rapid transit system, as well as Metrobus. Both systems serve the District and its suburbs. Metro opened on March 27, 1976 and, as of July 2014[update], consists of 91 stations and 117 miles (188 km) of track.[215] With an average of about one million trips each weekday, Metro is the second-busiest rapid transit system in the country. Metrobus serves over 400,000 riders each weekday and is the nation's fifth-largest bus system.[216] The city also operates its own DC Circulator bus system, which connects commercial areas within central Washington.[217] Union Station is a transportation hub for passengers on Amtrak, commuter rail lines, and the Washington Metro. Union Station is the city's main train station and services approximately 70,000 people each day. It is Amtrak's second-busiest station with 4.6 million passengers annually and is the southern terminus for the Northeast Corridor and Acela Express routes. Maryland's MARC and Virginia's VRE commuter trains and the Metrorail Red Line also provide service into Union Station.[218] Following renovations in 2011, Union Station became Washington's primary intercity bus transit center.[219] Three major airports serve the District. Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is across the Potomac River from downtown Washington in Arlington, Virginia and primarily handles domestic flights. Major international flights arrive and depart from Washington Dulles International Airport, 26.3 miles (42.3 km) west of the District in Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Virginia. Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport is 31.7 miles (51.0 km) northeast of the District in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. According to a 2010 study, Washington-area commuters spent 70 hours a year in traffic delays, which tied with Chicago for having the nation's worst road congestion.[220] However, 37% of Washington-area commuters take public transportation to work, the second-highest rate in the country.[221] An additional 12% of D.C. commuters walked to work, 6% carpooled, and 3% traveled by bicycle in 2010.[222] A 2011 study by Walk Score found that Washington was the seventh-most walkable city in the country with 80% of residents living in neighborhoods that are not car dependent.[223] In 2013, the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had the eighth lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.7 percent), with 8 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit.[224] An expected 32% increase in transit usage within the District by 2030 has spurred construction of a new DC Streetcar system to interconnect the city's neighborhoods.[225] Construction has also started on an additional Metro line that will connect Washington to Dulles airport.[226] The District is part of the regional Capital Bikeshare program. Started in 2010, it is currently one of the largest bicycle sharing systems in the country with over 4,351 bicycles and more than 395 stations[227] all provided by PBSC Urban Solutions. By 2012, the city's network of marked bicycle lanes covered 56 miles (90 km) of streets.[228] Utilities Processing facilities at Dalecarlia Reservoir, the city's primary storage basin of drinking water The District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority (i.e. WASA or D.C. Water) is an independent authority of the D.C. government that provides drinking water and wastewater collection in Washington. WASA purchases water from the historic Washington Aqueduct, which is operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. The water, sourced from the Potomac River, is treated and stored in the city's Dalecarlia, Georgetown, and McMillan reservoirs. The aqueduct provides drinking water for a total of 1.1 million people in the District and Virginia, including Arlington, Falls Church, and a portion of Fairfax County.[229] The authority also provides sewage treatment services for an additional 1.6 million people in four surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties.[230] Pepco is the city's electric utility and services 793,000 customers in the District and suburban Maryland.[231] An 1889 law prohibits overhead wires within much of the historic City of Washington. As a result, all power lines and telecommunication cables are located underground in downtown Washington, and traffic signals are placed at the edge of the street.[232] A plan announced in 2013 would bury an additional 60 miles (97 km) of primary power lines throughout the District.[233] Washington Gas is the city's natural gas utility and serves over one million customers in the District and its suburbs. Incorporated by Congress in 1848, the company installed the city's first gas lights in the Capitol, the White House, and along Pennsylvania Avenue.[234]


See also Washington, D.C. portal Book: Washington, D.C. Index of Washington, D.C.-related articles Outline of Washington, D.C.


Notes ^ By 1790, the Southern states had largely repaid their overseas debts from the Revolutionary War. The Northern states had not, and wanted the federal government to take over their outstanding liabilities. Southern Congressmen agreed to the plan in return for establishing the new national capital at their preferred site on the Potomac River.[9] ^ The Residence Act allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as the Anacostia River. However, Washington shifted the federal territory's borders to the southeast in order to include the city of Alexandria at the District's southern tip. In 1791, Congress amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, including territory ceded by Virginia.[10] ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. ^ Official records for Washington, D.C. were kept at 24th and M Streets NW from January 1871 to June 1945, and at Reagan National since July 1945.[72] ^ Until 1890, the Census Bureau counted the City of Washington, Georgetown, and unincorporated portions of Washington County as three separate areas. The data provided in this article from before 1890 are calculated as if the District of Columbia were a single municipality as it is today. Population data for each city prior to 1890 are available.[93] ^ These figures count adherents, meaning all full members, their children, and others who regularly attend services. In all of the District, 55% of the population is adherent to any particular religion. ^ Independents David Catania and Carol Schwartz, both former Republicans,[179] garnered 61,388 and 12,327 votes or 34.6% and 7.0%, respectively.


References ^ David Robinson BA(Hons), PGCE, FRGS, FRMetS. "Demonyms for people from the USA". www.geography-site.co.uk. Retrieved April 12, 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Addis.com :: "Demonym"". addis.com. Retrieved April 12, 2017.  ^ a b c "QuickFacts District of Columbia". U.S. Census Bureau. December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016.  ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau. 2015. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved January 12, 2016.  ^ Humphrey, Robert L.; Mary Elizabeth Chambers (1977). "Ancient Washington: American Indian Cultures of the Potomac Valley" (PDF). The George Washington University. Retrieved February 14, 2014.  ^ Madison, James. "The Federalist No. 43". The Independent Journal. Library of Congress. Retrieved September 5, 2011.  ^ Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing Webb; John Wooldridge (1892). "IV. Washington Becomes The Capital". Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. p. 66.  ^ "Constitution of the United States". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 22, 2008.  ^ a b Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing Webb; John Wooldridge (1892). Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. p. 124.  ^ a b Crew, Harvey W.; William Bensing Webb; John Wooldridge (1892). Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. C. Dayton, Ohio: United Brethren Publishing House. pp. 89–92.  ^ "Georgetown Historic District". National Park Service. Retrieved July 5, 2008.  ^ "Alexandria's History". Alexandria Historical Society. Archived from the original on April 4, 2009. Retrieved April 4, 2009.  ^ Bordewich, Fergus M. (2008). Washington: the making of the American capital. 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External links Find more aboutWashington, D.C.at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Official website Guide to Washington, D.C., materials from the Library of Congress Geographic data related to Washington, D.C. at OpenStreetMap U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: District of Columbia (civil) Washington, D.C. at the Wayback Machine (archived March 31, 2001) Places adjacent to Washington, D.C.  Maryland  District of Columbia: Outline • Index  Virginia v t e  District of Columbia Capital of the United States Book Topics History Timeline Geography Media Music Sports Symbols Tourist attractions Emancipation Day Politics Elections Government Home rule Retrocession Statehood movement Voting rights Society Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Government Fire Libraries Mayors Police Public Schools Transportation v t e Landmarks of Washington, D.C. 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Ward 1 Adams Morgan Columbia Heights Kalorama LeDroit Park Mount Pleasant Park View Pleasant Plains Shaw Woodley Park Ward 2 Burleith Chinatown Downtown Dupont Circle Foggy Bottom Georgetown Kalorama Logan Circle Mount Vernon Square Penn Quarter Shaw Southwest Federal Center West End Ward 3 American University Park Berkley Cathedral Heights Chevy Chase Cleveland Park Colony Hill Forest Hills Foxhall Friendship Heights Glover Park Kent Massachusetts Heights McLean Gardens North Cleveland Park Observatory Circle The Palisades Potomac Heights Spring Valley Tenleytown Wakefield Wesley Heights Woodland Normanstone Woodley Park Ward 4 Barnaby Woods Brightwood Brightwood Park Chevy Chase Colonial Village Crestwood Fort Stevens Ridge Fort Totten Hawthorne Manor Park North Portal Estates Petworth Queens Chapel Riggs Park Shepherd Park Sixteenth Street Heights Takoma Ward 5 Arboretum Bloomingdale Brentwood Brookland Carver Langston Eckington Edgewood Fort Lincoln Fort Totten Gateway Ivy City 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Insular areas American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Outlying islands Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island Indian reservations List of Indian reservations v t e United States Census Regions Division State Federal District Insular area American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands ZIP Code Tabulation Area Native areas Alaska Native corporation Indian reservation list Hawaiian home land Off-reservation trust land Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Area Metropolitan Primary statistical area list Combined statistical area Core-based statistical area list Metropolitan statistical area list Micropolitan statistical area list New England city and town area Urban area list State-level Congressional district County list Alaska census area Independent city Municipio Place Census-designated Public use microdata area School district lists State legislative district Urban growth area County-level Census county division Minor civil division Traffic analysis zone Voting district Local Block Block group Tract Census Bureau Office of Management and Budget v t e The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America     New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado Springs, CO Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN United States Census Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012 v t e Northeast megalopolis Major metropolitan areas (over 1,000,000) New York city Philadelphia city Washington city Boston city Baltimore city Providence city Hartford city Other cities (over 100,000) Newark Jersey City Yonkers Worcester Springfield Alexandria Paterson Bridgeport Elizabeth New Haven Stamford Allentown Manchester Waterbury Cambridge Lowell v t e Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV metropolitan area Principal cities Maryland Silver Spring Frederick Rockville Bethesda Gaithersburg Virginia Arlington County Alexandria Reston District of Columbia Washington Counties and county equivalents* Maryland Calvert Charles Frederick Montgomery Prince George's Virginia Arlington Alexandria city Clarke Culpeper Fairfax Fairfax city Falls Church city Fauquier Loudoun Prince William Manassas city Manassas Park city Rappahannock Spotsylvania Fredericksburg city Stafford Warren Other District of Columbia Jefferson County, West Virginia The District of Columbia itself, and Virginia's incorporated cities, are county equivalents. Virginia's incorporated cities are listed under their surrounding county. The incorporated cities bordering more than one county (Alexandria, Falls Church and Fredericksburg) are listed under the county they were part of before incorporation as a city. v t e Capital districts and territories Federal districts Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria) Federal District (Brazil) Buenos Aires (Argentina) Australian Capital Territory (Australia) Capital District (Venezuela) Islamabad Capital Territory (Pakistan) Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) National Capital Territory of Delhi (India) Mexico City (Mexico) District of Columbia (United States) Other related topics v t e George Washington 1st President of the United States, 1789–1797 Senior Officer of the Army, 1798–1799 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775 First Continental Congress, 1774 Military career Revolutionary War Military career French and Indian War Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-Camp Washington's headquarters Boston campaign Siege of Boston New York and New Jersey campaign Delaware River crossing Battle of Trenton Philadelphia campaign Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of White Marsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown campaign Siege of Yorktown Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy Newburgh letter Resignation as commander-in-chief Badge of Military Merit Purple Heart Washington Before Boston Medal Horses: Nelson and Blueskin Other U.S. founding events 1769 Virginia Association Continental Association 1774 Fairfax Resolves Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture 1785 Mount Vernon Conference Chairman, 1787 Constitutional Convention Presidency United States presidential election, 1788–89 1792 First inauguration inaugural bible Second inauguration Title of "Mr. President" Cabinet of the United States Secretary of State Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of War Judiciary Act of 1789 Nonintercourse Act Whiskey Rebellion Militia Acts of 1792 Coinage Act of 1792 United States Mint Proclamation of Neutrality Neutrality Act of 1794 Jay Treaty Pinckney's Treaty Slave Trade Act of 1794 Residence Act Thanksgiving Proclamation Farewell Address State of the Union Address 1790 1791 1792 1793 1796 Cabinet Federal judicial appointments Views and public image Presidential library The Washington Papers Religious views Washington and slavery Town Destroyer Legacy Life and homes Early life Birthplace Ferry Farm boyhood home Mount Vernon Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion President's House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Lee University Electoral history of George Washington Memorials and depictions Washington, D.C. Washington state Washington Monument Mount Rushmore Washington's Birthday Purple Heart The Apotheosis of Washington George Washington (Houdon) George Washington (Ceracchi) George Washington (Trumbull) Washington Crossing the Delaware General George Washington at Trenton Washington at Verplanck's Point General George Washington Resigning His Commission Unfinished portrait Lansdowne portrait The Washington Family portrait Washington at Princeton painting Point of View sculpture George Washington University Washington University Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington Memorial Parkway George Washington Bridge Washington and Jefferson National Forests Washington Monument, Baltimore Washington, D.C. statue List of memorials U.S. Postage stamps Washington-Franklin Issues 1932 bicentennial Currency Washington quarter Washington dollar Silver bullion coins Cultural depictions George Washington (1984 miniseries 1986 sequel) Related Bibliography Founding Fathers of the United States Republicanism Federalist Party Federalist Era Virginia dynasty Coat of arms Cherry-tree anecdote River Farm Washington's Crossing 1751 Barbados trip Category Syng inkstand General of the Armies American Philosophical Society American Revolution patriots Mount Vernon Ladies' Association Ancestry and family Martha Washington (wife) John Parke Custis (stepson) George Washington Parke Custis (step-grandson, adopted son) Eleanor Parke Custis (step-granddaughter, adopted daughter) Augustine Washington (father) Mary Ball (mother) Lawrence Washington (half-brother) Augustine Washington Jr. (half-brother) Betty Washington Lewis (sister) Samuel Washington (brother) John A. Washington (brother) Charles Washington (brother) Lawrence Washington (grandfather) John Washington (great-grandfather) Bushrod Washington (nephew) John Adams → Category v t e Capitals of North America Dependent territories are in italics Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe (France) Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis Belmopan, Belize Bridgetown, Barbados Castries, St. Lucia Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands (US) Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos (UK) Fort-de-France, Martinique (France) George Town, Cayman Islands (UK) Guatemala City, Guatemala Gustavia, St. Barthélemy (France) Hamilton, Bermuda (UK) Havana, Cuba Kingston, Jamaica Kingstown, St. Vincent and the Grenadines Kralendijk, Bonaire (Netherlands) Managua, Nicaragua Marigot, St. Martin (France) Mexico City, Mexico Nassau, The Bahamas Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Oranjestad, Aruba (Netherlands) Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius (Netherlands) Ottawa, Canada Panama City, Panama Philipsburg, Sint Maarten (Netherlands) Plymouth (de jure) • Brades (de facto), Montserrat (UK) Port-au-Prince, Haiti Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Road Town, British Virgin Islands (UK) Roseau, Dominica Saint-Pierre, St. Pierre and Miquelon (France) San José, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico (US) San Salvador, El Salvador Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic St. George's, Grenada St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda Tegucigalpa, Honduras The Bottom, Saba (Netherlands) The Valley, Anguilla (UK) Washington, D.C., United States Willemstad, Curaçao (Netherlands) v t e Location of the capital of the United States and predecessors 1774   First Continental Congress Philadelphia 1775–81   Second Continental Congress Philadelphia → Baltimore → Lancaster → York → Philadelphia 1781–89   Congress of the Confederation Philadelphia → Princeton → Annapolis → Trenton → New York City 1789–present   Federal government of the United States New York City → Philadelphia → Washington, D.C. Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312739635 LCCN: n79018774 ISNI: 0000 0001 2296 8205 GND: 4064682-8 BNF: cb11881081d (data) NDL: 00629508 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Washington,_D.C.&oldid=826032732" Categories: Washington, D.C.Cities in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan areaCapital districts and territoriesCapitals in North AmericaMembers of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples OrganizationPlanned capitalsPlanned cities in the United StatesPopulated places established in 1790Populated places on the Potomac RiverSouthern United StatesStates and territories established in 1790Subdivisions of the United StatesWashington metropolitan area1790 establishments in the United StatesHidden categories: CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse mdy dates from September 2017Featured articlesArticles containing Latin-language textArticles containing explicitly cited English-language textCoordinates on WikidataArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2016All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2010Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2014Official website different in Wikidata and WikipediaWebarchive template wayback linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers


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