Contents 1 History 2 Stars 3 Acquisition by Warner Bros 4 Publication 5 Locations 6 Notable films 7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] Advertisement (1916) Vitagraph Studios, Hollywood, California Vitagraph Company, Brooklyn New York The Life of Moses (1909), directed by J. Stuart Blackton, the first five-reel picture made in America Play media Sonny Jim and the Amusement Company Ltd (1915) directed by Tefft Johnson Play media The Good in the Worst of Us (1915) directed by William J. Humphrey In 1896, English émigré Blackton was moonlighting as a reporter/artist for the New York Evening World when he was sent to interview Thomas Edison about his new film projector. The inventor talked the entrepreneurial reporter into buying a set of films and a projector. A year later, Blackton and business partner Smith founded the American Vitagraph Company in direct competition with Edison. A third partner, distributor William "Pop" Rock, joined in 1899. The company's first studio was located on the rooftop of a building on Nassau Street in Manhattan. Operations were later moved to the Midwood neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. The company's first claim to fame came from newsreels: Vitagraph cameramen were on the scene to film events from the Spanish–American War of 1898. These shorts were among the first works of motion-picture propaganda, and a few had that most characteristic fault of propaganda, studio re-enactments being passed off as footage of actual events (The Battle of Santiago Bay was filmed in an improvised bathtub, with the "smoke of battle" provided by Mrs. Blackton's cigar). In 1897 Vitagraph produced The Humpty Dumpty Circus, which was the first film to use the stop-motion technique.[2] Vitagraph was not the only company seeking to make money from Edison's motion picture inventions, and Edison's lawyers were very busy in the 1890s and 1900s filing patents and suing competitors for patent infringement. Blackton did his best to avoid lawsuits by buying a special license from Edison in 1907 and by agreeing to sell many of his most popular films to Edison for distribution. The American Vitagraph Company made many contributions to the history of movie-making. In 1903 the director Joseph Delmont started his career by producing westerns; he later became famous by using "wild carnivores" in his movies—a sensation for that time.

Stars[edit] In 1909 it was one of the original ten production companies included in Edison's attempt to corner movie-making, the Motion Picture Patents Company. Major stars included Florence Turner (the Vitagraph Girl, one of the world's first movie stars),[3] Maurice Costello (the first of the matinee idols), Harry T. Morey, Jean (the Vitagraph Dog and the first animal star of the Silent Era) and such future stars as Helen Hayes, Viola Dana, Dolores Costello, Norma Talmadge, Constance Talmadge, and Moe Howard. Larry Trimble was a noted director of films for Turner and Jean (he was also the dog's owner). The first "Les Miserables" film adaptation, a short silent historical drama starring Maurice Costello as Jean Valjean and William V. Ranous as Javert, is distributed by the Vitagraph Company of America. The film consists of four reels, each released over the course of three months beginning on 4 September to 27 November 1909. John Bunny made films for Vitagraph in the 1910s most of them co-starring Flora Finch, and was the most popular film comedian in the world in the years before Chaplin; his death in 1915 was observed worldwide. In 1910 a number of movie houses showed the five parts of the Vitagraph serial The Life of Moses consecutively (a total length of almost 90 minutes), making it one of many to claim the title of "the first feature film." A long series of Shakespeare adaptations were the first done of the Bard's works in the U.S. In 1911, Vitagraph produced the first aviation film, The Military Air-Scout, directed by William J. Humphrey, with future General of the Air Force Hap Arnold as the stunt flier.[4] The 1915 feature The Battle Cry of Peace (written and directed by Blackton) was one of the great propaganda films of World War I. Ironically, after America declared war, the film was modified for re-release because it was seen as not being sufficiently pro-war, thus it also earns a place in the history of censorship. World War I spelled the beginning of the end for Vitagraph. With the loss of foreign distributors and the rise of the monopolistic Studio system, Vitagraph was slowly but surely squeezed out of the business. On January 28, 1925, it left the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (later MPAA); the owner, Albert E. Smith, explained: Vitagraph withdraws because it does not believe that justice to the distributors and to the public and to those independent producers who are not theater owning exhibitors, can be obtained through the labors of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America.[5]

Acquisition by Warner Bros[edit] On April 22, 1925, Smith finally gave up and sold the company to Warner Bros.[6] for a comfortable profit. The Flatbush studio (renamed Vitaphone) was later used as an independent unit within Warner Bros., specializing in early sound shorts. Among those performers who made early film appearances in Vitaphone shorts filmed at the Flatbush studios include Al Jolson, Humphrey Bogart, Jimmy Stewart, Bob Hope, Spencer Tracy, Jack Benny, Sammy Davis Jr., Sylvia Sidney, Pat O'Brien, Ruth Etting, Mischa Elman, Frances Langford, Betty Hutton, Burns and Allen, Giovanni Martinelli, Xavier Cugat, Bill Robinson, Lillian Roth, Joan Blondell, Judith Anderson, Ethel Merman, Abbe Lane, Eleanor Powell, Helen Morgan, The Nicholas Brothers, Milton Berle, Leo Carillo, Harriet Nelson, Brian Donlevy, Jane Froman, Jack Haley, Phil Silvers, Judy Canova, Nina Mae McKinney, Marjorie Main, Rose Marie, Joe Penner, Ethel Waters, June Allyson, Shemp Howard, Lanny Ross, Lionel Stander, Edgar Bergen, and Cyd Charisse among others. The Vitagraph name was briefly resurrected from 1960 to 1969 at the end of Warner Bros.' Looney Tunes cartoons (starting with 1960's Hopalong Casualty), with the end titles reading "A Warner Bros. Cartoon / A Vitagraph Release". Merrie Melodies of the same period (starting with that same year's From Hare to Heir) had the same end title, with the last line being "A Vitaphone Release." (From August 1968 to the end of the original series in 1969, Merrie Melodies had the last line reading "A Vitagraph Release" while Looney Tunes of that same one-year period read "A Vitaphone Release.") This may have been done to protect the studio's ownership of the two largely defunct trade names.

Publication[edit] Founder Albert E. Smith, in collaboration with coauthor Phil A. Koury, wrote an autobiography, "Two Reels and a Crank" in 1952[7] It includes a very detailed history of Vitagraph and a lengthy list of people who had been in the Vitagraph Family which included Billy Anderson, Florence Lawrence, Florence Turner, Richard Barthelmess, John Bunny, Francis X. Bushman, Dolores Costello, Maurice Costello, Sidney Drew, Dustin Farnum, Flora Finch, Hoot Gibson, Corinne Griffith, Alan Hale, Oliver Hardy, Mildred Harris, Hedda Hopper, Rex Ingram, Alice Joyce, Boris Karloff, J. Warren Kerrigan, Rod La Rocque, E.K. Lincoln, Bessie Love, May McAvoy, Victor McLaglen, Adolphe Menjou, Antonio Moreno, Conrad Nagel, Mabel Normand, Lottie Pickford, Billy Quirk, Wallace Reid, May Robson, Wesley Ruggles, George Stevens, Anita Stewart, Constance Talmadge, Natalie Talmadge, Norma Talmadge, William Desmond Taylor, Alice Terry, George Terwilliger, Florence Vidor, Earle Williams, Clara Kimball Young, and hundreds of other people are listed. In the text of the book he also refers to hiring a 17-year-old Rudolph Valentino into the set-decorating department, but within a week he was being used by directors as an extra in foreign parts, mainly as a Russian Cossack.

Locations[edit] Vitagraph's first office, opened in 1898, was in Lower Manhattan, at 140 Nassau Street,[8] on the corner of Nassau St. and Beekman St.,[9] where they shot their first film, The Burglar on the Roof, in 1897.[10] In 1890, the company moved to 110-16 Nassau Street.[8] They subsequently opened a glass-enclosed studio, the first modern film studio in the U.S., built in 1906, on property bounded by Locust Avenue, East 15th Street, Elm Avenue, and right-of-way of the BMT Brighton Line of the New York City Subway,[11][12] transportation of equipment and costumes from the Nassau Street interior stages was by subway to the adjacent Avenue M (BMT Brighton Line) Subway rapid transit station.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] in the Midwood section of Brooklyn.[22][23] They created a second film studio in Santa Monica, California, in 1911, and a year later moved to a 29-acre sheep ranch at 4151 Prospect Ave.[24] in the Los Feliz district of Los Angeles, a studio subsequently owned by ABC and currently Disney Studios.

Notable films[edit] Smashing Barriers (1919) Black Beauty (1921) The Ninety and Nine (1922) The Little Minister (1922) The Humpty Dumpty Circus (1898) The Enchanted Drawing (1900) Adventures of Sherlock Holmes; or, Held for Ransom (1905) Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) The Automobile Thieves (1906) A Curious Dream (1907) The Thieving Hand (1908) Macbeth (1908) Romeo and Juliet (1908) Antony and Cleopatra (1908) Oliver Twist (1909) Princess Nicotine; or, The Smoke Fairy (1909) Les Misérables (1909) A Midsummer Night's Dream (1909) Jephtah's Daughter: A Biblical Tragedy (1909) Uncle Tom's Cabin (1910) Indiscretions of Betty (1910) Jean and the Calico Doll (1910) Jean the Match-Maker (1910) A Tin-Type Romance (1910) St. Elmo (1910) Vanity Fair (1911) Her Crowning Glory (1911) The Military Air-Scout (1911) Little Nemo (1911) A Tale of Two Cities (1911) All for a Girl (1912) Captain Jenks' Dilemma (1912) The Cross-Roads (1912) A Cure for Pokeritis (1912) The Woman in White (1912) Bunny Dips Into Society (1913) Our Wives (1913) Captain Alvarez (1914) A Florida Enchantment (1914) My Official Wife (1914) Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) The Kiss (1914) A Little Madonna (1914) The Battle Cry of Peace (1915) Hearts and the Highway (1915) The Combat (1916) Lights of New York (1916) Mrs. Dane's Danger (1916) The Fighting Trail (1917) The Glory of Yolanda (1917) Her Right to Live (1917) Dunces and Dangers (1918) The Triumph of the Weak (1918) A Woman in the Web (1918) The Common Cause (1919) A Rogue's Romance (1919) Smashing Barriers (1919) The Spark Divine (1919) The Star Boarder (1919) Thin Ice (1919 film) (1919) The Third Degree (1919) Tootsies and Tamales (1919) A Yankee Princess (1919) The Film Outside Pappadeaux! (1920) Black Beauty (1921) The Blizzard (1921) Cousin Kate (1921) The Heart of Maryland (1921) The Inner Chamber (1921) Lucky Carson (1921) The Little Minister (1922) The Man from Downing Street (1922) The Ninety and Nine (1922) On the Banks of the Wabash (1923) Between Friends (1924) Captain Blood (1924) Let Not Man Put Asunder (1924) Wildfire (1925) The Unknown Lover (1925) Baree, Son of Kazan (1925)

In popular culture[edit] The Big Bad Voodoo Daddy "Mr. Pinstripe" music video is about the making of a Vitagraph film.

See also[edit] JC Studios Cinema of the United States

References[edit] ^ Eilseen Bowser, The Transformation of Cinema 1907–1915, University of California Press, 1990, p. 23. ISBN 0-520-08534-5. ^ "First animated film". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 5 January 2013.  ^ Florence Turner and Florence Lawrence were tied for being the first big movie stars. Eilseen Bowser, The Transformation of Cinema 1907–1915, University of California Press, 1990, p. 113–114. ISBN 0-520-08534-5. ^ Copp, DeWitt S., "A Few Great Captains: The Men and Events That Shaped the Development of U.S. Air Power", The Air Force Historical Foundation, Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York, Library of Congress catalog card number 78-22310, ISBN 0-385-13310-3, p. 7. ^ Joplin Globe, p.7, January 30, 1925 ^ "Vitagraph, Film Pioneer, Bought by Warner Bros". Chicago Tribune. April 23, 1925. Retrieved 2015-09-02.  ^ Smith, Albert E. in collaboration with Phil A. Koury, "Two Reels And A Crank" Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1952. ^ a b The Encyclopedia Of New York City (Yale University Press, 1995) via : ^ "Beekman St & Nassau St, New York, NY 10038". Google Maps.  ^ New York: the movie lover's guide : the ultimate insider tour of movie New York By Richard Alleman ^ "1499 Locust Ave". Google Maps.  ^ "The property was bounded north and south by Locust Avenue and Elm Avenue, on the west was East 15th Street and east was the right-of-way of the Brighton Beach rapid transit line" ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 2".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 3".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 4".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 5".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 6".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 7".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 8".  ^ "Where the Dream Was Made by Irvin Leigh Matus - page 9".  ^ ^ Hollywood on the Hudson: Film and Television in New York from Griffith to Sarnoff, By Richard Koszarski ISBN 0813547784 ISBN 978-0813547787 ^ "4151 Prospect Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90027". Google Maps. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vitagraph Studios. Vitagraph Film Company Brooklyn Today and a bit of the last film made there, A Tale of Two Cities (1911) on YouTube A Short History of Vitagraph Film by Tony Susnick on YouTube Vitagraph by Tim Lussier for Silents are Golden "Where the Dream Was Made", Vitagraph Flatbush studio by Irvin Leigh Matus Vitagraph Studio in Brooklyn "Smokestack of dreams," surviving remnant of Vitagraph at Vitagraph Film Studio (dead link) Retrieved from "" Categories: Vitagraph Studios filmsDefunct American film studiosSilent film studiosAmerican silent films by studioFirst Motion Picture UnitHollywood history and cultureEntertainment companies based in CaliforniaEntertainment companies based in New York CityEntertainment companies established in 1897Media companies established in 1897Media companies disestablished in 19251897 establishments in New York (state)1925 disestablishments in New York (state)Defunct companies based in the Greater Los Angeles AreaDefunct companies based in New York (state)Hidden categories: CS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyPages using div col with deprecated parametersArticles containing video clips

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Vitagraph - Photos and All Basic Informations

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EnlargeUnited StatesFilm StudioJ. Stuart BlacktonAlbert E. Smith (producer)Warner Bros.Play MediaTefft JohnsonWilliam J. HumphreyEnglandNew York Evening WorldThomas EdisonManhattanMidwood, BrooklynBrooklyn, New YorkSpanish–American WarPropagandaBattle Of Santiago De CubaThe Humpty Dumpty CircusStop-motionJoseph DelmontMotion Picture Patents CompanyFlorence TurnerMaurice CostelloHarry T. MoreyJean (dog)Silent MovieHelen HayesViola DanaDolores CostelloNorma TalmadgeConstance TalmadgeMoe HowardLaurence TrimbleJean ValjeanWilliam V. RanousJohn BunnyFlora FinchCharlie ChaplinWilliam ShakespeareThe Military Air-ScoutWilliam J. HumphreyGeneral Of The Air ForceHap ArnoldThe Battle Cry Of PeaceWorld War ICensorshipWorld War IStudio SystemMPAAAlbert E. Smith (producer)Warner Bros.VitaphoneAl JolsonHumphrey BogartJimmy StewartBob HopeSpencer TracyJack BennySammy Davis Jr.Sylvia SidneyPat O'Brien (actor)Ruth EttingMischa ElmanFrances LangfordBetty HuttonBurns And AllenGiovanni MartinelliXavier CugatBill RobinsonLillian RothJoan BlondellJudith AndersonEthel MermanAbbe LaneEleanor PowellHelen MorganThe Nicholas BrothersMilton BerleLeo CarilloHarriet NelsonBrian DonlevyJane FromanJack HaleyPhil SilversJudy CanovaNina Mae McKinneyMarjorie MainRose MarieJoe PennerEthel WatersJune AllysonShemp HowardLanny RossLionel StanderEdgar BergenCyd CharisseLooney TunesHopalong CasualtyMerrie MelodiesFrom Hare To HeirBronco Billy AndersonFlorence LawrenceFlorence TurnerRichard BarthelmessJohn BunnyFrancis X. BushmanDolores CostelloMaurice CostelloSidney DrewDustin FarnumFlora FinchHoot GibsonCorinne GriffithAlan Hale, Sr.Oliver HardyMildred HarrisHedda HopperRex Ingram (director)Alice JoyceBoris KarloffJ. Warren KerriganRod La RocqueE.K. LincolnBessie LoveMay McAvoyVictor McLaglenAdolphe MenjouAntonio MorenoConrad NagelMabel NormandLottie PickfordBilly QuirkWallace ReidMay RobsonWesley RugglesGeorge StevensAnita StewartConstance TalmadgeNatalie TalmadgeNorma TalmadgeWilliam Desmond TaylorAlice TerryGeorge TerwilligerFlorence VidorEarle WilliamsClara Kimball YoungRudolph ValentinoManhattanAvenue M (BMT Brighton Line)MidwoodLos FelizSmashing BarriersBlack Beauty (1921 Film)The Ninety And NineThe Little Minister (1922 Film)The Humpty Dumpty CircusThe Enchanted DrawingAdventures Of Sherlock Holmes; Or, Held For RansomHumorous Phases Of Funny FacesThe Automobile ThievesA Curious DreamThe Thieving HandMacbeth (1908 Film)Romeo And Juliet (1908 Film)Antony And Cleopatra (1908 Film)Oliver Twist (1909 Film)Princess Nicotine; Or, The Smoke FairyLes Misérables (1909 Film)A Midsummer Night's Dream (1909 Film)Jephtah's Daughter: A Biblical TragedyFilm Adaptations Of Uncle Tom's CabinIndiscretions Of BettyJean And The Calico DollJean The Match-MakerA Tin-Type RomanceSt. Elmo (1910 Vitagraph Film)Vanity Fair (novel)Her Crowning GloryThe Military Air-ScoutLittle Nemo (1911 Film)A Tale Of Two Cities (1911 Film)All For A Girl (1912 Film)Captain Jenks' DilemmaThe Cross-RoadsA Cure For PokeritisThe Woman In White (1912 Film)Bunny Dips Into SocietyOur WivesCaptain AlvarezA Florida EnchantmentMy Official Wife (1914 Film)Gertie The DinosaurThe Kiss (1914 Film)A Little MadonnaThe Battle Cry Of PeaceHearts And The HighwayThe Combat (film)Lights Of New York (1916 Film)Mrs. Dane's DangerThe Fighting TrailThe Glory Of YolandaHer Right To LiveDunces And DangersThe Triumph Of The WeakA Woman In The WebThe Common Cause (film)A Rogue's RomanceSmashing BarriersThe Spark DivineThe Star Boarder (1919 Film)Thin Ice (1919 Film)The Third Degree (1919 Film)Tootsies And TamalesA Yankee PrincessBlack Beauty (1921 Film)The Blizzard (1921 Film)Cousin Kate (1921 Film)The Heart Of Maryland (1921 Film)The Inner ChamberLucky CarsonThe Little Minister (1922 Film)The Man From Downing StreetThe Ninety And NineOn The Banks Of The Wabash (film)Between Friends (1924 Film)Captain Blood (1924 Film)Let Not Man Put AsunderWildfire (1925 Film)The Unknown LoverBaree, Son Of Kazan (1925 Film)Big Bad Voodoo DaddyJC StudiosCinema Of The United StatesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-520-08534-5Florence LawrenceInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-520-08534-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-385-13310-3Chicago TribuneInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0813547784International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0813547787Irvin Leigh MatusHelp:CategoryCategory:Vitagraph Studios FilmsCategory:Defunct American Film StudiosCategory:Silent Film StudiosCategory:American Silent Films By StudioCategory:First Motion Picture UnitCategory:Hollywood History And CultureCategory:Entertainment Companies Based In CaliforniaCategory:Entertainment Companies Based In New York CityCategory:Entertainment Companies Established In 1897Category:Media Companies Established In 1897Category:Media Companies Disestablished In 1925Category:1897 Establishments In New York (state)Category:1925 Disestablishments In New York (state)Category:Defunct Companies Based In The Greater Los Angeles AreaCategory:Defunct Companies Based In New York (state)Category:CS1: Julian–Gregorian UncertaintyCategory:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Articles Containing Video ClipsDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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