Contents 1 Etymology 2 Administrative division 3 Map 4 List 4.1 Vilayets, sanjaks and autonomies, c. 1876 4.2 Vilayets and independent sanjaks in 1917 4.3 Vassals and autonomies 5 Encyclopædia Britannica on the late Ottoman administration 6 Maps 7 See also 8 References 9 External links


Etymology[edit] The term vilayet is derived from the Arabic word wilayah or wilaya. While in Arabic, the word wilaya is used to denote a province or region or district without any specific administrative connotation, the Ottomans used it to denote a specific administrative division.[2]


Administrative division[edit] The Ottoman Empire had already begun to modernize its administration and regularize its provinces (eyalets) in the 1840s,[3] but the Vilayet Law extended this to the entire Ottoman territory, with a regularized hierarchy of administrative units: the vilayet, headed by a vali, was subdivided into sub-provinces (sanjak) under a mütesarrif, further into districts (kaza or liva) under a kaimakam, and into communes (nahiye) under a müdir.[1] The vali was the representative of the Sultan in the vilayet and hence the supreme head of the administration. He was assisted by secretaries in charge of finances (defterdar), correspondence and archives (mektubci), dealings with foreigners, public works, agriculture and commerce, nominated by the respective ministers. Along with the chief justice (mufettiş-i hukkam-i Şeri'a), these officials formed the vilayet's executive council. In addition, there was an elected provincial council of four members, two Muslims and two non-Muslims. The governor of the chief sanjak (merkez sanjak), where the vilayet's capital was located, deputized for the vali in the latter's absence. A similar structure was replicated in the lower hierarchical levels, with executive and advisory councils drawn from the local administrators and—following long-established practice—the heads of the various local religious communities.[4]


Map[edit] Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire circa 1885: Adana Ankara Aydın Baghdad Basra Beirut Bosnia Archipelago Archipelago Archipelago Cretan State Zor Sanjak Diyâr-ı Bekr Edirne Erzurum Halep (Aleppo) Hejaz Hüdavendigâr (Bursa) Istanbul Üsküp Kastamonu Konya Kosovo Mamuret-ul-Aziz (Elazığ) Monastir Mosul Salonica Sivas Syria Tripolitania (Trablus) Trebizond Janina Khedivate of Egypt Van Jerusalem (Kudüs) Eastern Rumelia Bitlis


List[edit] Vilayets, sanjaks and autonomies, c. 1876[edit] Vilayets, sanjaks and autonomies, circa 1876:[5] Vilayet of Constantinople Vilayet of Adrianople: sanjaks of Edirne, Tekirdağ, Gelibolu, Filibe, Sliven. Vilayet of the Danube: sanjaks of Ruse, Varna, Vidin, Tulcea, Turnovo, Sofia, Niš. Vilayet of Bosnia: sanjaks of Bosna-Serai, Zvornik, Banja Luka, Travnik, Bebkèh, Novi Pazar. Vilayet of Herzegovina: sanjaks of Mostar, Gacko. Vilayet of Salonica: sanjaks of Salonica, Serres, Drama. Vilayet of Ioannina: sanjaks of Ioannina, Tirhala, Ohrid, Preveze, Berat. Vilayet of Monastir: sanjaks of Manastir, Prizren, Üsküb, Dibra. Vilayet of Scutari: sanjak of Scutari. Vilayet of the Archipelago: sanjaks of Rhodes, Midilli, Sakız, Kos, Cyprus. Vilayet of Crete: sanjaks of Chania, Rethymno, Candia, Sfakia, Lasithi. Vilayet of Hudavendigar: sanjaks of Bursa, Izmid, Karasi, Karahisar-i-Sarip, Kütahya. Vilayet of Aidin: sanjaks of İzmir, Aydın, Saruhan, Menteşe. Vilayet of Ankara: sanjaks of Ankara, Yozgat, Kayseri, Kırşehir. Vilayet of Konya: sanjaks of Konya, Teke, Hamid, Niğde, Burdur. Vilayet of Kastamonu: sanjaks of Kastamonu, Boli, Sinop, Çankırı. Vilayet of Trebizond: sanjaks of Trebizond, Gümüşhane, Batumi, Canik. Vilayet of Sivas: sanjaks of Sivas, Amasya, Karahisar-ı Şarki. Vilayet of Erzurum: sanjaks of Erzurum, Tchaldir, Bayezit, Kars, Mouch, Erzincan, Van. Vilayet of Diyarbekir: sanjaks of Diyarbakır, Mamuret-ul-Aziz, Mardin, Siirt, Malatya. Vilayet of Adana: sanjaks of Adana, Kozan, İçel, Paias. Vilayet of Syria: sanjaks of Damascus, Hama, Beirut, Tripoli, Hauran, Akka, Belka, Kudus-i-Cherif (Jerusalem). Vilayet of Aleppo: sanjaks of Aleppo, Maraş, Urfa, Zor. Vilayet of Baghdad: sanjaks of Baghdad, Mosul, Sharazor, Sulaymaniyah, Dialim, Kerbela, Helleh, Amara. Vilayet of Basra: sanjaks of Basra, Muntafiq, Najd, Hejaz. Emirate of Mecca: Mecca, Medina. Vilayet of Yemen: sanjaks of Sana'a, Hudaydah, Asir, Ta'izz. Vilayet of Tripolitania: sanjaks of Tripoli, Bengazi, Khoms, Djebal gharbiyeh, Fezzan. Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate Principality of Samos Mount Athos (part of the Sanjak of Salonica) Vilayets and independent sanjaks in 1917[edit] Vilayets and independent sanjaks in 1917:[6] Vilayets Vilayet of Constantinople Vilayet of Adrianople Vilayet of Adana Vilayet of Angora Vilayet of Aidin Vilayet of Baghdad Vilayet of Basra Vilayet of Beirut Vilayet of Bitlis Vilayet of Aleppo Vilayet of Bursa Vilayet of Diarbekr Vilayet of Erzurum Vilayet of Syria Vilayet of Sivas Vilayet of Trebizond Vilayet of Kastamuni Vilayet of Konia Vilayet of Mamuret ul-Aziz Vilayet of Mosul Vilayet of Van Independent Sanjaks Sanjak of Eskishehir Sanjak of Urfa Sanjak of Izmid Sanjak of Ichili Sanjak of Boli Sanjak of Teke Sanjak of Janyk Sanjak of Chatalja Sanjak of Zor Sanjak of Kara Hissar Sahib Sanjak of Karasi Sanjak of Dardanelles Sanjak of Kaisari Sanjak of Kutahia Sanjak of Marash Sanjak of Menteshe Sanjak of Nigde Vassals and autonomies[edit] Eastern Rumelia (Rumeli-i Şarkî): autonomous province (Vilayet in Turkish) (1878–1885); unified with Bulgaria in 1885 Sanjak of Benghazi (Bingazi Sancağı): autonomous sanjak. Formerly in the vilayet of Tripoli, but after 1875 dependent directly on the ministry of the interior at Constantinople.[7] Sanjak of Biga (Biga Sancağı) (also called Kale-i Sultaniye) (autonomous sanjak, not a vilayet) Sanjak of Çatalca (Çatalca Sancağı) (autonomous sanjak, not a vilayet) Cyprus (Kıbrıs) (island with special status) (Kıbrıs Adası) Khedivate of Egypt (Mısır) (autonomous khedivate, not a vilayet) (Mısır Hidivliği) Sanjak of Izmit (İzmid Sancağı) (autonomous sanjak, not a vilayet) Mutasarrifyya/Sanjak of Jerusalem (Kudüs-i Şerif Mutasarrıflığı): independent and directly linked to the Minister of the Interior in view of its importance to the three major monotheistic religions.[8] Sharifate of Mecca (Mekke Şerifliği) (autonomous sharifate, not a vilayet) Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate (Cebel-i Lübnan Mutasarrıflığı): sanjak or mutessariflik, dependent directly on the Porte.[9] Principality of Samos (Sisam Beyliği) (island with special status) Tunis Eyalet (Tunus Eyaleti) (autonomous eyalet, ruled by hereditary beys)


Encyclopædia Britannica on the late Ottoman administration[edit] For administrative purposes the immediate possessions of the sultan are divided into vilayets (provinces), which are again subdivided into sanjaks or mutessarifliks (arrondissements), these into kazas (cantons), and the kazas into nahies (parishes or communes). A vali or governor-general, nominated by the sultan, stands at the head of the vilayet, and on him are directly dependent the kaimakams, mutassarifs, deftardars and other administrators of the minor divisions. All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part. It really, however, had the effect of centralizing the whole power of the country more absolutely than ever in the sultan's hands, since the Valis were wholly in his undisputed power, while the ex officio official members of the local councils secured a perpetual Mussulman majority.[10]


Maps[edit] Vilayets of Europe in 1870 Vilayets in 1877 Vilayets of Europe in 1893 Vilayets of Asia in 1897 Vilayets of Asia in 1909 Vilayets of Europe in 1910 Vilayets of Asia in 1911


See also[edit] Provinces of Turkey Six vilayets, the Armenian vilayets of the empire Vilayet Law


References[edit] ^ a b c Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. p. 22. ISBN 9783920153568.  ^ Report of a Committee set up to consider certain correspondence between Sir Henry McMahon (his majesty's high commissioner in egypt) and the Sharif of Mecca in 1915 and 1916, ANNEX A, para. 10. British Secretary of State for the Colonies, 16 maart 1939 (doc.nr. Cmd. 5974). unispal Archived October 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9783920153568.  ^ Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. p. 2324. ISBN 9783920153568.  ^ Abel Pavet de Courteille (1876). État présent de l'empire ottoman (in French). J. Dumaine. pp. 91–96.  ^ A handbook of Asia Minor Published 1919 by Naval staff, Intelligence dept. in London. Page 226 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bengazi". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Palestine; A Modern History (1978) by Adulwahab Al Kayyali. Page 1 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lebanon". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Turkey". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


External links[edit] Vilayet Law of 1864, official translation to French pp. 36–45 Vilayet Law of 1867, in French v t e Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire c. 1365 – 1867 (eyalets) Africa Algiers Egypt Muhammad Ali dynasty (1805-67 Habesh Tripolitania Tunis Anatolia Adana Aidin Anatolia Ankara Childir Diyarbekir Dulkadir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Karaman Kars Kastamonu Rum Trebizond Van Europe Adrianople Archipelago Bosnia Budin Crete Egir Herzegovina Kanije Kefe Morea Niš Podolia Rumelia Salonica Silistra Temeşvar Uyvar Varat Widdin Yanina Middle East Aleppo Baghdad Basra Cyprus Damascus Lahsa Mosul Rakka Shahrizor Sidon Tripoli Yemen 1867–1922 (vilayets and mutasarrıfates) Africa Tripolitania Anatolia Adana Aidin Ankara Archipelago Bitlis Diyarbekir Erzurum Hüdavendigâr Kastamonu Konya Mamuret-ul-Aziz Sivas Trebizond Van Europe Adrianople Bosnia Constantinople Crete Danube Janina Kosovo Manastir Salonica Scutari Middle East Aleppo Baghdad Basra Beirut Hejaz Jerusalem Mosul Mount Lebanon Syria Yemen Vassals and autonomies Vassals Cossack Hetmanate Ottoman Ukraine Crimean Khanate Khanate of Kazan Principality of Moldavia Sharifate of Mecca Republic of Ragusa Serbian Despotate Duchy of Syrmia Principality of Transylvania Principality of Wallachia Principality of Romania Principality of Serbia Principality of Bulgaria Kingdom of Imereti Septinsular Republic Autonomies Cretan State Khedivate of Egypt Eastern Rumelia Principality of Samos See also the list of short-lived Ottoman provinces Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vilayet&oldid=824843702" Categories: Vilayets of the Ottoman EmpireSubdivisions of the Ottoman EmpireHidden categories: CS1 German-language sources (de)Webarchive template wayback linksCS1 French-language sources (fr)Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica without Wikisource referenceArticles containing Turkish-language textPages using div col with deprecated parameters


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