Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 European settlements 2.2.1 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.4 Civil War and Reconstruction Era 2.5 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.6 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.7 Cold War and civil rights era 2.8 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Education 10 Culture 10.1 Food 10.2 Literature, philosophy, and the arts 10.3 Music 10.4 Cinema 10.5 Sports 10.6 Media 11 Science and technology 12 Health 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Bibliography 16.1 Internet sources 17 External links

Etymology See also: Naming of America, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The American continents are named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[38] In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[39] The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the "full and ample powers of the United States of America" to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort.[40][41][42] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[43] The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[44] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[45] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[44] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[44] The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia".[46] The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[47] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[48] A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not connected with the United States.[49]

History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: History of Native Americans in the United States Monks Mound in Cahokia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the largest and most influential settlement in Mississippian culture. The concrete staircase follows the approximate course of ancient wooden stairs. The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[50] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward, either along the Pacific coast[51][52] or through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[53] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and it is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[54] While the Clovis culture was thought, throughout the late 20th century, to represent the first human settlement of the Americas,[55] in recent years consensus has changed in recognition of pre-Clovis cultures.[56] Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[57] From approximately 800 to 1600 AD[58] the Mississippian culture flourished, and its largest city Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[59] While in the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed.[60] Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth[61] and fifteenth centuries,[62] lasting until the end of the Revolutionary War.[63] The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[64] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[65] During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[66] After his initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbor, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty of the British Royal Navy.[67] European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies Saint Augustine, Florida, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States (1565)[68] The Mayflower Compact, 1620 by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris After Spain sent Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, other explorers followed. The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[68] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[69][70] Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[71] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[72] A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[73] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[74][75] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[76][77] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[78] With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established.[79] All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[80] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[81] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.[82] During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[83] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[84] In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[85] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[86][fn 8] After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in 1778, Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall on the Oregon coast at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, naming his landing point Cape Foulweather. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward.[88] In March 1778, Cook landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet "King George's Sound". He recorded that the native name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot; his informant may have been explaining that he was on an island (itchme nutka, a place you can "go around"). There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives' autonym (a name for themselves). It may also have simply been based on Cook's mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place.[89] Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and James Cook Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany (1795) With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[90] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.[91][92][93][94][95][96] In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[97] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[98][99] Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. He returned to Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and the big island, trading with locals and then making anchor at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779. When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later.[100] [fn 9][fn 10] Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[113] Following the passage of the Lee Resolution, on July 2, 1776, which was the actual vote for independence, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which proclaimed, in a long preamble, that humanity is created equal in their unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the Thirteen Colonies were independent states and had no allegiance to the British crown in the United States. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day.[114] The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' ".[115] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak government that operated until 1789.[114] Britain recognized the independence of the United States following their defeat at Yorktown in 1781.[116] In the peace treaty of 1783, American sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[117] Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[118][119][120] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[121] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[122] Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[123] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[124] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[125] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[126] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[127] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[128] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[129] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[130] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states.[131] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[132] Over a half-century, the loss of the American bison (sometimes called "buffalo") was an existential blow to many Plains Indians cultures.[133] In 1869, a new Peace Policy sought to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship, although conflicts, including several of the largest Indian Wars, continued throughout the West into the 1900s.[134] The Statue of Liberty in New York City, dedicated in 1886, is a symbol of the United States as well as its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.[135] Civil War and Reconstruction Era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction Era The Battle of Gettysburg by Thure de Thulstrup Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[136] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[137] With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[137] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[138] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery. Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[139] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[140] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves. Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, an assassin's bullet on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876. Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[141] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[142] Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States Ellis Island, in New York City, was a major gateway for European immigration[143] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[144] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[145] United States and its territories at their greatest extent from 1898 to 1902 The end of the Indian Wars further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[146] Mainland expansion was completed by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[147] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[148] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[149] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[150] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[151] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[152] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[153][154][155] World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Crowd gathering on Wall Street after the 1929 crash The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I, in 1914, until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[156] In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[157] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[158] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[159] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[160] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[161] At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying material to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[162] During the war, the United States was referred as one of the "Four Policemen"[163] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[164][165] Though the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers,[166] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[167] The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[168] The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[169][170] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[171] Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–64), History of the United States (1964–80), and History of the United States (1980–91) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics U.S. President Ronald Reagan at his "Tear down this wall!" speech in Berlin, Germany on June 12, 1987.[172] After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[173] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[174] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[174] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War. At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[175][176] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[177] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[178][179][180] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution. The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[181] The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[182][183][184][185][186] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[187] The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[188][189][190][191] This brought about unipolarity[192] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order. Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, and Affordable Care Act The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 attacks in 2001 One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Sadaam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H.W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[193] Originating in U.S. defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic networks, and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[194] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[195] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[196] On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[197] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[198][199] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[200] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[201][202] Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[203] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[204] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[205] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[206] Barack Obama, the first African American[207] and multiracial[208] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[209] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[210] and a relative decline in unemployment.[211] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[212] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[213] In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during 2016,[214] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.[215] Although the recession reached its trough in June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in 2010 and control of the Senate in 2014.[216] American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in 2009 and 2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December 2011.[217] The withdrawal caused an escalation of sectarian insurgency,[218] leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in the region.[219] In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1961.[needs update][220] The next year, the United States as a member of the P5+1 countries signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the development of Iran's nuclear program.[221]

Geography, climate, and environment Main articles: Geography of the United States, Climate of the United States, and Environment of the United States A composite satellite image of the contiguous United States and surrounding areas Köppen climate classifications The land area of the entire United States is approximately 3,800,000 square miles (9,841,955 km2),[222] with the contiguous United States making up 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2) of that. Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in area. The populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2).[223] Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.[224] The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted,[fn 7] and how the total size of the United States is measured. The Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, lists the size of the United States as 3,677,649 square miles (9,525,067 km2), as they do not count the country's coastal or territorial waters.[225] The World Factbook, which includes those waters, gives 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,517 km2).[226] The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.[227] The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest.[228] The Mississippi–Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.[228] The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado.[229] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave.[230] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California,[231] and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart.[232] At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali (Mount McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North America.[233] Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.[234] The United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the world.[235] The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.[236] The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[237] Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.[238] Wildlife Main articles: Fauna of the United States and Flora of the United States See also: Category:Biota of the United States The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.[239] The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.[240] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species.[241] About 91,000 insect species have been described.[242] The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the country itself.[243] There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.[244] Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area.[245] Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about .86% is used for military purposes.[246][247] Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since 1970. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation,[248][249] and international responses to global warming.[250][251] Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970.[252] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[253] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[254]

Demographics Main articles: Demography of the United States and Americans Population See also: List of U.S. states by population and List of United States cities by population Historical population Census Pop. %± 1790 3,929,214 — 1800 5,308,483 35.1% 1810 7,239,881 36.4% 1820 9,638,453 33.1% 1830 12,866,020 33.5% 1840 17,069,453 32.7% 1850 23,191,876 35.9% 1860 31,443,321 35.6% 1870 38,558,371 22.6% 1880 50,189,209 30.2% 1890 62,979,766 25.5% 1900 76,212,168 21.0% 1910 92,228,496 21.0% 1920 106,021,537 15.0% 1930 123,202,624 16.2% 1940 132,164,569 7.3% 1950 151,325,798 14.5% 1960 179,323,175 18.5% 1970 203,211,926 13.3% 1980 226,545,805 11.5% 1990 248,709,873 9.8% 2000 281,421,906 13.2% 2010 308,745,538 9.7% Est. 2017[255] 325,719,178 5.5% 1610–1780 population data.[256] Note that the census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860.[257] The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be 325,719,178 as of July 1, 2017, and to be adding 1 person (net gain) every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day.[32] The U.S. population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from about 76 million in 1900.[258] The third most populous nation in the world, after China and India, the United States is the only major industrialized nation in which large population increases are projected.[259] In the 1800s the average woman had 7.04 children, by the 1900s this number had decreased to 3.56.[260] Since the early 1970s the birth rate has been below the replacement rate of 2.1 with 1.86 children per woman in 2014. Foreign born immigration has caused the US population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign born population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 40 million in 2010, representing one third of the population increase.[261] The foreign born population reached 45 million in 2015.[262][fn 11] The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, which is 5 births below the world average.[266] Its population growth rate is positive at 0.7%, higher than that of many developed nations.[267] In fiscal year 2015, over one million immigrants (most of whom entered through family reunification) were granted legal residence.[268] Mexico has been the leading source of new residents since the 1965 Immigration Act. China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the 1990s.[269] As of 2012[update], approximately 11.4 million residents are illegal immigrants.[270] As of 2015, 47% of all immigrants are Hispanic, 26% are Asian, 18% are white and 8% are black. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.[262] Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 37.2% of the population in 2012[271] and over 50% of children under age one,[272][273] and are projected to constitute the majority by 2044.[272] According to a survey conducted by the Williams Institute, nine million Americans, or roughly 3.4% of the adult population identify themselves as homosexual, bisexual, or transgender.[274][275] A 2016 Gallup poll also concluded that 4.1% of adult Americans identified as LGBT. The highest percentage came from the District of Columbia (10%), while the lowest state was North Dakota at 1.7%.[276] In a 2013 survey, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 96.6% of Americans identify as straight, while 1.6% identify as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identify as being bisexual.[277] In 2010, the U.S. population included an estimated 5.2 million people with some American Indian or Alaska Native ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2 million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.5 million exclusively).[278] The census counted more than 19 million people of "Some Other Race" who were "unable to identify with any" of its five official race categories in 2010, over 18.5 million (97%) of whom are of Hispanic ethnicity.[278] The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend. The 50.5 million Americans of Hispanic descent[278] are identified as sharing a distinct "ethnicity" by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic Americans are of Mexican descent.[279] Between 2000 and 2010, the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic population rose just 4.9%.[280] Much of this growth is from immigration; in 2007, 12.6% of the U.S. population was foreign-born, with 54% of that figure born in Latin America.[281][fn 12] About 82% of Americans live in urban areas (including suburbs);[226] about half of those reside in cities with populations over 50,000.[287] The US has numerous clusters of cities known as megaregions, the largest being the Great Lakes Megalopolis followed by the Northeast Megalopolis and Southern California. In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million (New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston).[288] There are 52 metropolitan areas with populations greater than one million.[289] Of the 50 fastest-growing metro areas, 47 are in the West or South.[290] The metro areas of San Bernardino, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, and Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and 2008.[289] Leading population centers (see complete list) view talk edit Rank Core city (cities) Metro area population Metropolitan Statistical Area Region[291] New York City Los Angeles Chicago Dallas 1 New York 20,153,634 New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA MSA Northeast 2 Los Angeles 13,310,447 Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA West 3 Chicago 9,512,999 Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSA Midwest 4 Dallas–Fort Worth 7,233,323 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSA South 5 Houston 6,772,470 Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSA South 6 Washington, D.C. 6,131,977 Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA South 7 Philadelphia 6,070,500 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSA Northeast 8 Miami 6,066,387 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL MSA South 9 Atlanta 5,789,700 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA MSA South 10 Boston 4,794,447 Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSA Northeast 11 San Francisco 4,679,166 San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSA West 12 Phoenix 4,661,537 Phoenix–Mesa–Chandler, AZ MSA West 13 Riverside–San Bernardino 4,527,837 Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, CA MSA West 14 Detroit 4,297,617 Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI MSA Midwest 15 Seattle 3,798,902 Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSA West 16 Minneapolis–St. Paul 3,551,036 Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSA Midwest 17 San Diego 3,317,749 San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSA West 18 Tampa–St. Petersburg 3,032,171 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSA South 19 Denver 2,853,077 Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO MSA West 20 St. Louis 2,807,002 St. Louis MO–IL MSA Midwest Based on 2016 MSA population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[292] Language Main article: Languages of the United States See also: Language Spoken at Home in the United States of America, List of endangered languages in the United States, and Language education in the United States English (American English) is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2010, about 230 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language.[293][294] Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in 32 states.[295] Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii, by state law.[296] Alaska recognizes twenty Native languages as well as English.[297] While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French.[298] Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents including court forms.[299] Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan[300] is officially recognized by American Samoa. Chamorro[301] is an official language of Guam. Both Carolinian and Chamorro have official recognition in the Northern Mariana Islands.[302] Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico and is more widely spoken than English there.[303] The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: Spanish (around 7.2 million students), French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught languages (with 100,000 to 250,000 learners) include Latin, Japanese, ASL, Italian, and Chinese.[304][305] 18% of all Americans claim to speak at least one language in addition to English.[306] Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in the U.S. (2016)[307][308][fn 13] Language Percent of population Number of speakers Number who speak English very well Number who speak English less than very well English (only) ~80% 237,810,023 N/A N/A Spanish (including Spanish Creole but excluding Puerto Rico) 13% 40,489,813 23,899,421 16,590,392 Chinese (all varieties, including Mandarin and Cantonese) 1.0% 3,372,930 1,518,619 1,854,311 Tagalog (including Filipino) 0.5% 1,701,960 1,159,211 542,749 Vietnamese 0.4% 1,509,993 634,273 875,720 Arabic (all varieties) 0.3% 1,231,098 770,882 460,216 French (including Patois and Cajun) 0.3% 1,216,668 965,584 251,087 Korean 0.2% 1,088,788 505,734 583,054 Religion Main article: Religion in the United States Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)[309] Affiliation  % of U.S. population Christian 70.6 70.6   Protestant 46.5 46.5   Evangelical Protestant 25.4 25.4   Mainline Protestant 14.7 14.7   Black church 6.5 6.5   Catholic 20.8 20.8   Mormon 1.6 1.6   Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8 0.8   Eastern Orthodox 0.5 0.5   Other Christian 0.4 0.4   Jewish 1.9 1.9   Muslim 0.9 0.9   Buddhist 0.7 0.7   Hindu 0.7 0.7   Other faiths 1.8 1.8   Irreligious 22.8 22.8   Nothing in particular 15.8 15.8   Agnostic 4.0 4   Atheist 3.1 3.1   Don't know or refused answer 0.6 0.6   The Washington National Cathedral, located in Washington, D.C., is a cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States. The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment. Christianity is by far the most common religion practiced in the U.S., but other religions are followed, too. In a 2013 survey, 56% of Americans said that religion played a "very important role in their lives", a far higher figure than that of any other wealthy nation.[310] In a 2009 Gallup poll, 42% of Americans said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the figures ranged from a low of 23% in Vermont to a high of 63% in Mississippi.[311] As with other Western countries, the U.S. is becoming less religious. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under 30.[312] Polls show that overall American confidence in organized religion has been declining since the mid to late 1980s,[313] and that younger Americans in particular are becoming increasingly irreligious.[309][314] According to a 2012 study, the Protestant share of the U.S. population had dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first time.[315][316] Americans with no religion have 1.7 children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of Christians.[317] According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States identified themselves as Christians;[318] Protestants accounted for 46.5% of them, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the largest single denomination.[319] In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S. adult population claimed a non-Christian religion.[319] These include Judaism (1.9%), Islam (0.9%), Buddhism (0.7%), and Hinduism (0.7%).[319] The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no religion—up from 8.2% in 1990.[319][320][321] There are also Unitarian Universalist, Scientologist, Baha'i, Sikh, Jain, Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Druid, Native American, Wiccan, humanist and deist communities.[322] Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at 15.4%,[323] and the Southern Baptist Convention is the largest individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S. population.[323] Lutheranism in the United States has its origin in immigration from Scandinavia and Germany. North and South Dakota are the only states where a plurality of the population is Lutheran. Presbyterianism was introduced in North America by Scottish and Ulster Scots immigrants. Although it has expanded across the country, it is heavily concentrated on the East Coast. Dutch Reformed congregations were founded first in New Amsterdam (New York City) before spreading westward. Other Protestant categories with a more dispersed membership include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists, Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Holiness, Adventists, Anabaptists, Christian fundamentalists, various Reformed, Pietists, Quakers, and multiple others.[323] Roman Catholicism in the United States has its origin primarily in the Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, as well as in the English colony of Maryland.[324] It later grew because of Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration. Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.[325] Utah is the only state where Mormonism is the religion of the majority of the population. The Mormon Corridor also extends to parts of Idaho, Nevada and Wyoming.[326] Eastern Orthodoxy is claimed by 5% of people in Alaska, a former Russian colony, and maintains a presence on the U.S. mainland due to recent immigration from Eastern Europe. Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across the country, including the Jehovah's Witnesses, Restorationists, Churches of Christ, Christian Scientists and many others. The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States.[311] Family structure Main article: Family structure in the United States As of 2007[update], 58% of Americans age 18 and over were married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been married.[327] Women now work mostly outside the home and receive a majority of bachelor's degrees.[328] The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women. The rate has declined by 57% since 1991.[329] In 2013, the highest teenage birth rate was in Alabama, and the lowest in Wyoming.[329][330] Abortion is legal throughout the U.S., owing to Roe v. Wade, a 1973 landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.[331] In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26 and 40.6% of births were to unmarried women.[332] The total fertility rate (TFR) was estimated for 2013 at 1.86 births per woman.[333] Adoption in the United States is common and relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western countries).[334] In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the U.S. accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions worldwide.[335] Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U.S.[336]

Government and politics Main articles: Federal government of the United States, State governments of the United States, Local government in the United States, and Elections in the United States The United States Capitol, where Congress meets: the Senate, left; the House, right The White House, home and workplace of the U.S. President Supreme Court Building, where the nation's highest court sits The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law".[337] The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.[338] For 2016, the U.S. ranked 21st on the Democracy Index[339] (tied with Italy) and 18th on the Corruption Perceptions Index.[340] In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.[341] The federal government is composed of three branches: Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse,[342] and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.[343] Executive: The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.[344] Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.[345] The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the 2010 census, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had 53.[346] The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote.[347] The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. The District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories do not have senators.[347] The President serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no more than twice. The President is not elected by direct vote, but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.[348] The Supreme Court, led by the Chief Justice of the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.[349] The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature.[350] The governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;[351] the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803)[352] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.[353] Political divisions Main articles: Political divisions of the United States, U.S. state, Territories of the United States, List of states and territories of the United States, and Indian reservation Further information: Territorial evolution of the United States and United States territorial acquisitions Map of U.S. Economic Exclusion Zone,[354] highlighting states, territories and possessions The United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal district, five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.[355][356][357] The states and territories are the principal administrative districts in the country. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. The District of Columbia is a federal district that contains the capital of the United States, Washington DC.[358] The states and the District of Columbia choose the President of the United States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three (because of the 23rd Amendment).[359] Territories of the United States such as Puerto Rico do not have presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote for the president.[347] Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The total number of voting Representatives is 435. There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories.[360] The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.[361] Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U.S. territories except American Samoa.[362][363] State flags and statehood dates (listed alphabetically)  Alabama: Dec. 14, 1819  Alaska: Jan. 3, 1959  Arizona: Feb. 14, 1912  Arkansas: Jun. 15, 1836  California: Sep. 9, 1850  Colorado: Aug. 1, 1876  Connecticut: Jan. 9, 1788  Delaware: Dec. 7, 1787  Florida: Mar. 3, 1845  Georgia: Jan. 2, 1788  Hawaii: Aug. 21, 1959  Idaho: Jul. 3, 1890  Illinois: Dec. 3, 1818  Indiana: Dec. 11, 1816  Iowa: Dec. 28, 1846  Kansas: Jan. 29, 1861  Kentucky: Jun. 1, 1792  Louisiana: Apr. 30, 1812  Maine: Mar. 15, 1820  Maryland: Apr. 28, 1788  Massachusetts: Feb. 6, 1788  Michigan: Jan. 26, 1837  Minnesota: May 11, 1858  Mississippi: Dec. 10, 1817  Missouri: Aug. 10, 1821  Montana: Nov. 8, 1889  Nebraska: Mar. 1, 1867  Nevada: Oct. 31, 1864  New Hampshire: Jun. 21, 1788  New Jersey: Dec. 18, 1787  New Mexico: Jan. 6, 1912  New York: Jul. 26, 1788  North Carolina: Nov. 21, 1789   North Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889  Ohio: Mar. 1, 1803  Oklahoma: Nov. 16, 1907  Oregon: Feb. 14, 1859  Pennsylvania: Dec. 12, 1787  Rhode Island: May 29, 1790  South Carolina: May 23, 1788  South Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889  Tennessee: Jun. 1, 1796  Texas: Dec. 29, 1845  Utah: Jan. 4, 1896  Vermont: Mar. 4, 1791  Virginia: Jun. 25, 1788  Washington: Nov. 11, 1889  West Virginia: Jun. 20, 1863  Wisconsin: May 29, 1848  Wyoming: Jul. 10, 1890 (listed chronologically) Dec. 7, 1787:  Delaware Dec. 12, 1787:  Pennsylvania Dec. 18, 1787:  New Jersey Jan. 2, 1788:  Georgia Jan. 9, 1788:  Connecticut Feb. 6, 1788:  Massachusetts Apr. 28, 1788:  Maryland May 23, 1788:  South Carolina Jun. 21, 1788:  New Hampshire Jun. 25, 1788:  Virginia Jul. 26, 1788:  New York Nov. 21, 1789:  North Carolina May 29, 1790:  Rhode Island Mar. 4, 1791:  Vermont Jun. 1, 1792:  Kentucky Jun. 1, 1796:  Tennessee Mar. 1, 1803:  Ohio Apr. 30, 1812:  Louisiana Dec. 11, 1816:  Indiana Dec. 10, 1817:  Mississippi Dec. 3, 1818:  Illinois Dec. 14, 1819:  Alabama Mar. 15, 1820:  Maine Aug. 10, 1821:  Missouri Jun. 15, 1836:  Arkansas Jan. 26, 1837:  Michigan Mar. 3, 1845:  Florida Dec. 29, 1845:  Texas Dec. 28, 1846:  Iowa May 29, 1848:  Wisconsin Sep. 9, 1850:  California May 11, 1858:  Minnesota Feb. 14, 1859:  Oregon Jan. 29, 1861:  Kansas Jun. 20, 1863:  West Virginia Oct. 31, 1864:  Nevada Mar. 1, 1867:  Nebraska Aug. 1, 1876:  Colorado Nov. 2, 1889:   North Dakota Nov. 2, 1889:  South Dakota Nov. 8, 1889:  Montana Nov. 11, 1889:  Washington Jul. 3, 1890:  Idaho Jul. 10, 1890:  Wyoming Jan. 4, 1896:  Utah Nov. 16, 1907:  Oklahoma Jan. 6, 1912 :  New Mexico Feb. 14, 1912 :  Arizona Jan. 3, 1959:  Alaska Aug. 21, 1959:  Hawaii Statehood date is the date of ratifying the Constitution (for the first 13) or being admitted to the Union (for subsequent states) Territory and district flags and dates (listed alphabetically)  American Samoa: Apr. 17, 1900  District of Columbia: Jul. 16, 1790  Guam: Apr. 11, 1899  Northern Mariana Islands: Nov. 3, 1986  Puerto Rico: Apr. 11, 1899  US Virgin Islands: Mar. 31, 1917 (listed chronologically) Jul. 16, 1790:  District of Columbia Apr. 11, 1899:  Guam Apr. 11, 1899:  Puerto Rico Apr. 17, 1900:  American Samoa Mar. 31, 1917:  US Virgin Islands Nov. 3, 1986:  Northern Mariana Islands Territory date is the date the territory was acquired by the United States, except for the District of Columbia, which was founded separately Parties and elections Main articles: Politics of the United States and Political ideologies in the United States Congressional leadership meeting with then-President Obama in 2011.[364] Donald Trump 45th President since January 20, 2017 Mike Pence 48th Vice President since January 20, 2017 The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.[365] For elective offices at most levels, state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856, the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20% of the popular vote. The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.[366] Within American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is considered "liberal".[367][368] The states of the Northeast and West Coast and some of the Great Lakes states, known as "blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative. Republican Donald Trump, the winner of the 2016 presidential election, is serving as the 45th President of the United States.[369] Leadership in the Senate includes Republican Vice President Mike Pence, Republican President Pro Tempore Orrin Hatch, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, and Minority Leader Chuck Schumer.[370] Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the House Paul Ryan, Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy, and Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi.[371] In the 115th United States Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate are controlled by the Republican Party. The Senate consists of 51 Republicans, and 47 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 241 Republicans and 194 Democrats.[372] In state governorships, there are 33 Republicans, 16 Democrats, and 1 Independent.[373] Among the DC mayor and the 5 territorial governors, there are 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1 New Progressive, and 2 Independents.[374] Foreign relations Main articles: Foreign relations of the United States and Foreign policy of the United States The United Nations Headquarters was built in Midtown Manhattan in 1952.[375] The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and New York City is home to the United Nations Headquarters. It is a member of the G7,[376] G20, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the Republic of China (Taiwan) do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States (although the U.S. still maintains relations with Taiwan and supplies it with military equipment).[377] The United States has a "Special Relationship" with the United Kingdom[378] and strong ties with Canada,[379] Australia,[380] New Zealand,[381] the Philippines,[382] Japan,[383] South Korea,[384] Israel,[385] and several European Union countries, including France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. It works closely with fellow NATO members on military and security issues and with its neighbors through the Organization of American States and free trade agreements such as the trilateral North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico. In 2008, the United States spent a net $25.4 billion on official development assistance, the most in the world. As a share of America's large gross national income (GNI), however, the U.S. contribution of 0.18% ranked last among 22 donor states. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.[386] The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and responsibility for three sovereign nations through Compact of Free Association with Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau. These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands after World War II, which gained independence in subsequent years.[387] On October 25, 2017, Vice President Mike Pence announced at a In Defense of Christians annual dinner meeting in Washington that the United States would stop funding United Nations relief efforts, cases tackling the persecution of Christians in the Middle East, but insisted that the U.S. would instead help and aid Christians directly through the U.S. Agency for International Development.[388] Pence said that he will be visiting the Middle East in December and will meet with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss peace agreements.[389][390] Government finance See also: Taxation in the United States and United States federal budget US federal debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP, from 1790 to 2013.[391] Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP.[392] During FY2012, the federal government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up $147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($242B or 10%).[393] Based on CBO estimates,[394] under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups will remain at historic lows.[395] U.S. taxation is generally progressive, especially the federal income taxes, and is among the most progressive in the developed world.[396][397][398][399][400] The highest 10% of income earners pay a majority of federal taxes,[401] and about half of all taxes.[402] Payroll taxes for Social Security are a flat regressive tax, with no tax charged on income above $118,500 (for 2015 and 2016) and no tax at all paid on unearned income from things such as stocks and capital gains.[403][404] The historic reasoning for the regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have not been viewed as welfare transfers.[405][406] However, according to the Congressional Budget Office the net effect of Social Security is that the benefit to tax ratio ranges from roughly 70% for the top earnings quintile to about 170% for the lowest earning quintile, making the system progressive.[407] The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%, with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal taxes.[408] In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom quintile.[409][410] The incidence of corporate income tax has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for decades.[399][411] State and local taxes vary widely, but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely heavily on broadly borne regressive sales and property taxes that yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does not eliminate the progressive nature of overall taxation.[399][412] During FY 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a budget or cash basis, down $60 billion or 1.7% vs. FY 2011 spending of $3.60 trillion. Major categories of FY 2012 spending included: Medicare & Medicaid ($802B or 23% of spending), Social Security ($768B or 22%), Defense Department ($670B or 19%), non-defense discretionary ($615B or 17%), other mandatory ($461B or 13%) and interest ($223B or 6%).[393] The total national debt of the United States in the United States was $18.527 trillion (106% of the GDP) in 2014.[413][fn 14] Military Main article: United States Armed Forces The carrier strike groups of the Kitty Hawk, Ronald Reagan, and Abraham Lincoln with aircraft from the Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The United States Department of Defense administers the armed forces, including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security in peacetime and by the Department of the Navy during times of war. In 2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3 million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000 civilians, not including contractors.[418] Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System.[419] American forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific fleets. The military operates 865 bases and facilities abroad,[420] and maintains deployments greater than 100 active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.[421] The military budget of the United States in 2011 was more than $700 billion, 41% of global military spending and equal to the next 14 largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7% of GDP, the rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after Saudi Arabia.[422] U.S. defense spending as a percentage of GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA.[423] Defense's share of U.S. spending has generally declined in recent decades, from Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal outlays in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal outlays in 2011.[424] US global military presence. The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2012, $553 billion, was a 4.2% increase over 2011; an additional $118 billion was proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan.[425] The last American troops serving in Iraq departed in December 2011;[426] 4,484 service members were killed during the Iraq War.[427] Approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in Afghanistan in April 2012;[428] by November 8, 2013 2,285 had been killed during the War in Afghanistan.[429]

Law enforcement and crime Main articles: Law enforcement in the United States and Crime in the United States See also: Law of the United States, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Human rights in the United States § Justice system, Incarceration in the United States, and Capital punishment in the United States Law enforcement in the U.S. is maintained primarily by local police departments.[430] Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws.[431] At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.[432] In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014, a 10.8 per cent increase, the largest since 1971.[433] The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people.[434] In 2016 the murder rate increased by 8.6%, with 17,250 murders that year.[435] The national clearance rate for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared to 90% in 1965.[436] In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per 100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern peak of 10.2 in 1980.[437] In 2001–2, the United States had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence compared to other developed nations.[438] A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States "homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher."[439] Gun ownership rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate. From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and 90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ("whites" includes most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by whites.[440] In 2012, Louisiana had the highest rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and New Hampshire the lowest.[441] The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports estimates that there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes.[442] Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states.[443][444] No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976, that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma.[445] Meanwhile, several states have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws. In 2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.[446] The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and total prison population in the world.[447] At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults.[448] In December 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997.[449] The prison population has quadrupled since 1980,[450] and state and local spending on prisons and jails has grown three times as much as that spent on public education during the same period.[451] However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013[452] and the rate for pre-trial/remand prisoners is 153 per 100,000 residents in 2012.[453] The country's high rate of incarceration is largely due to changes in sentencing guidelines and drug policies.[454] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses.[455] The privatization of prisons and prison services which began in the 1980s has been a subject of debate.[456][457] In 2013, Louisiana had the highest incarceration rate (1,082 per 100,000 people),[458][459] and Maine the lowest (285 per 100,000 people).[458][460] Among the U.S. territories, the highest incarceration rate was in the U.S. Virgin Islands (542 per 100,000 people) and the lowest was in Puerto Rico (313 per 100,000 people).[461][462]

Economy Main article: Economy of the United States See also: Economic history of the United States Economic indicators Nominal GDP $18.45 trillion (Q2 2016) [463] Real GDP growth 3.0% (Q3 2017) [463] 2.6% (2015) [464] CPI inflation 2.2% (September 2017) [465] Employment-to-population ratio 60.2% (October 2017) [466] Unemployment 4.1% (October 2017) [467] Labor force participation rate 62.7% (November 2017) [468] Total public debt $19.808 trillion (October 25, 2016) [469] Household net worth $96.196 trillion (Q2 2017) [470] United States export treemap (2011): The U.S. is the world's second-largest exporter. The United States has a capitalist mixed economy[471] which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity.[472] According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).[473] The nominal GDP of the U.S. is estimated to be $17.528 trillion as of 2014[update][474] From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7.[475] The country ranks ninth in the world in nominal GDP per capita (first in the Americas)[30][29] and sixth in GDP per capita at PPP.[473] The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.[476] The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing in the Americas.[30][29] The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion.[477] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its top trading partners.[478] In 2010, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation equipment was the country's largest export.[477] Japan is the largest foreign holder of U.S. public debt.[479] The largest holder of the U.S. debt are American entities, including federal government accounts and the Federal Reserve, who hold the majority of the debt.[480][481][482][483][fn 15] In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 9.3%.[486] The number of employees at all levels of government outnumber those in manufacturing by 1.7 to 1.[487] While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States remains an industrial power.[488] The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing.[489] In the franchising business model, McDonald's and Subway are the two most recognized brands in the world. Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world.[490] Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field.[491] The United States is the largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its second-largest importer.[492] It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium, copper, lead, magnesium, zinc, titanium and others.[493][494] Agriculture accounts for just under 1% of GDP,[488] yet the United States is the world's top producer of corn[495] and soybeans.[496] The National Agricultural Statistics Service maintains agricultural statistics for products that include peanuts, oats, rye, wheat, rice, cotton, corn, barley, hay, sunflowers, and oilseeds. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides livestock statistics regarding beef, poultry, pork, and dairy products. The country is the primary developer and grower of genetically modified food, representing half of the world's biotech crops.[497] Consumer spending comprises 68% of the U.S. economy in 2015.[498] In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people. With 21.2 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. About 12% of workers are unionized, compared to 30% in Western Europe.[499] The World Bank ranks the United States first in the ease of hiring and firing workers.[500] The United States is ranked among the top three in the Global Competitiveness Report as well. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.[501] The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation[502] and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea, Suriname and Liberia.[503] While federal law does not require sick leave, it is a common benefit for government workers and full-time employees at corporations.[504] 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits.[504] In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands.[505] The 2008–2012 global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office.[506] It brought high unemployment (which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels), along with low consumer confidence, the continuing decline in home values and increase in foreclosures and personal bankruptcies, an escalating federal debt crisis, inflation, and rising petroleum and food prices. Income, poverty and wealth A tract housing development in San Jose, California Further information: Income in the United States, Poverty in the United States, Affluence in the United States, United States counties by per capita income, and Income inequality in the United States Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD nations, and in 2007 had the second-highest median household income.[507][508][509] According to the Census Bureau, median household income was $59,039 in 2016.[510] Accounting for 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth,[511] and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires.[512] The Global Food Security Index ranked the U.S. number one for food affordability and overall food security in March 2013.[513] Americans on average have over twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as European Union residents, and more than every EU nation.[514] For 2013 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 5th among 187 countries in its Human Development Index and 28th in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).[515] After years of stagnant growth, in 2016, according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income.[510] There has been a widening gap between productivity and median incomes since the 1970s.[516] However, the gap between total compensation and productivity is not as wide because of increased employee benefits such as health insurance.[517] The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top 1 percent, which has more than doubled from 9 percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected income inequality,[518] leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD nations.[519] The top 1 percent of income-earners accounted for 52 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income excluding government transfers,[520] The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate.[521][disputed – discuss][522] United States' families median net worth source: Fed Survey of Consumer Finances[523] in 2013 dollars 1998 2013 change All families $102,500 $81,200 -20.8% Bottom 20% of incomes $8,300 $6,100 -26.5% 2nd lowest 20% of incomes $47,400 $22,400 -52.7% Middle 20% of incomes $76,300 $61,700 -19.1% Top 10% $646,600 $1,130,700 +74.9% Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half claim only 2%.[524] According to a September 2017 report by the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled 38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016.[525] Between June 2007 and November 2008 the global recession led to falling asset prices around the world. Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value.[526] Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007, household wealth was down $14 trillion, but has since increased $14 trillion over 2006 levels.[527][528] At the end of 2014, household debt amounted to $11.8 trillion,[529] down from $13.8 trillion at the end of 2008.[530] There were about 578,424 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in January 2014, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program.[531] In 2011 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 1.1% of U.S. children, or 845,000, saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic.[532] According to a 2014 report by the Census Bureau, one in five young adults lives in poverty, up from one in seven in 1980.[533] As of September 2017, 40 million people, roughly 12.7% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, with 18.5 million of those living in deep poverty (a family income below one-half of the poverty threshold). In 2016, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, which made up 32.6% of the impoverished population.[534] In 2017, the region with the lowest poverty rate was New Hampshire (7.3%), and the region with the highest poverty rate was American Samoa (65%).[535][536][537] Among the states, the highest poverty rate was in Mississippi (21.9%).[538]

Infrastructure Transportation Main article: Transportation in the United States The Interstate Highway System, which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km).[539] Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million km) of public roads,[540] including one of the world's longest highway systems at 57,000 miles (91700 km).[541] The world's second-largest automobile market,[542] the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000 Americans.[543] About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light trucks.[544] The average American adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).[545] Map showing current rail speeds in the United States.[546] Mass transit accounts for 9% of total U.S. work trips.[547][548] Transport of goods by rail is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 31 million annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of the low population density throughout much of the U.S. interior.[549][550] However, ridership on Amtrak, the national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 37% between 2000 and 2010.[551] Also, light rail development has increased in recent years.[552] Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.[553] The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned.[554] The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways.[555] Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and the fourth-busiest, O'Hare International Airport in Chicago.[556] In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks of 2001, the Transportation Security Administration was created to police airports and commercial airliners. Energy Further information: Energy policy of the United States The U.S. power transmission grid consists of about 300,000 km (190,000 mi) of lines operated by approximately 500 companies. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) oversees all of them. The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year.[557] Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons (7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th-highest rate in the world. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources.[558] The United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum.[559] The United States has 27% of global coal reserves.[560] It is the world's largest producer of natural gas and crude oil.[561] For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a 1979 accident. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed.[562] Water supply and sanitation Main article: Drinking water supply and sanitation in the United States Issues that affect water supply in the United States include droughts in the West, water scarcity, pollution, a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce. Increased variability and intensity of rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer overflows.[563][564][fn 16]

Education Main article: Education in the United States The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819, is one of the many public universities in the United States. Universal government-funded education exists in the United States, while there are also many privately funded institutions. American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.[567] About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled.[568] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school student.[569] Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.[570] The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.S.[571][572][573] There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees.[574] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%.[226][575] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.[576] As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.[569][577] As of 2012[update], student loan debt exceeded one trillion dollars, more than Americans owe on credit cards.[578]

Culture Main article: Culture of the United States See also: Alaska Natives § Cultures, Native American cultures in the United States, Culture of the Native Hawaiians, Social class in the United States, Public holidays in the United States, and Tourism in the United States The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values.[579][580] Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors settled or immigrated within the past five centuries.[581] Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa.[579][582] More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.[579] Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation. Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism,[583] as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.[584] Americans are extremely charitable by global standards. According to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied, more than twice the second place British figure of 0.73%, and around twelve times the French figure of 0.14%.[585][586] The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants.[587] Whether this perception is realistic has been a topic of debate.[588][589][590][591][475][592] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society,[593] scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values.[594] Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree.[595] While Americans tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute.[596] Food Main article: Cuisine of the United States Apple pie is a food commonly associated with American cuisine. Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour[597] and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers.[598] These home grown foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most popular holidays; Thanksgiving, when some Americans make traditional foods to celebrate the occasion.[599] Roasted turkey is a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner.[600] Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed.[601] Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea.[602] Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.[603][604] American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British culinary roots with some variations. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans.[605] Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence".[606] The American fast food industry, the world's largest,[607] pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s.[608] Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%;[601] frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American "obesity epidemic".[609] Highly sweetened soft drinks are widely popular, and sugared beverages account for nine percent of American caloric intake.[610] Literature, philosophy, and the arts Main articles: American literature, American philosophy, Architecture of the United States, Visual art of the United States, and American classical music Mark Twain, American author and humorist. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet.[611] A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be dubbed the "Great American Novel".[612] Twelve U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, most recently Bob Dylan in 2016. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century.[613] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.[614] The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major American philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick led a revival of political philosophy. Cornel West and Judith Butler have led a continental tradition in American philosophical academia. Chicago school economists like Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, and Thomas Sowell have affected various fields in social and political philosophy.[615][616] In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The realist paintings of Thomas Eakins are now widely celebrated. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene.[617] Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry.[618] Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, and Ansel Adams.[619] Times Square in New York City, the hub of the Broadway theater district[620] One of the first major promoters of American theater was impresario P. T. Barnum, who began operating a lower Manhattan entertainment complex in 1841. The team of Harrigan and Hart produced a series of popular musical comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th century, the modern musical form emerged on Broadway; the songs of musical theater composers such as Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Stephen Sondheim have become pop standards. Playwright Eugene O'Neill won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed U.S. dramatists include multiple Pulitzer Prize winners Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, and August Wilson.[621] Though little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music. Choreographers Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham helped create modern dance, while George Balanchine and Jerome Robbins were leaders in 20th-century ballet. Music Main article: Music of the United States The Grammy Award is awarded to leading music artists. The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European and African traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.[622] Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll. In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk. More recent American creations include hip hop and house music. American pop stars such as Presley, Michael Jackson, and Madonna have become global celebrities,[622] as have contemporary musical artists such as Taylor Swift, Britney Spears, Katy Perry, and Beyoncé as well as hip hop artists Jay-Z, Eminem and Kanye West.[623] Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest grossing in worldwide sales.[624][625][626] Cinema Main article: Cinema of the United States The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production.[627] The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope.[628] The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.[629] Director D. W. Griffith, the top American filmmaker during the silent film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising.[630] Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West and history, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting, with great influence on subsequent directors. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s,[631] with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures.[632][633] In the 1970s, film directors such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola and Robert Altman were a vital component in what became known as "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance",[634] grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period.[635] Since, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs, and in return, high earnings at the box office, with Cameron's Avatar (2009) earning more than $2 billion.[636] Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time,[637][638] Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950).[639] The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929,[640] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.[641] Sports Main article: Sports in the United States Most popular American sports are American football, baseball, basketball and ice hockey[642] American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport;[643] the National Football League (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by millions globally. Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL). These four major sports, when played professionally, each occupy a season at different, but overlapping, times of the year. College football and basketball attract large audiences.[644] In soccer, the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup three times; Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 19 American and 3 Canadian teams). The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.[645] Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States (2028 Summer Olympics will mark the ninth time). As of 2017, the United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 282 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway.[646] While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which have become popular worldwide. Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact.[647] The most watched individual sports are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR.[648][649] Rugby union is considered the fastest growing sport in the U.S., with registered players numbered at 115,000+ and a further 1.2 million participants.[650] Media Main article: Media of the United States The corporate headquarters of the American Broadcasting Company in New York City The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox. The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches.[651] Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day.[652] In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions and corporate underwriting. Much public-radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR (formerly National Public Radio). NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart, PBS, was also created by the same legislation. (NPR and PBS are operated separately from each other.) As of September 30, 2014[update], there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[653] Well-known newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and USA Today.[654] Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage. With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. Early versions of the American newspaper comic strip and the American comic book began appearing in the 19th century. In 1938, Superman, the comic book superhero of DC Comics, developed into an American icon.[655] Aside from web portals and search engines, the most popular websites are Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon, and Twitter.[656] More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second most commonly used language in the United States behind English.[657][658]

Science and technology Main articles: Science and technology in the United States and Science policy of the United States Astronaut James Irwin walking on the Moon next to Apollo 15's landing module and lunar rover in 1971. The effort to reach the Moon was triggered by the Space Race. The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles and other items in the late 19th century and became known as the American system of manufacturing. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor saving techniques created the system called mass production.[659] In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone. Thomas Edison's research laboratory, one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph, the first long-lasting light bulb, and the first viable movie camera.[660] The latter led to emergence of the worldwide entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.[661] The rise of Fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 1930s led many European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States.[662] During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age, while the Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics.[663][664] The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology industry.[665][666][667] This in turn led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the country such as Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Intel along with both computer software and hardware companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet.[668] These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use.[669] As of 2013[update], 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service.[670] 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone as of May 2013[update].[671] The United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet.[672] In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.[673] The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor.[674]

Health See also: Health care in the United States, Health care reform in the United States, and Health insurance in the United States New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City is one of the world's busiest hospitals. Pictured is the Weill Cornell facility (white complex at center). The United States has a life expectancy of 79.8 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990.[675][676][677] Life expectancy ranged from a high of 81.3 years in Hawaii to a low of 73.4 years in American Samoa.[678][679] The infant mortality rate of 6.17 per thousand places the United States 56th-lowest out of 224 countries.[680] Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987, to 42nd in 2007.[681] Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years, are the highest in the industrialized world, and are among the highest anywhere.[682][683] Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight.[684] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals.[685] In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse, kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates.[677] U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.[686] The U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.[687] Since 1966, more Americans have received the Nobel Prize in Medicine than the rest of the world combined. From 1989 to 2002, four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe.[688] The U.S. health-care system far outspends any other nation, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP.[689] Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal. In 2014, 13.4% of the population did not carry health insurance.[690] The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue.[691][692] In 2006, Massachusetts became the first state to mandate universal health insurance.[693] Federal legislation passed in early 2010 would ostensibly create a near-universal health insurance system around the country by 2014, though the bill and its ultimate effect are issues of controversy.[694][695]

See also United States portal Book: United States Index of United States-related articles Lists of U.S. state topics Outline of the United States

Notes ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302 ^ English is the official language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian are both official languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous languages are official in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands throughout the country. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana, while New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status.[4][5] ^ In five territories, English as well as one or more indigenous languages are official: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American Samoa, Chamorro in both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Carolinian is also an official language in the Northern Mariana Islands. ^ See Time in the United States for details about laws governing time zones in the United States. ^ Except the U.S. Virgin Islands. ^ The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. There are eleven smaller island areas without permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.[14] ^ a b The Encyclopædia Britannica lists China as the world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with a total area of 9,572,900 sq km,[15] and the United States as fourth-largest at 9,526,468 sq km. The figure for the United States is less than in the CIA World Factbook because it excludes coastal and territorial waters.[16] The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as the third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with total area of 9,833,517 sq km,[17] and China as fourth-largest at 9,596,960 sq km.[18] This figure for the United States is greater than in the Encyclopædia Britannica because it includes coastal and territorial waters. ^ Spain sent several expeditions to Alaska to assert its long-held claim over the Pacific Northwest, which dated back to the 16th century. During the decade 1785–1795 British merchants, encouraged by Sir Joseph Banks and supported by their government, made a sustained attempt to develop this trade despite Spain's claims and navigation rights. The endeavors of these merchants did not last long in the face of Spain's opposition. The challenge was also opposed by a Japan holding obdurately to national seclusion.[87] ^ His previous arrival coincided with the Makahiki,[101] a festival celebrating the Hawaiian deity Lono.[102] After the HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery had left the islands, the season for battle and war had begun under the worship and rituals for Kūkaʻilimoku, the Hawaiian deity of war.[103] ^ On the evening of February 13, while anchored in Kealakekua Bay after their return, one of only two long boats was stolen.[104] The Hawaiians had begun to openly challenging the foreigners. In retaliation, Cook tried to take the aliʻi nui of the island of Hawaii, Kalaniʻōpuʻu as ransom for the boats.[105] The following morning of February 14, 1779[106] Cook and his men went directly to Kalaniʻōpuʻu's enclosure where the monarch was still sleeping.[107] One of ruler's wives, Kānekapōlei pleaded with them to stop.[108] Cook's men and the Marines were confronted on the beach by thousands of Native Hawaiians.[109] Cook tried to move the elderly man but he refused. As the townspeople began to surrounding them, Cook and his men raised their guns. Two chiefs and the monarch's wife shielded Kalaniʻōpuʻu as Cook tried to force him to his feet.[110] The crowd became hostile and Kanaʻina (one of the monarch's attendants) approached Cook, who reacted by striking him with the broad side of his sword. Kanaʻina instantly grabbed Cook and lifted him off his feet.[111] Kanaʻina released Cook, who fell to the ground as another attendant, Nuaa fatally stabbed Cook to death.[112] ^ The United States has a very diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members.[263] German Americans are the largest ethnic group (more than 50 million) – followed by Irish Americans (circa 37 million), Mexican Americans (circa 31 million) and English Americans (circa 28 million).[264][265] White Americans are the largest racial group; black Americans are the nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group.[263] Asian Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority; the three largest Asian American ethnic groups are Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans.[263] ^ Fertility is also a factor; in 2010 the average Hispanic woman gave birth to 2.35 children in her lifetime, compared to 1.97 for non-Hispanic black women and 1.79 for non-Hispanic white women (both below the replacement rate of 2.1).[282] Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 36.3% of the population in 2010 (this is nearly 40% in 2015),[283] and over 50% of children under age one,[284] and are projected to constitute the majority by 2042.[285] This contradicts the report by the National Vital Statistics Reports, based on the U.S. census data, which concludes that 54% (2,162,406 out of 3,999,386 in 2010) of births were non-Hispanic white.[282] The Hispanic birth rate plummeted 25% between 2006 and 2013 while the rate for non-Hispanics decreased just 5%.[286] ^ Source: 2015 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Most respondents who speak a language other than English at home also report speaking English "well" or "very well" For the language groups listed above, the strongest English-language proficiency is among speakers of German (96% report that they speak English "well" or "very well"), followed by speakers of French (93.5%), Tagalog (92.8%), Spanish (74.1%), Korean (71.5%), Chinese (70.4%), and Vietnamese (66.9%). ^ In January 2015, U.S. federal government debt held by the public was approximately $13 trillion, or about 72% of U.S. GDP. Intra-governmental holdings stood at $5 trillion, giving a combined total debt of $18.080 trillion.[414][415] By 2012, total federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP.[416] The U.S. has a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.[417] ^ The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found that the United States' arms industry was the world's biggest exporter of major weapons from 2005 to 2009,[484] and remained the largest exporter of major weapons during a period between 2010 and 2014, followed by Russia, China (PRC), and Germany.[485] ^ Droughts are likely to particularly affect the 66 percent of Americans whose communities depend on surface water.[565] As for drinking water quality, there are concerns about disinfection by-products, lead, perchlorates and pharmaceutical substances, but generally drinking water quality in the U.S. is good.[566]

References ^ George McKenna 2007, p. 280. ^ Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91. ^ "". Public Law 105-225-Aug. 12, 1998. August 12, 1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017. Section 304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled "The Stars and Stripes Forever" is the national march."  ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195. ^ García 2011, p. 167. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: UNITED STATES". QuickFacts. U.S. Department of Commerce. July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2017.  ^ Inc., Gallup,. "Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S."  ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor (other) island territories per State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates, US Census Bureau, August 2010, retrieved November 17, 2017, reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.  ^ "Population estimates, July 1, 2017, (V2017)". US Census Bureau.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2017.  The 2016 estimate is as of July 1, 2016. The 2010 census is as of April 1, 2010. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2017 – Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund (IMF). Retrieved October 1, 2017.  ^ "OECD Income Distribution Database: Gini, poverty, income, Methods and Concepts". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved September 29, 2017.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2017.  ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80.— and U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution, November 1997, p. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016. ^ "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010.  ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010.  ^ "United States". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016.  ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved June 10, 2016.  ^ UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Megadiverse Countries definition | Biodiversity A-Z". Biodiversity A-Z. UN WCMC. Retrieved September 11, 2017. "17 countries which have been identified as the most biodiversity-rich countries of the world, with a particular focus on endemic biodiversity".  ^ Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19. ^ Greene, Jack P.; Pole, J.R., eds. (2008). A Companion to the American Revolution. pp. 352–361. Bender, Thomas (2006). A Nation Among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8090-7235-4.  "Overview of the Early National Period". Digital History. University of Houston. 2014. Retrieved February 25, 2015.  ^ a b Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0.  ^ "The Civil War and emancipation 1861–1865". Africans in America. Boston, Massachusetts: WGBH Educational Foundation. 1999. Archived from the original on October 12, 1999.  ^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H., ed. The American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics, and Power. America at War. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 978-1-61530-045-7.  ^ White, Donald W. (1996). "1: The Frontiers". The American Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05721-0. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "Work in the Late 19th Century". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ Tony Judt; Denis Lacorne (June 4, 2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4.  Richard J. Samuels (December 21, 2005). Encyclopedia of United States National Security. SAGE Publications. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.  Paul R. Pillar (January 1, 2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-8157-0004-0.  Gabe T. Wang (January 1, 2006). China and the Taiwan Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2.  Understanding the "Victory Disease," From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. DIANE Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2.  Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-313-38375-5.  ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015".  ^ a b c International Monetary Fund (October 2016). "List of South American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved September 25, 2017.  ^ a b c International Monetary Fund (October 2016). "List of North American countries by GDP per capita". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2017.  ^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)". World Bank Open Data. World Bank. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ a b Cite error: The named reference urlPopulation Clock was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ "Credit Suisse Publikationen".  ^ "Average annual wages, 2013 USD PPPs and 2013 constant prices". OECD. Retrieved April 30, 2016.  ^ "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive". CBS News. February 11, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2013.  ^ "Trends in world military expenditure, 2013". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 2014. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2014.  ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014.  "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.  "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.  ^ Martone 2016, p. 504. ^ Sider 2007, p. 226. ^ DeLear, Byron (July 4, 2013) Who coined 'United States of America'? Mystery might have intriguing answer. "Historians have long tried to pinpoint exactly when the name 'United States of America' was first used and by whom... ...This latest find comes in a letter that Stephen Moylan, Esq., wrote to Col. Joseph Reed from the Continental Army Headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., during the Siege of Boston. The two men lived with Washington in Cambridge, with Reed serving as Washington's favorite military secretary and Moylan fulfilling the role during Reed's absence." Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA). ^ Touba, Mariam (November 5, 2014) Who Coined the Phrase 'United States of America'? You May Never Guess "Here, on January 2, 1776, seven months before the Declaration of Independence and a week before the publication of Paine's Common Sense, Stephen Moylan, an acting secretary to General George Washington, spells it out, 'I should like vastly to go with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain' to seek foreign assistance for the cause." New-York Historical Society Museum & Library ^ Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the 'United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society, Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use of the phrase "United States of America." But who was Stephen Moylan?" ^ ""To the inhabitants of Virginia," by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's. April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. Letter is also included in Peter Force's American Archives". 5 (1287). Archived from the original on December 19, 2014.  ^ a b c Safire 2003, p. 199. ^ Mostert 2005, p. 18. ^ Doug Brokenshire (1996). Washington State Place Names. Caxton Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-87004-562-2.  ^ Greg 1892, p. 276. ^ G. H. Emerson, The Universalist Quarterly and General Review, Vol. 28 (Jan. 1891), p. 49, quoted in Zimmer, Benjamin (November 24, 2005). "Life in These, Uh, This United States". University of Pennsylvania—Language Log. Retrieved January 5, 2013.  ^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-231-06989-8. ^ Maugh II, Thomas H. (July 12, 2012). "Who was first? New info on North America's earliest residents". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles County, California: Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 25, 2015.  "What is the earliest evidence of the peopling of North and South America?". Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History. June 2004. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  Kudeba, Nicolas (February 28, 2014). "Chapter 1 – The First Big Steppe – Aboriginal Canadian History". The History of Canada Podcast. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014.  Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 25, 2015.  ^ Fladmark, K.R., (1979) (2017). "Routes: alternate migration corridors for early man in North America". American Antiquity. 44: 55–69. doi:10.2307/279189. JSTOR 279189. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Katz, Brigit (April 5, 2017). "Found: One of the Oldest North American Settlements". Smithsonian. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ Pinsker, Lisa (February 2004). "The Ice-Free Corridor Revisited". Geotimes.  ^ Waters, Michael; et al. (2007). "Redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for the Peopling of the Americas". Science. 315 (5815): 1122–1126. Bibcode:2007Sci...315.1122W. doi:10.1126/science.1137166. PMID 17322060.  ^ Flannery, T. (2001). The Eternal Frontier: an ecological history of North America and its peoples. New York: Grove Press. pp. 173–185. ISBN 0-8021-3888-8.  ^ Waters, Michael; Stafford, Tom (August 18, 2014). "The First Americans: A Review of the Evidence for the Late-Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas" (PDF). Paleoamerican Odyssey. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-62349-192-5. Retrieved November 21, 2015.  ^ Craig Lockard (2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume B: From 600 to 1750. University of Wisconsin. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-111-79083-7.  ^ King, Adam (2002). "Mississippian Period: Overview". New Georgia Encyclopedia.  ^ Hodges, Glenn (January 2011). "America's Forgotten City". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved August 26, 2017.  ^ Hewit, "Puebloan Culture", University of Northern Colorado ^ Johansen, Bruce (1995). "Dating the Iroquois Confederacy". Akwesasne Notes New Series. 1 (3): 62–63. Retrieved December 12, 2008.  ^ Dean R. Snow (1994). The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55786-938-8. Retrieved July 16, 2010.  ^ Richter, "Ordeals of the Longhouse", in Richter and Merrill, eds., Beyond the Covenant Chain, 11–12. ^ Pearce, Charles E.M.; Pearce, F. M. (June 17, 2010). Oceanic Migration: Paths, Sequence, Timing and Range of Prehistoric Migration in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 167. ISBN 978-90-481-3826-5.  ^ Whittaker, Elvi W. (January 1986). The Mainland Haole: The White Experience in Hawaii. Columbia University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-231-05316-7.  ^ Fish, Shirley (2011). The Manila-Acapulco Galleons : The Treasure Ships of the Pacific: With An Annotated List of the Transpacific Galleons 1565–1815. AuthorHouse. pp. 360–. ISBN 978-1-4567-7543-8.  ^ Collingridge, Vanessa (2003). Captain Cook: The Life, Death and Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer. Ebury Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-09-188898-0.  ^ a b "St. Augustine Florida, The Nation's Oldest City".  ^ Remini 2007, pp. 2–3 ^ Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30 ^ Walton, 2009, chapter 3 ^ Lemon, 1987 ^ Jackson, L. P. (1924). Elizabethan Seamen and the African Slave Trade. pp. 1–17. JSTOR 2713432.  ^ Tadman, 2000, p. 1534 ^ Schneider, 2007, p. 484 ^ Lien, 1913, p. 522 ^ Davis, 1996, p. 7 ^ Quirk, 2011, p. 195 ^ Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1817-7.  ^ Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-4723-7.  ^ Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39 ^ Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom, 1998 ISBN 0-393-04665-6 p.4-5. ^ Walton, 2009, p. 35 ^ Otis, James (1763). "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved". Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved January 10, 2015.  ^ Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka Connection: Europe and the Northwest Coast 1790–1795. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-88894-279-6.  ^ Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka Connection: Europe and the Northwest Coast 1790–1795. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-88894-279-6.  ^ Robert J. King, "'The long wish'd for object' — Opening the trade to Japan, 1785–1795", The Northern Mariner / le marin du nord, vol.XX, no.1, January 2010, pp.1–35. ^ Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. pp. 42–43. ISBN 1-57061-215-3.  ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, translated by John Black, Vol. 2, London, Longman, 1822, translator's note, p.322. ^ Paul Joseph (October 11, 2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives. SAGE Publications. p. 590. ISBN 978-1-4833-5988-5.  ^ "The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.". Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6 ^ Bianchine, Russo, 1992 pp. 225–232 ^ Thornton 1987, p. 47 ^ Kessel, 2005 pp. 142–143 ^ Mercer Country Historical Society, 2005 ^ Stannard, 1993 ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 6 ^ Ripper, 2008 p. 5 ^ Calloway, 1998, p. 55 ^ Jeff Campbell (September 15, 2010). Hawaii. Lonely Planet. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-74220-344-7.  ^ Ruth M. Tabrah (December 17, 1984). Hawaii: A History. W. W. Norton. pp. 19–22. ISBN 978-0-393-24369-7.  ^ Marshall Sahlins (October 1, 1996). How "Natives" Think: About Captain Cook, For Example. University of Chicago Press. p. 3–. ISBN 978-0-226-73369-2.  ^ Melissa Meyer (February 4, 2014). Thicker Than Water: The Origins of Blood as Symbol and Ritual: The Origins of Blood as Symbol and Ritual. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-135-34200-5.  ^ Jerry D. Moore (May 24, 2012). Visions of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Rowman Altamira. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-7591-2219-2.  ^ James Cook (1971). The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific, as Told by Selections of His Own Journals, 1768–1779. Courier Corporation. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-486-22766-5.  ^ Book Notes: A Monthly Literary Magazine and Review of New Books. Siegel-Cooper. 1901. p. 54.  ^ Daniel O'Sullivan (March 30, 2008). In Search of Captain Cook: Exploring the Man Through His Own Words. I.B.Tauris. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-85771-350-6.  ^ John H. Chambers (2006). Hawaii. Interlink Books. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-56656-615-5.  ^ Stephen R. Bown (2008). Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic Voyage of Captain George Vancouver. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-55365-339-4.  ^ Richard Tregaskis (November 1973). The warrior king: Hawaii's Kamehameha the Great. Macmillan. p. 115.  ^ Glyndwr Williams (2008). The Death of Captain Cook: A Hero Made and Unmade. Harvard University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-674-03194-4.  ^ John Meares (1791). Hawaiian Historical Society. Reprints (1787, 1788 and 1789). p. 76.  ^ Humphrey, Carol Sue (2003). The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents on Events from 1776 To 1800. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-0-313-32083-5.  ^ a b Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011). Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-0-307-27110-5.  ^ Samuel 1920, p. 323-324. ^ Greene and Pole, A Companion to the American Revolution p 357. Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution (1987) p. 161. Lawrence S. Kaplan, "The Treaty of Paris, 1783: A Historiographical Challenge", International History Review, Sept 1983, Vol. 5 Issue 3, pp 431–442 ^ Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193 ^ Cogliano, Francis D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and Legacy. University of Virginia Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8139-2733-6.  ^ Walton, 2009, p. 43 ^ Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29 ^ Clark, Mary Ann (May 2012). Then We'll Sing a New Song: African Influences on America's Religious Landscape. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4422-0881-0.  ^ Heinemann, Ronald L., et al., Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: a history of Virginia 1607–2007, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4, p.197 ^ Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4.  ^ "Louisiana Purchase" (PDF). National Park Services. Retrieved March 1, 2011.  ^ Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.  ^ Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994). United States History to 1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8120-1834-9.  ^ Winchester, pp. 198, 216, 251, 253 ^ Morrison, Michael A. (1999). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21. ISBN 978-0-8078-4796-1.  ^ Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3.  ^ Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery in North America, 1519–1871. Indiana University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-253-35660-4.  ^ Wishart, David J. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8032-4787-1.  ^ Smith (2001), Grant, pp. 523–526 ^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Harold T. Lewis (January 1, 2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.  ^ a b Patrick Karl O'Brien (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-521-39559-3.  ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2007.  Page 7 lists a total slave population of 3,953,760. ^ De Rosa, Marshall L. (1997). The Politics of Dissolution: The Quest for a National Identity and the American Civil War. Edison, NJ: Transaction. p. 266. ISBN 1-56000-349-9. ^ Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-19-536394-4.  ^ Jason E. Pierce (2016). Making the White Man's West: Whiteness and the Creation of the American West. University Press of Colorado. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-60732-396-9.  ^ Marie Price; Lisa Benton-Short (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6.  ^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Winchester, pp. 351, 385 ^ "Toward a Market Economy". CliffsNotes. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved December 23, 2014.  ^ "Purchase of Alaska, 1867". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 23, 2014.  ^ "The Spanish-American War, 1898". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the United States in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. ^ Virgin Islands History. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Kirkland, Edward. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public Policy (1961 ed.). pp. 400–405.  ^ Zinn, 2005 ^ Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, pp. 52–76. ^ James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement, 1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963) ^ George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern Politics in the Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963): 92–106. ^ McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005). U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association. p. 418. ISBN 0-7386-0070-9. ^ Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life. Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY. p. vii. ISBN 1-55861-139-8. Carrie Chapmann Catt led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women.  ^ Winchester pp. 410–411 ^ Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-52215-6.  ^ Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 0-394-56004-3.  ^ James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  "Mass Exodus From the Plains". American Experience. WGBH Educational Foundation. 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014.  Fanslow, Robin A. (April 6, 1998). "The Migrant Experience". American Folklore Center. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2014.  Walter J. Stein (1973). California and the Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War II: A Documentary History" (PDF). World War II Internment in Hawaii. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ Kelly, Brian. "The Four Policemen and. Postwar Planning, 1943–1945: The Collision of Realist and. Idealist Perspectives". Retrieved June 21, 2014.  ^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 25. ^ Leland, Anne; Oboroceanu, Mari–Jana (February 26, 2010). "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 18, 2011.  p. 2. ^ Kennedy, Paul (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Vintage. p. 358. ISBN 0-679-72019-7 ^ "The United States and the Founding of the United Nations, August 1941 – October 1945". U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, Office of the Historian. October 2005. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved June 11, 2007.  ^ "Why did Japan surrender in World War II? | The Japan Times". The Japan Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 4-7700-2887-3. ^ "The National WWII Museum | New Orleans: Learn: For Students: WWII at a Glance: Remembering V-J Day". Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ Peter Robinson. "Tear Down This Wall | National Archives". Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (September 10, 2012). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.  ^ a b Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press.  ^ Winchester, pp. 305–308 ^ Blas, Elisheva. "The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways" (PDF). Society for History Education. Retrieved January 19, 2015.  ^ Richard Lightner (January 1, 2004). Hawaiian History: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-313-28233-1.  ^ Dallek, Robert (2004). Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-515920-2.  ^ "Our Documents – Civil Rights Act (1964)". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved July 28, 2010.  ^ "Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill, Liberty Island, New York". October 3, 1965. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2012.  ^ "Social Security". Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Soss, 2010, p. 277 ^ Fraser, 1989 ^ Ferguson, 1986, pp. 43–53 ^ Williams, pp. 325–331 ^ Niskanen, William A. (1988). Reaganomics: an insider's account of the policies and the people. Oxford University Press. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-19-505394-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Women in the Labor Force: A Databook" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2013. p. 11. Retrieved March 21, 2014.  ^ Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit Diplomacy: Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988. Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster. pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432. ISBN 978-1-4406-8639-9.  ^ Hayes, 2009 ^ US, 2013 ^ Charles Krauthammer, "The Unipolar Moment," Foreign Affairs, 70/1, (Winter 1990/1), 23–33. ^ "Persian Gulf War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2017.  ^ Winchester, pp. 420–423 ^ Dale, Reginald (February 18, 2000). "Did Clinton Do It, or Was He Lucky?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  Mankiw, N. Gregory (2008). Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-324-58999-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)" Office of the United States Trade Representative. Retrieved January 11, 2015. Thakur; Manab Thakur Gene E Burton B N Srivastava (1997). International Management: Concepts and Cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-0-07-463395-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (September 13, 2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-313-38376-2.  ^ Flashback 9/11: As It Happened. Fox News. September 9, 2011. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  "America remembers Sept. 11 attacks 11 years later". CBS News. Associated Press. September 11, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  "Day of Terror Video Archive". CNN. 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (December 9, 2008). "The 'War on Terror' Is Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved March 6, 2013.  Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11 Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Wong, Edward (February 15, 2008). "Overview: The Iraq War". The New York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2013.  Johnson, James Turner (2005). The War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Durando, Jessica; Green, Shannon Rae (December 21, 2011). "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 7, 2013.  ^ George W. Bush (January 10, 2007). "Fact Sheet: The New Way Forward in Iraq". Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved January 26, 2017. After talking to some Afghan leaders, it was said that the Iran's would be revolting if more troops were to be sent to Iran.  ^ Feaver, Peter (August 13, 2015). "Hillary Clinton and the Inconvenient Facts About the Rise of the Islamic State". Foreign Policy. [T]he Obama team itself, including Clinton, have repeatedly confirmed that they understand that the surge was successful. Clinton even conceded to former Defense Secretary Robert Gates: 'The surge worked.'  ^ "Iraqi surge exceeded expectations, Obama says". NBC News. Associated Press. September 4, 2008. Obama said the surge of U.S. troops has 'succeeded beyond our wildest dreams.'  ^ Wallison, Peter (2015). Hidden in Plain Sight: What Really Caused the World's Worst Financial Crisis and Why It Could Happen Again. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-59403-770-2.  ^ Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (2011). Financial Crisis Inquiry Report (PDF). ISBN 978-1-60796-348-6.  ^ Taylor, John B. (January 2009). "The Financial Crisis and the Policy Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong" (PDF). Hoover Institution Economics Paper Series. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ Hilsenrath, Jon; Ng, Serena; Paletta, Damian (September 18, 2008). "Worst Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ "Barack Obama elected as America's first black president". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved October 7, 2014.  ^ "Barack Obama: Face Of New Multiracial Movement?". NPR. November 12, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2014.  ^ Washington, Jesse; Rugaber, Chris (September 9, 2011). "African-American Economic Gains Reversed By Great Recession". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 16, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.  ^ "What the Stimulus Accomplished". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. February 22, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ "Economic Stimulus". IGM Polls. Initiative on Global Markets at the University of Chicago. February 15, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ "The Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Financial Stability and Economic Growth" (PDF). Brookings. October 24, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2017 ; Martin Neil Baily; Aaron Klein; Justin Schardin (January 2017). "The Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Financial Stability and Economic Growth". The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 3 (1): 20. doi:10.7758/RSF.2017.3.1.02.  ^ "Did Dodd-Frank really hurt the US economy?". Financial Times. February 13, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2018.  ^ "Federal Subsidies for Health Insurance Coverage for People Under Age 65: 2016 to 2026". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ Bradner, Eric (January 13, 2017). "Ryan: GOP will repeal, replace Obamacare at same time". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ Jacobson, Gary C. (March 2011). "The Republican Resurgence in 2010". Political Science Quarterly. 126 (1): 27–52. doi:10.1002/j.1538-165X.2011.tb00693.x.  ^ Shanker, Thom; Schmidt, Michael S.; Worth, Robert F. (December 15, 2011). "In Baghdad, Panetta Leads Uneasy Closure to Conflict". The New York Times.  ^ "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point". United States Military Academy. Retrieved January 26, 2017.  ^ "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S. Department of State. January 26, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2010.  ^ Peter Baker (January 26, 2017). "U.S. to Restore Full Relations With Cuba, Erasing a Last Trace of Cold War Hostility". The New York Times.  ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Sanger, David E. (July 15, 2015). "Deal Reached on Iran Nuclear Program; Limits on Fuel Would Lessen With Time". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 26, 2017.  ^ "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates – Geography – U.S. Census Bureau". State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 11, 2017.  ^ "2010 Census Area" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 41. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ "Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8, 2018.  (given in square miles, excluding ) ^ a b c "United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2018.  ^ "Geographic Regions of Georgia". Georgia Info. Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ a b Lew, Alan. "PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE US". GSP 220 – Geography of the United States. North Arizona University. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ Harms, Nicole. "Facts About the Rocky Mountain Range". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ "Great Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ "Mount Whitney, California". Peakbagger. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ "Find Distance and Azimuths Between 2 Sets of Coordinates (Badwater 36-15-01-N, 116-49-33-W and Mount Whitney 36-34-43-N, 118-17-31-W)". Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ Poppick, Laura. "US Tallest Mountain's Surprising Location Explained". LiveScience. Retrieved May 2, 2015.  ^ O'Hanlon, Larry (March 14, 2005). "America's Explosive Park". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 14, 2005. Retrieved April 5, 2016.  ^ "Ecoregions by country – T". Retrieved August 27, 2017.  ^ Boyden, Jennifer. "Climate Regions of the United States". Travel Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.  ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2015.  ^ Perkins, Sid (May 11, 2002). "Tornado Alley, USA". Science News. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved September 20, 2006.  ^ Len McDougall (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tracks and Scats: A Comprehensive Guide to the Trackable Animals of the United States and Canada. Lyons Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-59228-070-4.  ^ Morin, Nancy. "Vascular Plants of the United States" (PDF). Plants. National Biological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2008.  ^ Osborn, Liz. "Number of Native Species in United States". Current Results Nexus. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals)". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 20, 2009.  ^ Lawrence, E.A. (1990). "Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle in American Culture". The Journal of American Culture. 13 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1111/j.1542-734X.1990.1301_63.x.  ^ "National Park Service Announces Addition of Two New Units" (Press release). National Park Service. February 28, 2006. Archived from the original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2017.  ^ Lipton, Eric; Krauss, Clifford (August 23, 2012). "Giving Reins to the States Over Drilling". New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ Gorte, Ross W.; Vincent, Carol Hardy.; Hanson, Laura A.; Marc R., Rosenblum. "Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 18, 2015.  ^ "Chapter 6: Federal Programs to Promote Resource Use, Extraction, and Development". U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.  ^ The National Atlas of the United States of America (January 14, 2013). "Forest Resources of the United States". Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ "Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to 1997, With Projections to 2050" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ Daynes & Sussman, 2010, pp. 3, 72, 74–76, 78 ^ Hays, Samuel P. (2000). A History of Environmental Politics since 1945. ^ Collin, Robert W. (2006). The Environmental Protection Agency: Cleaning Up America's Act. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33341-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Turner, James Morton (2012). The Promise of Wilderness ^ Endangered species Fish and Wildlife Service. General Accounting Office, DIANE Publishing. 2003. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-3997-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Population estimates, July 1, 2017, (V2017)". US Census Bureau.  ^ "CT1970p2-13: Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2004. p. 1168. Retrieved August 20, 2015.  ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990.... U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 28, 2013. ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Executive Summary: A Population Perspective of the United States". Population Resource Center. May 2000. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007.  ^ Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan. p. 40.  ^ "Changing Patterns in U.S. Immigration and Population".  ^ a b "Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S. – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. September 28, 2015.  ^ a b c "Ancestry 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. June 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 4, 2004. Retrieved December 2, 2016.  ^ "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 25, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ Oleaga, Michael. "Immigration Numbers Update: 13 Million Mexicans Immigrated to US in 2013, But Chinese Migrants Outnumber Other Latin Americans". Latin Post. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2014.  ^ "Field Listing: Birth Rate". Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. 2014. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ "Population growth (annual %)". United Nations Population Division. The World Bank. 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ "U.S. Legal Permanent Residents: 2015". Office of Immigration Statistics Annual Flow Report. ^ "Immigrants in the United States, 2010: A Profile of America's Foreign-Born Population". Center for Immigrant Studies. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Baker, Bryan; Rytina, Nancy (March 2013). "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012" (PDF). Office of Immigration Statistics. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved October 21, 2014.  ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES, 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, (V2015)". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 15, 2016.  ^ a b "It's official: Minority babies are the majority among the nation's infants, but only just". Pew Research Center. June 23, 2016.  ^ Exner, Rich (July 3, 2012). "Americans under age one now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, OH.  ^ "What percentage of the U.S. population is gay, lesbian or bisexual?". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2014.  ^ Donaldson James, Susan (April 8, 2011). "Gay Americans Make Up 4 Percent of Population". ABC News. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ "LGBT Percentage Highest in D.C., Lowest in North Dakota". Gallup. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ Somashekher, Sandhya (July 15, 2014). "Health survey gives government its first large-scale data on gay, bisexual population". Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2014.  Sieczkowski, Cavan (July 15, 2014). "Health Survey: About 2 Percent Of Americans Are Gay Or Lesbian". Huffington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2014.  Painter, Kim (July 15, 2014). "Just over 2% tell CDC they are gay, lesbian, bisexual". USA Today. Retrieved November 19, 2014.  ^ a b c Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.  ^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin". 2007 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2008.  ^ "2010 Census Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.  ^ "Tables 41 and 42—Native and Foreign-Born Populations" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 11, 2009.  ^ a b "National Vital Statistics Reports: Volume 61, Number 1. Births: Final Data for 2012" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau: "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Final State 2010 Census Population Totals for Legislative Redistricting" see custom table, 2nd worksheet ^ Exner, Rich (July 3, 2012). "Americans under age one now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. Cleveland, OH. Retrieved July 29, 2012.  ^ "An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury" (PDF) (Press release). August 14, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "What the plummeting Hispanic birthrate means for the U.S. economy". Fusion.  ^ "United States – Urban/Rural and Inside/Outside Metropolitan Area". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010.  ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (PDF). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2009.  ^ a b "Table 5. Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2007 to July 1, 2008" (PDF). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. March 19, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2009.  ^ "Raleigh and Austin are Fastest-Growing Metro Areas" (Press release). U.S. Census Bureau. March 19, 2009. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.  ^ "Appendix A. Census 2000 Geographic Terms and Concepts – Figure A–3. Census Regions, Census Divisions, and Their Constituent States" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  ^ "Estimates of Resident Population Change and Rankings: July 1, 2015 to July 1, 2016 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2017.  ^ "Language Spoken at Home by the U.S. Population, 2010", American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, in World Almanac and Book of Facts 2012, p. 615. ^ Welles, Elizabeth B. (Winter–Spring 2004). "Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning, Fall 2002" (PDF). ADFL Bulletin. 35 (2–3): 7. doi:10.1632/adfl.35.2.7. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 21, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  ^ Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of the United States: Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress" (PDF). (Congressional Research Service). Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4". Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ Alaska OKs Bill Making Native Languages Official April 21, 2014; Bill Chappell; ^ Dicker, Susan J. (2003). Languages in America: A Pluralist View. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5.  ^ "California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative Counsel, State of California. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved December 17, 2007.  "California Judicial Council Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. Retrieved December 17, 2007.  ^ "Samoan". UCLA Language Materials Project. UCLA. Retrieved October 4, 2014.  Frederick T.L. Leong; Mark M. Leach (April 15, 2010). Suicide Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups: Theory, Research, and Practice. Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-135-91680-0.  Robert D. Craig (2002). Historical Dictionary of Polynesia. Scarecrow Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8108-4237-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Nessa Wolfson; Joan Manes (1985). Language of Inequality. Walter de Gruyter. p. 176. ISBN 978-3-11-009946-1. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Lawrence J. Cunningham; Janice J. Beaty (January 2001). A History of Guam. Bess Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-57306-047-9.  Eur (2002). The Far East and Australasia 2003. Psychology Press. p. 1137. ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Yaron Matras; Peter Bakker (2003). The Mixed Language Debate: Theoretical and Empirical Advances. Walter de Gruyter. p. 301. ISBN 978-3-11-017776-3. in the Northern Marianas, Chamarro, Carolinian ( = the minority language of a group of Carolinian immigrants), and English received the status of co-official languages in 1985(Rodriguez-Ponga 1995:24–28).  ^ "Translation in Puerto Rico". Puerto Rico Channel. Retrieved December 29, 2013.  ^ "Foreign Language Enrollments in K–12 Public Schools" (PDF). American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). February 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2015.  ^ Goldberg, David; Looney, Dennis; Lusin, Natalia (February 2015). "Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013" (PDF). Modern Language Association. Retrieved May 20, 2015.  ^ David Skorton & Glenn Altschuler. "America's Foreign Language Deficit". Forbes.  ^ "United States". Modern Language Association. Retrieved September 2, 2013.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results".  ^ a b "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.  ^ "Religion". Gallup. June 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ a b "Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least". Gallup. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ Merica, Dan (June 12, 2012). "Pew Survey: Doubt of God Growing Quickly among Millennials". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2012.  ^ Hooda, Samreen (July 12, 2012). "American Confidence in Organized Religion at All Time Low". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 14, 2012.  ^ "Religion Among the Millennials". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved August 29, 2012.  ^ ""Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation" (PDF).  ^ "US Protestants no longer a majority – study". BBC News.  ^ "Mormons more likely to marry, have more children than other U.S. religious groups". Pew Research Center. May 22, 2015.  ^ "Church Statistics and Religious Affiliations". Pew Research. Retrieved September 23, 2014.  ^ a b c d ""Nones" on the Rise". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ Barry A. Kosmin; Egon Mayer; Ariela Keysar (December 19, 2001). "American Religious Identification Survey 2001" (PDF). CUNY Graduate Center. Retrieved September 16, 2011.  ^ "United States". Retrieved May 2, 2013.  ^ Media, Minorities, and Meaning: A Critical Introduction — Page 88, Debra L. Merskin – 2010 ^ a b c "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.  ^ Richard Middleton, COLONIAL AMERICA, A HISTORY, 1565–1776, third edition (London: Blackwell, 2002) pp 95-103. ^ "U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations – U.S. Religious Landscape Study – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life". Retrieved February 26, 2014.  ^ Walsh, Margaret (January 2005). The American West. Visions and Revisions. Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-521-59671-8.  ^ "Table 55—Marital Status of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1990 to 2007" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 11, 2009.  ^ "Women's Advances in Education". Columbia University, Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy. 2006. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.  ^ a b "Births: Final Data for 2013, tables 2, 3" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved July 23, 2015.  ^ "Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved July 23, 2015.  ^ Strauss, Lilo T.; et al. (November 24, 2006). "Abortion Surveillance—United States, 2003". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health. Retrieved June 17, 2007.  ^ "FASTSTATS – Births and Natality". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 21, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ Wetzstein, Cheryl (May 28, 2014). "U.S. fertility plummets to record low". The Washington Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.  ^ Jardine, Cassandra (October 31, 2007). "Why adoption is so easy in America". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ "Child Adoption: Trends and policies" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Hagerty, Barbara Bradley (May 27, 2008). "Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy". National Public Radio: All Things Considered. Retrieved July 23, 2009.  ^ Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6. ISBN 0-7668-2759-3. ^ Killian, Johnny H. "Constitution of the United States". The Office of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^ Democracy Index 2016 (PDF) (Report). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.  ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". Transparency International. Retrieved March 5, 2017.  ^ Mikhail Filippov; Peter C. Ordeshook; Olga Shvetsova (February 9, 2004). Designing Federalism: A Theory of Self-Sustainable Federal Institutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-01648-3.  Barbara Bardes; Mack Shelley; Steffen Schmidt (January 1, 2013). American Government and Politics Today: Essentials 2013–2014 Edition. Cengage Learning. pp. 265–266. ISBN 1-285-60571-3.  ^ "The Legislative Branch". United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Retrieved August 20, 2012.  ^ "The Process for impeachment". ThinkQuest. Retrieved August 20, 2012.  ^ "The Executive Branch". The White House. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ Kermit L. Hall; Kevin T. McGuire (September 9, 2005). Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.  U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (March 18, 2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test. Government Printing Office. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-16-091708-0.  Bryon Giddens-White (July 1, 2005). The Supreme Court and the Judicial Branch. Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-6608-2.  Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  "Federal Courts". United States Courts. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ Bloch, Matt; Ericson, Matthew; Quealy, Kevin (May 30, 2013). "Census 2010: Gains and Losses in Congress". The New York Times.  ^ a b c Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S. Territories. Melissa Locker. March 9, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2018 ^ "What is the Electoral College". National Archives. Retrieved August 21, 2012.  ^ Cossack, Roger (July 13, 2000). "Beyond politics: Why Supreme Court justices are appointed for life". CNN. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012.  ^ "Nebraska (state, United States) : Agriculture". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 11, 2012.  ^ Feldstein, Fabozzi, 2011, p. 9 ^ Schultz, 2009, pp. 164, 453, 503 ^ Schultz, 2009, p. 38 ^ Map of the U.S. EEZ omits U.S. claimed Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo Bank which are disputed. ^ US State Department, Common Core Document of the United States of America "Constitutional, political and legal structure" report by the US State Department to the UN (22). December 30, 2011. viewed July 10, 2015. ^ The New York Times 2007, p. 670. ^ Onuf 2010, p. xvii. ^ See 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36) and 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(38) U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and Nationality Act. 8 U.S.C. § 1101a ^ House of Representatives. History, Art & Archives. Electoral College Fast Facts, viewed August 21, 2015. ^ House of Representatives. History, Art & Archives, Determining Apportionment and Reapportioning. viewed August 21, 2015. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Affairs. Retrieved January 16, 2016.  ^ How Come American Samoans Still Don’t Have U.S. Citizenship at Birth?. Joshua Keating. June 5, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2018. ^ American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases Revisionism. Chapter 3. Harvard Law Review. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Debt And Deficit Negotiations. The White House (Photograph). 2011. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2017.  ^ Etheridge, Eric; Deleith, Asger (August 19, 2009). "A Republic or a Democracy?". New York Times blogs. Retrieved November 7, 2010. The US system seems essentially a two-party system. ...  ^ Avaliktos, Neal (January 1, 2004). The Election Process Revisited. Nova Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-59454-054-7.  ^ David Mosler; Robert Catley (1998). America and Americans in Australia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-275-96252-4. Retrieved April 11, 2016.  ^ Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Cengage Learning. pp. 106–7. ISBN 0-495-50112-3.  ^ Flegenheimer, Matt; Barbaro, Michael (November 9, 2016). "Donald Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the Establishment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2016.  ^ US Senate, Senate Organization Chart for the 114th Congress, viewed August 25, 2015. ^ US House of Representatives, Leadership, viewed August 25, 2015. ^ "Congressional Profile Resources". Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives.  ^ MultiState Associates Incorporated. 2015 Governors and Legislatures. Viewed January 14, 2015. ^ National Governor's Association. Current Governors, viewed January 14, 2015; DeBonis, Mike. "Bowser is elected D.C. Mayor", Washington Post November 5, 2014, viewed January 14, 2015. ^ Ambrose Akenuwa (July 1, 2015). Is the United States Still the Land of the Free and Home to the Brave?. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-329-26112-9.  ^ "What is the G8?". University of Toronto. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^ Kan, Shirley A. (August 29, 2014). "Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990" (PDF). Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  "Taiwan's Force Modernization: The American Side". Defense Industry Daily. September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ Dumbrell, John; Schäfer, Axel (2009). America's 'Special Relationships': Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the Politics of Alliance. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-87270-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Ek, Carl & Ian F. Fergusson (September 3, 2010). "Canada–U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ Vaughn, Bruce (August 8, 2008). "Australia: Background and U.S. Relations". Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ Vaughn, Bruce (May 27, 2011). "New Zealand: Background and Bilateral Relations with the United States" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ Lum, Thomas (January 3, 2011). "The Republic of the Philippines and U.S. Interests" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 3, 2011.  ^ Chanlett-Avery, Emma; et al. (June 8, 2011). "Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ Mark E. Manyin; Emma Chanlett-Avery; Mary Beth Nikitin (July 8, 2011). "U.S.–South Korea Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  ^ Zanotti, Jim (July 31, 2014). "Israel: Background and U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September 12, 2014.  ^ Shah, Anup (April 13, 2009). "U.S. and Foreign Aid Assistance". Retrieved October 11, 2009.  ^ Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Loren Yager; Emil Friberg; Leslie Holen (July 2003). Foreign Relations: Migration from Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. DIANE Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7567-3394-0.  ^ "Trump to bypass U.N. and send aid directly to persecuted Christians in Middle East". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 26, 2017.  ^ "Mike Pence: US to stop funding 'ineffective' UN efforts to help Christians persecuted in Middle East". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved October 26, 2017.  ^ "Pence says US to stop funding 'ineffective' UN relief efforts". The Hill. Retrieved October 26, 2017.  ^ Budget Office, Congressional. "The Long-Term Budget Outlook 2013" (PDF). Congress of the United States Congressional Budget Office. p. 10. Retrieved January 21, 2016.  ^ Porter, Eduardo (August 14, 2012). "America's Aversion to Taxes". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012. In 1965, taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.7 percent of the nation's output. In 2010, they amounted to 24.8 percent. Excluding Chile and Mexico, the United States raises less tax revenue, as a share of the economy, than every other industrial country.  ^ a b "CBO Historical Tables-February 2013". Congressional Budget Office. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.  ^ "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2010". The US Congressional Budget Office (CBO). December 4, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.  ^ Lowrey, Annie (January 4, 2013). "Tax Code May Be the Most Progressive Since 1979". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2014.  ^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD Journal: Economic Studies: 27. Retrieved September 24, 2015. Various studies have compared the progressivity of tax systems of European countries with that of the United States (see for instance Prasad and Deng, 2009; Piketty and Saez, 2007; Joumard, 2001). Though they use different definitions, methods and databases, they reach the same conclusion: the US tax system is more progressive than those of the continental European countries.  ^ Taxation in the US: Prasad, M.; Deng, Y. (April 2, 2009). "Taxation and the worlds of welfare". Socio-Economic Review. 7 (3): 431–457. doi:10.1093/ser/mwp005. Retrieved May 5, 2013.  Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't have a "47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.  "How Much Do People Pay in Federal Taxes?". Peter G. Peterson Foundation. Retrieved October 2, 2015.  "T13-0174 – Average Effective Federal Tax Rates by Filing Status; by Expanded Cash Income Percentile, 2014". The Tax Policy Center. Retrieved October 2, 2015.  ^ Huang, Chye-Ching; Frentz, Nathaniel. "What Do OECD Data Really Show About U.S. Taxes and Reducing Inequality?". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved September 13, 2015.  ^ a b c Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't have a "47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.  ^ Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (August 2006). "How Progressive is the U.S. Federal Tax System? A Historical and International Perspective". National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Jane Wells (December 11, 2013). "The rich do not pay the most taxes, they pay ALL the taxes". CNBC. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  Steve Hargreaves (March 12, 2013). "The rich pay majority of U.S. income taxes". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  "Top 10 Percent of Earners Paid 68 Percent of Federal Income Taxes". 2014 Federal Budget in Pictures. The Heritage Foundation. 2015. Archived from the original on January 6, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2017.  Stephen Dinan (July 10, 2012). "CBO: The wealthy pay 70 percent of taxes". Washington Times. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  "The Tax Man Cometh! But For Whom?". NPR. April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ Wamhoff, Steve (April 7, 2014). "Who Pays Taxes in America in 2014?" (PDF). Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy. Retrieved January 17, 2015.  ^ Agadoni, Laura. "Characteristics of a Regressive Tax". Houston Chronicle Small Business blog.  ^ "TPC Tax Topics | Payroll Taxes". Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ "The Design of the Original Social Security Act". Social Security Online. U.S. Social Security Administration. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ Blahous, Charles (February 24, 2012). "The Dark Side of the Payroll Tax Cut". Defining Ideas. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ "Is Social SecurityProgressove? CBO" (PDF).  ^ "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2008 and 2009" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. July 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (March 3, 2013). "Tax bills for rich families approach 30-year high". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ "Who will pay what in 2013 taxes?". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. March 3, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ Tax incidence of corporate tax in the United States: Harris, Benjamin H. (November 2009). "Corporate Tax Incidence and Its Implications for Progressivity" (PDF). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  Gentry, William M. (December 2007). "A Review of the Evidence on the Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax" (PDF). OTA Paper 101. Office of Tax Analysis, U.S. Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  Fullerton, Don; Metcalf, Gilbert E. (2002). "Tax Incidence". In A.J. Auerbach and M. Feldstein. Handbook of Public Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. pp. 1788–1839. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  Musgrave, R.A.; Carroll, J.J.; Cook, L.D.; Frane, L. (March 1951). "Distribution of Tax Payments by Income Groups: A Case Study for 1948" (PDF). National Tax Journal. 4 (1): 1–53. Retrieved October 9, 2013.  ^ Malm, Elizabeth (February 20, 2013). "Comments on Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States". Tax Foundation. Retrieved April 3, 2013.  ^ "IMF, United States General government gross debt". September 14, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2014.  ^ "Debt to the Penny (Daily History Search Application)". TreasuryDirect. Retrieved January 6, 2015.  ^ Burgess Everett (January 6, 2015). "The next debt ceiling fight". Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2015.  ^ Thornton, Daniel L. (Nov–Dec 2012). "The U.S. Deficit/Debt Problem: A Longer–Run Perspective" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. Retrieved May 7, 2013.  ^ Lopez, Luciana (January 28, 2013). "Fitch backs away from downgrade of U.S. credit rating". Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2013.  ^ "The Air Force in Facts and Figures (Armed Forces Manpower Trends, End Strength in Thousands)" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. May 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "What does Selective Service provide for America?". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^ "Base Structure Report, Fiscal Year 2008 Baseline" (PDF). Department of Defense. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A)" (PDF). Department of Defense. March 31, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010.  ^ "The 15 Countries with the Highest Military Expenditure in 2011". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2017.  ^ "Compare". CIA World Factbook. RealClearWorld. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2013.  ^ "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). Budget of the U.S. Government. White House OMB. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.  ^ "Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request Overview" (PDF). Department of Defense. February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011.  ^ Basu, Moni (December 18, 2011). "Deadly Iraq War Ends with Exit of Last U.S. Troops". CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2012.  ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom". Iraq Coalition Casualty Count. February 5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2012.  ^ Cherian, John (April 7, 2012). "Turning Point". Frontline. The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2012. There are currently 90,000 U.S. troops deployed in the country.  ^ "Department of Defence Defence Casualty Analysis System". Department of Defense. November 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.  ^ "Local Police Departments, 2003" (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. May 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2011.  ^ "U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They Do". Retrieved August 21, 2012.  ^ "Plea Bargains". Findlaw. Retrieved January 6, 2015.  "Interview with Judge Michael McSpadden". PBS. December 16, 2003.  ^ Beckett, Lois; Aufrichtig, Aliza; Davis, Kenan (September 26, 2016). "Murders up 10.8% in biggest percentage increase since 1971, FBI data shows". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 22, 2016.  ^ "Murders Rose At Their Fastest Pace In A Quarter-Century Last Year". FiveThirtyEight. September 26, 2016.  ^ Beckett, Lois; Chalabi, Mona (September 25, 2017). "US murder rate rose in 2016 – but experts question claims of long-term trend". The Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2017.  ^ Kaste, Martin (March 30, 2015). "Open Cases: Why One-Third Of Murders In America Go Unresolved". NPR. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ "Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics". U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved November 16, 2013.  "Crime in the United States, 2011". FBI '(Uniform Crime Statistics—Murder)'. Retrieved January 23, 2013.  "UNODC Homicide Statistics". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Retrieved January 23, 2013.  ^ "Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001–2002)" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). March 31, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2008.  ^ Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 226–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. Retrieved June 18, 2017.  ^ Alexia Cooper; Erica L. Smith (November 2011). "Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980–2008" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. pp. 3, 12. Retrieved November 14, 2015.  ^ Fuchs, Erin (October 1, 2013). "Why Louisiana Is The Murder Capital of America". Business Insider.  ^ Agren, David (October 19, 2014). "Mexico crime belies government claims of progress". Florida Today – USA Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 4B. Retrieved October 19, 2014.  ^ Connor, Tracy; Chuck, Elizabeth (May 28, 2015). "Nebraska's Death Penalty Repealed With Veto Override". NBC News. Retrieved June 11, 2015.  ^ Simpson, Ian (May 2, 2013). "Maryland becomes latest U.S. state to abolish death penalty". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2016.  ^ "Searchable Execution Database". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 10, 2012.  ^ "Death Sentences and Executions 2015". Amnesty International USA. 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.  ^ Schmidt, Steffen W.; Shelley, Mack C.; Bardes, Barbara A. (2008). American Government & Politics Today. Cengage Learning. p. 591. ISBN 978-0-495-50228-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Walmsley, Roy (2005). "World Prison Population List" (PDF). King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2007.  For the latest data, see "Prison Brief for United States of America". King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies. June 21, 2006. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007.  National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014. Nation Behind Bars: A Human Rights Solution. Human Rights Watch, May 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014. ^ Barkan, Steven E.; Bryjak, George J. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Jones & Bartlett. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4496-5439-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Glaze, Lauren E.; Herberman, Erinn J. (December 2013). "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (PDF).  ^ Iadicola, Peter; Shupe, Anson (October 26, 2012). Violence, Inequality, and Human Freedom. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 456. ISBN 978-1-4422-0949-7.  ^ Emma Brown and Danielle Douglas-Gabriel (July 7, 2016). Since 1980, spending on prisons has grown three times as much as spending on public education. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2016. ^ "Prisoners in 2013" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics.  ^ "United States of America – International Centre for Prison Studies". International Centre for Prison Studies.  ^ Clear, Todd R.; Cole, George F.; Reisig, Michael Dean (2008). American Corrections. Cengage Learning. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-495-55323-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Statistics". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved March 4, 2015.  ^ Moore, ADRIAN T. "PRIVATE PRISONS: Quality Corrections at a Lower Cost" (PDF). Reason Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  Benefield, Nathan (October 24, 2007). "Private Prisons Increase Capacity, Save Money, Improve Service". Commonwealth Commonwealth Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  William G. Archambeault; Donald R. Deis, Jr. (1997–1998). "Cost Effectiveness Comparisons of Private Versus Public Prisons in Louisiana: A Comprehensive Analysis of Allen, Avoyelles, and Winn Correctional Centers" (PDF). Journal of the Oklahoma Criminal Justice Research Consortium. 4. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  Volokh, Alexander (May 1, 2002). "A Tale of Two Systems: Cost, Quality, and Accountability in Private Prisons". Harvard Law Review. 115: 1868. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  ^ Selman, Donna and Paul Leighton (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. xi. ISBN 1-4422-0173-8. Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard University Press. pp. 235 & 236. ISBN 0-674-06616-2.  John L. Campbell (2010). "Neoliberalism's penal and debtor states". Theoretical Criminology. 14 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1177/1362480609352783.  Joe Davidson (August 12, 2016). Private federal prisons – less safe, less secure. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2016. Gottschalk, Marie (2014). Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press. p. 70 ISBN 0-691-16405-3. Peter Kerwin (June 10, 2015). Study finds private prisons keep inmates longer, without reducing future crime. University of Wisconsin–Madison News. Retrieved June 11, 2015. ^ a b Correctional Populations in the United States. Published December 2014 by Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Chang, Cindy (May 29, 2012). "Louisiana is the world's prison capital". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved April 4, 2013.  ^ Mears, Daniel P. (2010). American Criminal Justice Policy: An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-521-76246-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Virgin Islands (USA). Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Puerto Rico (USA). Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ a b "GDP Estimates". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved October 3, 2016.  ^ "GDP Estimates 2012–2015". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved October 3, 2016.  ^ "CONSUMER PRICE INDEX – SEPTEMBER 2017" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics. September 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau of Labor Statistics. August 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "Employment Situation Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. October 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "Treasury Direct". Treasury Direct. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.  ^ "Federal Reserve Statistical Release" (PDF). Federal Reserve. Federal Reserve. 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ The United States of America. PediaPress. p. 24. GGKEY:2CYQCESKTB7.  ^ Wright, Gavin; Czelusta, Jesse (2007). "Resource-Based Growth Past and Present", in Natural Resources: Neither Curse Nor Destiny, ed. Daniel Lederman and William Maloney. World Bank. p. 185. ISBN 0-8213-6545-2. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database: United States". International Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.  ^ "European Union GDP". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. April 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ a b Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of Inequality". Policy Review. Hoover Institution Stanford University. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2012.  ^ a b "Trade Statistics". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 6, 2011.  ^ "Top Ten Countries with which the U.S. Trades". U.S. Census Bureau. August 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.  ^ "Major Foreign Holders of Treasury Securities". Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Who Holds Our Debt?".  ^ "The TRUTH About Who Really Owns All of America's Debt".  ^ "This surprising chart shows which countries own the most U.S. debt".  ^ "National debt: Whom does the US owe?".  ^ "World's Top 5 arms exporters". United Press International. Retrieved March 18, 2015.  ^ "China becomes the world's third largest arms exporter". BBC News. March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.  Shankar, Sneha (March 17, 2015). "US Remains World's Largest Exporter of Arms While India Leaps Ahead To Become Largest Importer: Study". International Business Times. Retrieved March 18, 2015.  ^ "GDP by Industry". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.  ^ "Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail [In thousands]".  ^ a b "USA Economy in Brief". U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.  ^ "Table 724—Number of Tax Returns, Receipts, and Net Income by Type of Business and Industry: 2005". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (XLS) on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.  ^ "Sony, LG, Wal-Mart among Most Extendible Brands". Cheskin. June 6, 2005. Archived from the original on March 25, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ "Table 964—Gross Domestic Product in Current and Real (2000) Dollars by Industry: 2006". U.S. Census Bureau. May 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.  ^ "U.S. surges past Saudis to become world's top oil supplier -PIRA". Reuters.  ^ "Coal Statistics". National Mining Association. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ "Minerals Production". National Mining Association. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  ^ "Corn". U.S. Grains Council. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2008.  ^ "Soybean Demand Continues to Drive Production". Worldwatch Institute. November 6, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2008.  ^ "ISAAA Brief 39-2008: Executive Summary—Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. p. 15. Retrieved July 16, 2010.  ^ "Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE)/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)" FRED Graph, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis ^ Fuller, Thomas (June 15, 2005). "In the East, many EU work rules don't apply". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005.  ^ "Doing Business in the United States". World Bank. 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2007.  ^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved May 21, 2015.  ^ Ray, Rebecca; Sanes, Milla; Schmitt, John (May 2013). No-Vacation Nation Revisited. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 8, 2013. ^ Bernard. Tara Siegel (February 22, 2013). "In Paid Family Leave, U.S. Trails Most of the Globe". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2013. ^ a b Vasel, Kathryn. "Who doesn't get paid sick leave?". CNN.  ^ "Total Economy Database, Summary Statistics, 1995–2010". Total Economy Database. The Conference Board. September 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2009.  ^ "Chart Book: The Legacy of the Great Recession". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. March 12, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.  ^ "Household Income". Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators. OECD Publishing. March 18, 2014. doi:10.1787/soc_glance-2014-en. Retrieved May 29, 2014.  ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Income". OECD Better Life Index. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved May 26, 2017. In the United States, the average household net adjusted disposable income per capita is USD 41 071 a year, much higher than the OECD average of USD 29 016 and the highest figure in the OECD.  ^ "OECD Better Life Index". OECD. Retrieved November 25, 2012.  ^ a b Long, Heather (September 12, 2017). "U.S. middle-class incomes reached highest-ever level in 2016, Census Bureau says". Retrieved September 18, 2017 – via  ^ Sherman, Erik. "America is the richest, and most unequal, country". Fortune. Retrieved August 30, 2016.  ^ McCarthy, Niall. "The Countries With The Most Millionaires". Statista. Retrieved August 30, 2016.  ^ "Global Food Security Index". London: The Economist Intelligence Unit. March 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ Rector, Robert; Sheffield, Rachel (September 13, 2011). "Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America's Poor". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ "Human Development Report 2014" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 168. Retrieved July 26, 2014.  ^ Mishel, Lawrence (April 26, 2012). The wedges between productivity and median compensation growth. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved October 18, 2013. ^ Anderson, Richard G. (2007). "How Well Do Wages Follow Productivity Growth?" (PDF). St. Louis Federal Reserve. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Alvaredo, Facundo; Atkinson, Anthony B.; Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2013). "The Top 1 Percent in International and Historical Perspective". Journal of Economic Perspectives. Retrieved August 16, 2013. ^ Smeeding, T.M. (2005). "Public Policy: Economic Inequality and Poverty: The United States in Comparative Perspective". Social Science Quarterly. 86: 955–983. doi:10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00331.x.  Tcherneva, Pavlina R. (April 2015). "When a rising tide sinks most boats: trends in US income inequality" (PDF). Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. Retrieved April 10, 2015.  Saez, E. (October 2007). "Table A1: Top Fractiles Income Shares (Excluding Capital Gains) in the U.S., 1913–2005". UC Berkeley. Retrieved July 24, 2008.  "Field Listing—Distribution of Family Income—Gini Index". The World Factbook. CIA. June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2007.  Focus on Top Incomes and Taxation in OECD Countries: Was the crisis a game changer? OECD, May 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014. ^ Saez, Emmanuel (June 30, 2016). "Striking it Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved September 15, 2017. ^ Martin Gilens & Benjamin I. Page (2014). "Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens" (PDF). Perspectives on Politics. 12 (3): 564–581. doi:10.1017/S1537592714001595.  Larry Bartels (2009). "Economic Inequality and Political Representation" (PDF). The Unsustainable American State: 167–196. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195392135.003.0007. ISBN 978-0-19-539213-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016.  Thomas J. Hayes (2012). "Responsiveness in an Era of Inequality: The Case of the U.S. Senate". Political Research Quarterly. 66 (3): 585–599. doi:10.1177/1065912912459567. SSRN 1900856 .  ^ Winship, Scott (Spring 2013). "Overstating the Costs of Inequality" (PDF). National Affairs (15). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  "Income Inequality in America: Fact and Fiction" (PDF). Manhattan Institute. May 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2015.  Brunner, Eric; Ross, Stephen L; Washington, Ebonya (May 2013). "Does Less Income Mean Less Representation?" (PDF). American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 5 (2): 53–76. doi:10.1257/pol.5.2.53. Retrieved July 12, 2015.  Feldstein, Martin (May 14, 2014). "Piketty's Numbers Don't Add Up: Ignoring dramatic changes in tax rules since 1980 creates the false impression that income inequality is rising". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 12, 2015.  ^ Weston, Liz (May 10, 2016). "Americans Are Pissed – This Chart Might Explain Why".  ^ Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-43000-X p. 257 ^ Egan, Matt (September 27, 2017). "Record inequality: The top 1% controls 38.6% of America's wealth". CNNMoney. Retrieved October 12, 2017.  ^ Altman, Roger C. "The Great Crash, 2008". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.  ^ "Americans' wealth drops $1.3 trillion". CNN Money. June 11, 2009. ^ "Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Net Worth, Level". Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ "Household Debt and Credit Report". Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved June 26, 2015.  ^ "U.S. household wealth falls $11.2 trillion in 2008". Reuters. Retrieved October 4, 2014.  ^ "The 2014 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress" (PDF). The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ "Household Food Security in the United States in 2011" (PDF). USDA. September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2013.  ^ New Census Bureau Statistics Show How Young Adults Today Compare With Previous Generations in Neighborhoods Nationwide. United States Census Bureau, December 4, 2014. ^ Alston, Philp (December 15, 2017). "Statement on Visit to the USA, by Professor Philip Alston, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights". OHCHR. Retrieved December 22, 2017.  ^ Places: New Hampshire. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ Quick Facts: New Hampshire. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ American Samoa Governor Says Small Economies 'Cannot Afford Any Reduction In Medicaid'. Fili Sagapolutele. February 3, 2017. Retrieved January 8, 2018. ^ America's Happiest (And Most Miserable) States. Samuel Stebbins, Michael B. Sauter, Evan Comen and Thomas C. Frohlich. February 1, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2018. ^ "Interstate FAQ (Question #3)". Federal Highway Administration. 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2009.  ^ "Public Road and Street Mileage in the United States by Type of Surface". United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ "China Expressway System to Exceed US Interstates". New Geography. Grand Forks, ND. January 22, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.  ^ "China overtakes US in car sales". The Guardian. London. January 8, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Motor vehicles statistics – countries compared worldwide". NationMaster. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Household, Individual, and Vehicle Characteristics". 2001 National Household Travel Survey. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "Daily Passenger Travel". 2001 National Household Travel Survey. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ Todorovich, Petra; Hagler, Yoav (January 2011). High Speed Rail in America (PDF) (Report). America 2050. Retrieved May 5, 2011.  ^ Renne, John L.; Wells, Jan S. (2003). "Emerging European-Style Planning in the United States: Transit-Oriented Development" (PDF). Rutgers University. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2007.  ^ Benfield, Kaid (May 18, 2009). "NatGeo surveys countries' transit use: guess who comes in last". Natural Resources Defense Council. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015.  ^ "Intercity Passenger Rail: National Policy and Strategies Needed to Maximize Public Benefits from Federal Expenditures". U.S. Government Accountability Office. November 13, 2006. Retrieved June 20, 2007.  ^ "The Economist Explains: Why Americans Don't Ride Trains". The Economist. August 29, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2015.  ^ "Amtrak Ridership Records". Amtrak. June 8, 2011. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.  ^ McGill, Tracy (January 1, 2011). "3 Reasons Light Rail Is an Efficient Transportation Option for U.S. Cities". MetaEfficient. Retrieved June 14, 2013.  ^ McKenzie, Brian (May 2014). "Modes Less Traveled—Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008–2012" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2014.  ^ "Privatization". Cato Institute. Retrieved December 27, 2014.  ^ "Scheduled Passengers Carried". International Air Transport Association (IATA). 2011. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ "Preliminary World Airport Traffic and Rankings 2013 – High Growth Dubai Moves Up to 7th Busiest Airport – Mar 31, 2014". Airports Council International. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15 ^ "Diagram 1: Energy Flow, 2007" (PDF). EIA Annual Energy Review. U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 2007. Retrieved June 25, 2008.  ^ "Country Comparison: Refined Petroleum Products — Consumption". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 18, 2014.  ^ "BP Statistical Review of World Energy". British Petroleum. June 2007. Archived from the original (XLS) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2010.  ^ Ames, Paul (May 30, 2013). "Could fracking make the Persian Gulf irrelevant?". Salon. Retrieved May 30, 2012. Since November, the United States has replaced Saudi Arabia as the world's biggest producer of crude oil. It had already overtaken Russia as the leading producer of natural gas.  ^ "Atomic Renaissance". The Economist. London. September 6, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2007.  ^ American Metropolitan Water Association (December 2007). "Implications of Climate Change for Urban Water Utilities – Main Report" (PDF). Retrieved February 26, 2009.  ^ National Academies' Water Information Center. "Drinking Water Basics". Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2009.  ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003). "Water on Tap: What You Need to Know" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2009. , p. 11 ^ McLendon, Russell. "How polluted is U.S. drinking water?". Mother Nature Network. Retrieved October 20, 2015.  ^ "Ages for Compulsory School Attendance ..." U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved June 10, 2007.  ^ "Statistics About Non-Public Education in the United States". U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Non-Public Education. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^ a b AP (June 25, 2013). "U.S. education spending tops global list, study shows". CBS. Retrieved October 5, 2013.  ^ Rosenstone, Steven J. (December 17, 2009). "Public Education for the Common Good". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2009.  ^ "QS World University Rankings". Topuniversities. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Top 200 – The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2010–2011". Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015.  ^ "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2006.  ^ For more detail on U.S. literacy, see A First Look at the Literacy of America's Adults in the 21st century, U.S. Department of Education (2003). ^ "Human Development Indicators" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  ^ "Education at a Glance 2013" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved October 5, 2013.  ^ Student Loan Debt Exceeds One Trillion Dollars. NPR, April 4, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013. ^ a b c Adams, J.Q.; Strother-Adams, Pearlie (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X. ^ Thompson, William; Hickey, Joseph (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X. ^ Fiorina, Morris P.; Peterson, Paul E. (2000). The New American Democracy. London: Longman, p. 97. ISBN 0-321-07058-5. ^ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, Calif., London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5. ^ Richard Koch (July 10, 2013). "Is Individualism Good or Bad?". Huffington Post.  ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (2004). "Chapters 2–4". Who are We?: The Challenges to America's National Identity. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-87053-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015. : also see American's Creed, written by William Tyler Page and adopted by Congress in 1918. ^ AP (June 25, 2007). "Americans give record $295B to charity". USA Today. Retrieved October 4, 2013.  ^ "International comparisons of charitable giving" (PDF). Charities Aid Foundation. November 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2013.  ^ Clifton, Jon (March 21, 2013). "More Than 100 Million Worldwide Dream of a Life in the U.S. More than 25% in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Dominican Republic want to move to the U.S." Gallup. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ "A Family Affair: Intergenerational Social Mobility across OECD Countries" (PDF). Economic Policy Reforms: Going for Growth. OECD. 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010.  Blanden, Jo; Gregg, Paul; Machin, Stephen (April 2005). "Intergenerational Mobility in Europe and North America" (PDF). Centre for Economic Performance. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2006.  ^ Gould, Elise (October 10, 2012). "U.S. lags behind peer countries in mobility." Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved July 15, 2013. ^ CAP: Understanding Mobility in America. April 26, 2006 ^ Schneider, Donald (July 29, 2013). "A Guide to Understanding International Comparisons of Economic Mobility". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved August 22, 2013.  ^ Winship, Scott (Spring 2013). "Overstating the Costs of Inequality" (PDF). National Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.  ^ Gutfeld, Amon (2002). American Exceptionalism: The Effects of Plenty on the American Experience. Brighton and Portland: Sussex Academic Press. p. 65. ISBN 1-903900-08-5.  ^ Zweig, Michael (2004). What's Class Got To Do With It, American Society in the Twenty-First Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8899-0.  "Effects of Social Class and Interactive Setting on Maternal Speech". Education Resource Information Center. Retrieved January 27, 2007.  ^ Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-26111-3.  ^ O'Keefe, Kevin (2005). The Average American. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-58648-270-X.  ^ "Wheat Info". Archived from the original on October 11, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "Traditional Indigenous Recipes". American Indian Health and Diet Project. Retrieved September 15, 2014.  ^ Sidney Wilfred Mintz (1996). Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions Into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Beacon Press. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-8070-4629-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Angus K. Gillespie; Jay Mechling (January 1, 1995). American Wildlife in Symbol and Story. Univ. of Tennessee Press. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-1-57233-259-1.  ^ a b Klapthor, James N. (August 23, 2003). "What, When, and Where Americans Eat in 2003". Newswise/Institute of Food Technologists. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ H, D. "The coffee insurgency". The Economist. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ Smith, 2004, pp. 131–132 ^ Levenstein, 2003, pp. 154–55 ^ Harvey A. Levenstein (1988). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. University of California Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-520-23439-0. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Jennifer Jensen Wallach (2013). How America Eats: A Social History of U.S. Food and Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xi. ISBN 978-1-4422-0874-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  ^ Breadsley, Eleanor. "Why McDonald's in France Doesn't Feel Like Fast Food". NPR. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "When Was the First Drive-Thru Restaurant Created?". Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ Boslaugh, Sarah (2010). "Obesity Epidemic", in Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices, ed. Roger Chapman. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 413–14. ISBN 978-0-7656-1761-3. ^ "Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. American Heart Association. 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2007.  "Let's Eat Out: Americans Weigh Taste, Convenience, and Nutrition" (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2007.  ^ Bloom, Harold. 1999. Emily Dickinson. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House. p. 9. ISBN 0-7910-5106-4. ^ Buell, Lawrence (Spring–Summer 2008). "The Unkillable Dream of the Great American Novel: Moby-Dick as Test Case". American Literary History. 20 (1–2): 132–155. doi:10.1093/alh/ajn005. ISSN 0896-7148.  ^ Quinn, Edward (2006). A Dictionary of Literary and Thematic Terms. Infobase, p. 361. ISBN 0-8160-6243-9. Seed, David (2009). A Companion to Twentieth-Century United States Fiction. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley and Sons, p. 76. ISBN 1-4051-4691-5. Meyers, Jeffrey (1999). Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Da Capo, p. 139. ISBN 0-306-80890-0. ^ Lesher, Linda Parent (February 1, 2000). The Best Novels of the Nineties: A Reader's Guide. McFarland. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-4766-0389-6.  ^ Summers, Lawrence H. (November 19, 2006). "The Great Liberator". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2013.  ^ McFadden, Robert D. (January 9, 2013). "James M. Buchanan, Economic Scholar and Nobel Laureate, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2013.  ^ Brown, Milton W. (1988 1963). The Story of the Armory Show. New York: Abbeville. ISBN 0-89659-795-4. ^ Janson, Horst Woldemar; Janson, Anthony F. (2003). History of Art: The Western Tradition. Prentice Hall Professional. p. 955. ISBN 978-0-13-182895-7.  ^ Davenport, Alma (1991). The History of Photography: An Overview. UNM Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8263-2076-6.  ^ Ken Bloom (2004). Broadway: Its History, People, and Places : an Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 322–. ISBN 978-0-415-93704-7.  ^ Moran, Eugene V. (January 1, 2002). A People's History of English and American Literature. Nova Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-59033-303-7.  ^ a b Biddle, Julian (2001). What Was Hot!: Five Decades of Pop Culture in America. New York: Citadel, p. ix. ISBN 0-8065-2311-5. ^ * "Taylor Swift: Teen idol to 'biggest pop artist in the world'". The Tennessean. September 24, 2015.  Lynch, Gerald. "Britney Spears is the most searched for celebrity of the decade". Tech Digest. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  "Katy Perry: now the world's richest (famous) woman". the Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Rosen, Jody. "Beyoncé: The Woman on Top of the World". The New York Times.  "BBC – Imagine – Jay-Z: He Came, He Saw, He Conquered". Retrieved October 25, 2015. *"Introducing the King of Hip-Hop". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 25, 2015.  Ben Westhoff. "The enigma of Kanye West – and how the world's biggest pop star ended up being its most reviled, too". the Guardian.  ^ Hartman, Graham (January 5, 2012). "Metallica's 'Black album' is Top-Selling Disc of last 20 years". Loudwire. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ Vorel, Jim (September 27, 2012). "Eagles tribute band landing at Kirkland". Herald & Review. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ "Aerosmith will rock Salinas with July concert". February 2, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ "Nigeria surpasses Hollywood as world's second-largest film producer" (Press release). United Nations. May 5, 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.  ^ Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. April 29, 1944. p. 68. ISSN 0006-2510.  ^ "John Landis Rails Against Studios: 'They're Not in the Movie Business Anymore'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 24, 2015.  ^ Krasniewicz, Louise; Disney, Walt (2010). Walt Disney: A Biography. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-35830-2.  ^ Matthews, Charles (June 3, 2011). "Book explores Hollywood 'Golden Age' of the 1960s-'70s". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ Banner, Lois (August 5, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe, the eternal shape shifter". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ Rick, Jewell (August 8, 2008). "John Wayne, an American Icon". University of Southern California. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ Greven, David (January 2, 2013). Psycho-Sexual: Male Desire in Hitchcock, De Palma, Scorsese, and Friedkin. University of Texas Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-292-74204-8.  ^ Morrison, James (September 11, 1998). Passport to Hollywood: Hollywood Films, European Directors. SUNY Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7914-3938-8.  ^ Turow, Joseph (September 22, 2011). Media Today: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 434. ISBN 978-1-136-86402-5.  ^ Village Voice: 100 Best Films of the 20th century (2001) Archived March 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Filmsite. ^ "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002". British Film Institute. 2002. Archived from the original on November 5, 2002.  ^ "AFI's 100 Years". American Film Institute. Retrieved January 24, 2015.  ^ Drowne, Kathleen Morgan; Huber, Patrick (January 1, 2004). The 1920's. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-313-32013-2.  ^ Kroon, Richard W. (April 30, 2014). A/V A to Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Media, Entertainment and Other Audiovisual Terms. McFarland. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-7864-5740-3.  ^ "Top 10 Most Popular Sports in America 2017", Retrieved on June 8, 2017. ^ Krane, David K. (October 30, 2002). "Professional Football Widens Its Lead Over Baseball as Nation's Favorite Sport". Harris Interactive. Archived from the original on July 9, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2007.  MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game: The Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0. ^ "Passion for College Football Remains Robust". National Football Foundation. March 19, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2014.  ^ Global sports market to hit $141 billion in 2012. Reuters. Retrieved on July 24, 2013. ^ Chase, Chris (February 7, 2014). "The 10 most fascinating facts about the all-time Winter Olympics medal standings". USA Today. Retrieved February 28, 2014.  Loumena, Dan (February 6, 2014). "With Sochi Olympics approaching, a history of Winter Olympic medals". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2014.  ^ Liss, Howard. Lacrosse (Funk & Wagnalls, 1970) pg 13. ^ "As American as Mom, Apple Pie and Football? Football continues to trump baseball as America's Favorite Sport" (PDF). Harris Interactive. January 16, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2014. Retrieved July 2, 2014.  ^ Cowen, Tyler; Grier, Kevin (February 9, 2012). "What Would the End of Football Look Like?". Grantland/ESPN. Retrieved February 12, 2012.  ^ Hodgetts, Rob. "Will U.S. learn to love rugby?".  ^ "Streaming TV Services: What They Cost, What You Get". NY Times; Associated Press. October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.  ^ "TV Fans Spill into Web Sites". eMarketer. June 7, 2007. Retrieved June 10, 2007.  ^ Waits, Jennifer (October 17, 2014). "Number of U.S. Radio Stations on the Rise, Especially LPFM, according to New FCC Count". Radio Survivor. Retrieved January 6, 2015.  ^ Brenda Shaffer (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy. MIT Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-262-19529-4.  ^ Daniels, Les (1998). Superman: The Complete History (1st ed.). Titan Books. p. 11. ISBN 1-85286-988-7.  ^ "Top Sites in United States". Alexa. 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.  ^ "Spanish Newspapers in United States". W3newspapers. Retrieved August 5, 2014.  ^ "Spanish Language Newspapers in the USA : Hispanic Newspapers : Periódiscos en Español en los EE.UU". Retrieved August 5, 2014.  ^ Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269  ^ "Thomas Edison's Most Famous Inventions". Thomas A Edison Innovation Foundation. Retrieved January 21, 2015.  ^ Benedetti, François (December 17, 2003). "100 Years Ago, the Dream of Icarus Became Reality". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ Fraser, Gordon (2012). The Quantum Exodus: Jewish Fugitives, the Atomic Bomb, and the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959215-9.  ^ 10 Little Americans. ISBN 978-0-615-14052-0. Retrieved September 15, 2014 – via Google Books.  ^ "NASA's Apollo technology has changed the history". Sharon Gaudin. Retrieved September 15, 2014.  ^ Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "Celebrating July 2: 10 Days That Changed History". The New York Times.  ^ Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance, McLaughlin, Weimers, Winslow 2008. ^ Robert W. Price (2004). Roadmap to Entrepreneurial Success. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8144-7190-6.  ^ Sawyer, Robert Keith (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-19-973757-4.  ^ Bennett, W. Lance; Segerberg, Alexandra (September 2011). "Digital Media and the Personalization of Collective Action". Information, Communication & Society. 14 (6): 770–799. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2011.579141.  ^ "Computer and Internet Use Main" (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Census Bureau. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Cell phone ownership hits 91% of adults". Pew Research Center. May 19, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2015.  ^ "Freedom on the Net 2014". Freedom House.  ^ "Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures by Source and Objective: 1970 to 2004". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ MacLeod, Donald (March 21, 2006). "Britain Second in World Research Rankings". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 14, 2006.  ^ "WHO Life expectancy data by country". WHO. 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2013.  ^ "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved October 25, 2011.  ^ a b Murray, Christopher J.L. (July 10, 2013). "The State of US Health, 1990–2010: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors" (PDF). Journal of the American Medical Association. 310 (6): 591–608. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.13805. PMC 5436627 . PMID 23842577. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2013.  ^ Measure of America report, 2013 (Fact table, page 18). Retrieved January 8, 2018. ^ CIA World Factbook. American Samoa. Retrieved January 8, 2018. ^ "Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on April 11, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  ^ MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2007). "US Tumbles Down the World Ratings List for Life Expectancy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ "Mexico Obesity Rate Surpasses The United States', Making It Fattest Country in the Americas". Huffington Post.  ^ Schlosser, Eric (2002). Fast Food Nation. New York: Perennial. p. 240. ISBN 0-06-093845-5.  ^ "Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2003–2004". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^ "Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. American Heart Association. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007.  ^ "About Teen Pregnancy". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved January 24, 2015.  ^ Whitman, Glen; Raad, Raymond. "Bending the Productivity Curve: Why America Leads the World in Medical Innovation". The Cato Institute. Retrieved October 9, 2012.  ^ Cowen, Tyler (October 5, 2006). "Poor U.S. Scores in Health Care Don't Measure Nobels and Innovation". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2012.  ^ "The U.S. Healthcare System: The Best in the World or Just the Most Expensive?" (PDF). University of Maine. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2006.  ^ "In U.S., Uninsured Rate Holds at 13.4%". Gallup.  ^ Abelson, Reed (June 10, 2008). "Ranks of Underinsured Are Rising, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2008.  ^ Blewett, Lynn A.; et al. (December 2006). "How Much Health Insurance Is Enough? Revisiting the Concept of Underinsurance". Medical Care Research and Review. 63 (6): 663–700. doi:10.1177/1077558706293634. ISSN 1077-5587. PMID 17099121.  ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (April 5, 2006). "Mass. Bill Requires Health Coverage". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2007.  ^ "Health Care Law 54% Favor Repeal of Health Care Law". Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved October 13, 2012.  ^ "Debate on ObamaCare to intensify in the wake of landmark Supreme Court ruling". Fox News. June 29, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 

Bibliography Acharya, Viral V.; Cooley, Thomas F.; Richardson, Matthew P.; Walter, Ingo (2010). Regulating Wall Street: The Dodd-Frank Act and the New Architecture of Global Finance. Wiley. p. 592. ISBN 978-0-470-76877-8.  Baptist, Edward E. (2014). The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00296-X.  Barth, James; Jahera, John (2010). "US Enacts Sweeping Financial Reform Legislation". Journal of Financial Economic Policy. 2 (3): 192–195. doi:10.1108/17576381011085412.  Berkin, Carol; Miller, Christopher L.; Cherny, Robert W.; Gormly, James L. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. Cengage Learning. p. 75. ISBN 0-618-99485-8.  Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. OceanSide Publications, Inc. 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. PMID 1483570. Retrieved September 9, 2012.  Boyer, Paul S.; Clark, Clifford E. Jr.; Kett, Joseph F.; Salisbury, Neal; Sitkoff, Harvard; Woloch, Nancy (2007). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. Cengage Learning. p. 588. ISBN 978-0-618-80161-9. , Book Calloway, Colin G. (February 18, 1998). New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America. JHU Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8018-5959-5.  Cobarrubias, Juan (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-3358-4.  Davis, Kenneth C. (1996). Don't know much about the Civil War. New York: William Marrow and Co. p. 518. ISBN 0-688-11814-3. , Book Daynes, Byron W.; Sussman, Glen (eds.) (2010). White House Politics and the Environment: Franklin D. Roosevelt to George W. Bush. Texas A&M University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-60344-254-1. Presidential environmental policies, 1933–2009 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) , Book Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Vellanoweth, Rene L (September 16, 2008). A Canyon Through Time: Archaeology, History, and Ecology of the Tecolote Canyon Area, Santa Barbara County, California. University of Utah Press. ISBN 978-0-87480-879-7.  Feldstein, Sylvan G.; Fabozzi, Frank J., CFA. The Handbook of Municipal Bonds. John Wiley & Sons, January 13, 2011. p. 1376. ISBN 978-1-118-04494-0. , Book Gold, Susan Dudley (2006). United States V. Amistad: Slave Ship Mutiny. Marshall Cavendish. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7614-2143-6. , Book Ferguson, Thomas; Rogers, Joel (1986). "The Myth of America's Turn to the Right". The Atlantic. 257 (5): 43–53. Retrieved March 11, 2013.  Fraser, Steve; Gerstle, Gary (1989). The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order: 1930–1980. American History: Political science. Princeton University Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-691-00607-9.  Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9.  Greg, Percy (1892). History of the United States from the Foundation of Virginia to the Reconstruction of the Union. West, Johnston & Company.  García, Ofelia (September 9, 2011). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-5978-7.  Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power. HarperCollins. , Book Graebner, Norman A.; Burns, Richard Dean; Siracusa, Joseph M. (2008). Reagan, Bush, Gorbachev: Revisiting the End of the Cold War. Praeger Security International Series. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-313-35241-6.  Haymes, Stephen; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Miller, Reuben, eds. (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-67344-5.  Hughes, David (2007). The British Chronicles. 1. Westminster, Maryland: Heritage Books. p. 347.  Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2.  Ingersoll, Thomas N. (October 24, 2016). The Loyalist Problem in Revolutionary New England. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-12861-3.  Jacobs, Lawrence R. (2010). Health Care Reform and American Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-978142-3.  Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-195213-5. , eBook version Kurian, George T. ed. Encyclopedia of American Studies (4 Vol. Groiler: 2001) Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-8160-3337-9. , Book Kidder, David S.; Oppenheim, Noah D. (October 16, 2007). The Intellectual Devotional: American History: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently about Our Nation's Past. Rodale. ISBN 978-1-59486-744-6.  Kruse, Kevin M. (2015). One Nation Under God: How Corporate America Invented Christian America. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-04949-4.  Leckie, Robert (1990). None died in vain: The Saga of the American Civil War. New York: Harper-Collins. p. 682. ISBN 0-06-016280-5. , Book Martone, Eric (December 12, 2016). Italian Americans: The History and Culture of a People. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-995-2.  Leffler, Melvyn P. (2010). "The emergence of an American grand strategy, 1945–1952". In Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, eds.,The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume 1: Origins (pp. 67–89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83719-4.  Lemon, James T. (1987). "Colonial America in the 18th Century". In Robert D. Mitchell; Paul A. Groves. North America: the historical geography of a changing continent. Rowman & Littlefield. , PDF Lien, PhD, Arnold Johnson (1913). Studies in History, Economics, and Public Law, Volume 54. Longmans, Green & Co., Agents, London; Columbia University, New York. p. 604.  Karen Woods Weierman (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, And Law, 1820–1870. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-55849-483-1. , Book Levenstein, Harvey (2003). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles. ISBN 0-520-23439-1.  Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage in Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project" (PDF). Michigan Journal of History. University of Michigan (Fall). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013.  George McKenna (2007). The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10099-X.  The New York Times (October 30, 2007). The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge, Second Edition: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37659-8.  Mostert, Mary (2005). The Threat of Anarchy Leads to the Constitution of the United States. CTR Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0-9753851-4-2.  Onuf, Peter S. (August 3, 2010). The Origins of the Federal Republic: Jurisdictional Controversies in the United States, 1775–1787. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-0038-1.  Price, David A. (2003). Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Start of a New Nation. Random House.  eBook version Quirk, Joel (2011). The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-8122-4333-8. , Book Ranlet, Philip (1999). Alden T. Vaughan, ed. New England Encounters: Indians and Euroamericans Ca. 1600–1850. North Eastern University Press.  Rausch, David A. (1994). Native American Voices. Baker Books, Grand Rapids. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8010-7773-9.  Remini, Robert V. (2007). The House: The History of the House of Representatives. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-134111-3.  Richter, Daniel K., and James H. Merrell, eds. (2003). Beyond the Covenant Chain: the Iroquois and Their Neighbors in Indian North America, 1600–1800. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02299-X. Ripper, Jason (2008). American Stories: To 1877. M.E. Sharpe. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-7656-2903-6. , Book Russell, John Henderson (1913). The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619–1865. Johns Hopkins University. p. 196. , E'Book Safire, William (May 14, 2003). No Uncertain Terms: More Writing from the Popular "On Language" Column in The New York Times Magazine. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-4955-3.  Samuel, Bunford (1920). Secession and Constitutional Liberty: In which is Shown the Right of a Nation to Secede from a Compact of Federation and that Such Right is Necessary to Constitutional Liberty and a Surety of Union. Neale publishing Company.  Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J. (2007). Slavery in America. Infobase Publishing. p. 554. ISBN 978-1-4381-0813-1. , Book Schultz, David Andrew (2009). Encyclopedia of the United States Constitution. Infobase Publishing. p. 904. ISBN 978-1-4381-2677-7. , Book Sider, Sandra (2007). Handbook to Life in Renaissance Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533084-7.  Simonson, Peter (2010). Refiguring Mass Communication: A History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07705-0. He held high the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the nation's unofficial motto, e pluribus unum, even as he was recoiling from the party system in which he had long participated. , Book Smith, Andrew F. (2004). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 131–32. ISBN 0-19-515437-1.  Soss, Joe (2010). Hacker, Jacob S.; Mettler, Suzanne, eds. Remaking America: Democracy and Public Policy in an Age of Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-1-61044-694-5. , Book Stannard, David E. (November 18, 1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0.  Tadman, Michael (2000). The Demographic Cost of Sugar: Debates on Slave Societies and Natural Increase in the Americas. American Historical Review. 105. Oxford University Press. JSTOR 2652029.  Taylor, Alan (2002). Eric Foner, ed. American Colonies: The Settling of North America. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0-670-87282-2. , Book Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5. , Book Vaughan, Alden T. (1999). New England Encounters: Indians and Euroamericans Ca. 1600–1850. North Eastern University Press.  Walton, Gary M.; Rockoff, Hugh (2009). History of the American Economy. Cengage Learning. , Book Williams, Daniel K. (2012). "Questioning Conservatism's Ascendancy: A Reexamination of the Rightward Shift in Modern American Politics; {Reviews in American History}" (PDF). Reviews in American History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 40 (2): 325–331. doi:10.1353/rah.2012.0043. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.  Winchester, Simon (2013). The men who United the States. Harper Collins. pp. 198, 216, 251, 253. ISBN 978-0-06-207960-2.  Zinn, Howard (2005). A People's History of the United States. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. pp. 321–357. ISBN 0-06-083865-5.  Internet sources "Country Profile: United States of America". BBC News. London. April 22, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2008.  Cohen, Eliot A. (July–August 2004). "History and the Hyperpower". Foreign Affairs. Washington D.C. Retrieved July 14, 2006.  "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Rhode Island".  "History of "In God We Trust"". U.S. Department of the Treasury. March 8, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2013.  "Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer County". Mercer County Historical Society. 2005. Archived from the original on March 10, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2016. , Book Nick Hayes (November 6, 2009). "Looking back 20 years: Who deserves credit for ending the Cold War?". MinnPost. Retrieved March 11, 2013.  "59e. The End of the Cold War". U.S. Independence Hall Association. Retrieved March 10, 2013.  Levy, Peter B. (1996). Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years. ABC-CLIO. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-313-29018-3.  Census Bureau, US (2016). "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: UNITED STATES". QuickFacts. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved September 9, 2017.  Wallander, Celeste A. (2003). "Western Policy and the Demise of the Soviet Union". Journal of Cold War Studies. President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 5 (4): 137–177. doi:10.1162/152039703322483774. Retrieved March 11, 2013. 

External links Find more aboutUnited Statesat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity "United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  United States, from the BBC News Key Development Forecasts for the United States from International Futures Government Official U.S. Government Web Portal Gateway to government sites House Official site of the United States House of Representatives Senate Official site of the United States Senate White House Official site of the President of the United States Supreme Court Official site of the Supreme Court of the United States History Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public Policy Research U.S. National Mottos: History and Constitutionality Analysis by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance USA Collected links to historical data Maps National Atlas of the United States Official maps from the U.S. Department of the Interior Wikimedia Atlas of the United States Measure of America A variety of mapped information relating to health, education, income, and demographics for the U.S. Photos Photos of the USA v t e United States articles History By event Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier America's Critical Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present) By topic Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrial Geography Territory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky National Park Service National Parks Regions East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western Rivers Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon Time Water supply and sanitation Politics Federal Executive Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy Legislative House of Representatives current members Speaker Senate current members President pro tempore Vice President Judicial Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court Law Bill of Rights civil liberties Code of Federal Regulations Constitution federalism preemption separation of powers Federal Reporter United States Code United States Reports Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence Uniformed Armed Forces Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps 51st state political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement Elections Electoral College Foreign relations Foreign policy Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism Local government Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Red states and blue states Purple America Scandals State government governor state legislature state court Uncle Sam Economy By sector Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation Companies by state Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street Society Culture Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages American English Indigenous languages ASL Black American Sign Language HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish Literature Media Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art Social class Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth Issues Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state Outline Index Book Category Portal Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 130168302 LCCN: n78095330 ISNI: 0000 0001 2331 5230 GND: 4078704-7 SELIBR: 146174 SUDOC: 026376598 BNF: cb118636082 (data) HDS: 3380 NLA: 35562417 NDL: 00871907 BNE: XX4575366 Retrieved from "" Categories: United StatesCountries in North AmericaEnglish-speaking countries and territoriesFederal constitutional republicsFormer confederationsG7 nationsG8 nationsG20 nationsMember states of NATOMember states of the United NationsStates and territories established in 1776Superpowers1776 establishments in the United StatesHidden categories: Pages with reference errorsPages with broken reference namesCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWebarchive template wayback linksWikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pagesWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesGood articlesUse mdy dates from February 2018Use American English from April 2017All Wikipedia articles written in American EnglishCoordinates on WikidataArticles containing Latin-language textPages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parametersPages using multiple image with auto scaled imagesWikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2017All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2012All articles containing potentially dated statementsArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2007Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014All accuracy disputesArticles with disputed statements from April 2015Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2014Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2013CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiers

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadView sourceView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikinewsWikiquoteWikivoyage Languages AcèhАдыгэбзэАдыгабзэAfrikaansAkanAlemannischአማርኛÆngliscАҧсшәаالعربيةAragonésܐܪܡܝܐArmãneashtiArpetanঅসমীয়াAsturianuAvañe'ẽАварAymar aruAzərbaycancaتۆرکجهBamanankanবাংলাBahasa BanjarBân-lâm-gúBasa BanyumasanБашҡортсаБеларускаяБеларуская (тарашкевіца)‎भोजपुरीBikol CentralBislamaБългарскиBoarischབོད་ཡིགBosanskiBrezhonegБуряадCatalàЧӑвашлаCebuanoČeštinaChamoruChavacano de ZamboangaChi-ChewaChiShonaChiTumbukaCorsuCymraegDanskDavvisámegiellaDeitschDeutschދިވެހިބަސްDiné bizaadDolnoserbskiཇོང་ཁEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlЭрзяньEspañolEsperantoEstremeñuEuskaraEʋegbeفارسیFiji HindiFøroysktFrançaisFryskFulfuldeFurlanGaeilgeGaelgGagauzGàidhligGalego贛語Gĩkũyũگیلکیગુજરાતી𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni客家語/Hak-kâ-ngîХальмг한국어HausaHawaiʻiՀայերենहिन्दीHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIgboIlokanoবিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরীBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaInterlingueᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitutIñupiakИронIsiXhosaIsiZuluÍslenskaItalianoעבריתBasa JawaKalaallisutಕನ್ನಡKapampanganКъарачай-малкъарქართულიKaszëbscziҚазақшаKernowekKinyarwandaKirundiKiswahiliКомиKreyòl ayisyenKurdîКыргызчаКырык марыLadinoЛаккуЛезгиລາວلۊری شومالیLatgaļuLatinaLatviešuLëtzebuergeschLietuviųLigureLimburgsLingálaLivvinkarjalaLa .lojban.LugandaLumbaartMagyarमैथिलीМакедонскиMalagasyമലയാളംMaltiMāoriमराठीმარგალურიمصرىمازِرونیBahasa MelayuBaso MinangkabauMìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄MirandésМокшеньМонголမြန်မာဘာသာNāhuatlDorerin NaoeroNa Vosa VakavitiNederlandsNedersaksiesNēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣनेपालीनेपाल भाषा日本語NapulitanoНохчийнNordfriiskNorfuk / PitkernNorskNorsk nynorskNouormandNovialOccitanОлык марийଓଡ଼ିଆOromooOʻzbekcha/ўзбекчаਪੰਜਾਬੀपालिPälzischPangasinanپنجابیPapiamentuپښتوPatoisПерем Комиភាសាខ្មែរPicardPiemontèisTok PisinPlattdüütschPolskiPortuguêsQaraqalpaqshaQırımtatarcaReo tahitiRipoarischRomânăRomaniRumantschRuna SimiРусиньскыйРусскийСаха тылаGagana Samoaसंस्कृतम्SängöSarduScotsSeelterskSesothoSesotho sa LeboaSetswanaShqipSicilianuසිංහලSimple EnglishسنڌيSiSwatiSlovenčinaSlovenščinaСловѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟŚlůnskiSoomaaligaکوردیSranantongoСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиBasa SundaSuomiSvenskaTagalogதமிழ்TaqbaylitTarandíneТатарча/tatarçaతెలుగుTetunไทยትግርኛТоҷикӣᏣᎳᎩTsetsêhestâheseತುಳುTürkçeTürkmençeTwiThuɔŋjäŋУдмуртУкраїнськаاردوئۇيغۇرچە / UyghurcheVahcuenghVènetoVepsän kel’Tiếng ViệtVolapükVõroWalon文言West-VlamsWinarayWolof吴语XitsongaייִדישYorùbá粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitėška中文डोटेलीKabɩyɛ Edit links This page was last edited on 22 February 2018, at 12:18. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"6.060","walltime":"6.555","ppvisitednodes":{"value":50332,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":1671531,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":135539,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":20,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":44,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 5590.233 1 -total"," 61.60% 3443.324 2 Template:Reflist"," 27.17% 1518.906 360 Template:Cite_web"," 16.64% 930.032 203 Template:Cite_book"," 6.81% 380.503 95 Template:Cite_news"," 6.13% 342.584 1 Template:Infobox_country"," 5.60% 313.076 1 Template:Infobox"," 4.73% 264.319 2 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 3.86% 215.945 1 Template:US_statehood_dates"," 3.13% 175.232 3 Template:Coord"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"3.542","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":36037351,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1320","timestamp":"20180223123902","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":143,"wgHostname":"mw1327"});});

United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

United_States More Links

This Is A Good Article. Follow The Link For More Information.This Article Is Semi-protected.AmericasAmerica (disambiguation)US (disambiguation)USA (disambiguation)United States (disambiguation)Geographic Coordinate SystemFlag Of The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesGreat Seal Of The United StatesGreat Seal Of The United StatesIn God We TrustE Pluribus UnumLatin LanguageAnnuit CœptisLatin LanguageGodNovus Ordo SeclorumLatin LanguageThe Star-Spangled BannerThe Stars And Stripes ForeverThe Contiguous United States Plus Alaska And HawaiiContiguous United StatesAlaskaHawaiiThe United States Including Its TerritoriesTerritories Of The United StatesWashington, D.C.New York CityFederal Government Of The United StatesNational LanguageEnglish LanguageEthnic GroupsWhite AmericansAfrican AmericansAsian AmericansMultiracial AmericansNative Americans In The United StatesPacific Islands AmericansHispanic And Latino AmericansChristianity In The United StatesIrreligion In The United StatesAmerican JewsIslam In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesDemonymAmericansPolitics Of The United StatesFederalismPresidential SystemRepublicPresident Of The United StatesDonald TrumpVice President Of The United StatesMike PenceSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesPaul RyanChief Justice Of The United StatesJohn RobertsUnited States CongressUpper HouseUnited States SenateLower HouseUnited States House Of RepresentativesAmerican RevolutionKingdom Of Great BritainUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceArticles Of ConfederationTreaty Of Paris (1783)United States ConstitutionNorthern Mariana IslandsGeography Of The United StatesList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaDemographics Of The United StatesList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParityList Of Countries By GDP (PPP)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP) Per CapitaGross Domestic ProductList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per CapitaGini CoefficientHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By Human Development IndexUnited States DollarISO 4217Coordinated Universal TimeDaylight Saving TimeCoordinated Universal TimeRight- And Left-hand TrafficTelephone Numbers In The United StatesNorth American Numbering PlanISO 3166ISO 3166-2:USCountry Code Top-level Domain.usFederal RepublicU.S. StateWashington, D.C.Territories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationWashington, D.C.List Of United States Cities By PopulationNew York CityContiguous United StatesNorth AmericaCanadaMexicoAlaskaBering StraitRussiaHawaiiArchipelagoPacific OceanTerritories Of The United StatesCaribbean SeaTime In The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesClimate Of The United StatesFauna Of The United StatesMegadiverse CountriesPaleo-IndiansPrehistoric Migration And Settlement Of The Americas From AsiaEuropean Colonization Of The AmericasThirteen ColoniesEast Coast Of The United StatesKingdom Of Great BritainSeven Years' WarAmerican RevolutionUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceTreaty Of Paris (1783)Colonial EmpireUnited States ConstitutionUnited States Bill Of RightsNatural And Legal RightsUnited States Territorial AcquisitionsAmerican Indian WarsList Of U.S. States By Date Of Admission To The UnionAmerican Civil WarSlavery In The United StatesIndustrial RevolutionSpanish–American WarWorld War IWorld War IISuperpowerNuclear Weapons And The United StatesAtomic Bombings Of Hiroshima And NagasakiPermanent Members Of The United Nations Security CouncilUnited Nations Security CouncilCold WarSoviet UnionSpace RaceApollo 11Dissolution Of The Soviet UnionHyperpowerUnited NationsWorld BankInternational Monetary FundOrganization Of American StatesDeveloped CountryList Of Countries By GDP (nominal)List Of Countries By GDP (PPP)Economy Of The United StatesAmericasPost-industrial SocietyService (economics)Knowledge EconomyNational WealthInternational Rankings Of The United StatesList Of Countries By Average WageHuman Development IndexList Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per CapitaUnited States Armed ForcesList Of Countries By Military ExpendituresPoliticsCulture Of The United StatesScience And Technology In The United StatesNaming Of AmericaNames For United States CitizensAmerican (word)EnlargeAmerigo VespucciMartin WaldseemüllerAmericasAmerigo VespucciLatin LanguageStephen MoylanGeorge WashingtonAide-de-campContinental ArmyJoseph Reed (politician)The Virginia GazetteArticles Of ConfederationJohn DickinsonThomas JeffersonUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceColumbia (name)Christopher ColumbusWashington, D.C.Thirteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionAmericansAmerican (word)History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryAmerican Business HistoryEconomic History Of The United StatesLabor History Of The United StatesHistory Of Native Americans In The United StatesEnlargeMonks MoundCahokiaUNESCOWorld Heritage SiteMississippian CulturePrehistoric Migration And Settlement Of The Americas From AsiaSiberiaBeringiaClovis CulturePre-Columbian EraMississippian CultureCahokiaArchaeologyFour CornersAncestral PuebloansUNESCO World Heritage SitesMesa Verde National ParkChaco Culture National Historical ParkTaos PuebloGreat LakesIroquois ConfederacyHawaiian IslandsArchaeologyJames CookCaptain James CookWaimea, Kauai County, HawaiiKauaiArchipelagoJohn Montagu, 4th Earl Of SandwichLords Commissioners Of The AdmiraltyRoyal NavyColonial History Of The United StatesEuropean Colonization Of The AmericasThirteen ColoniesEnlargeSaint Augustine, FloridaEnlargeMayflower CompactJean Leon Gerome FerrisChristopher ColumbusVoyages Of Christopher ColumbusNew WorldConquistadorJuan Ponce De LeónUnincorporated Territories Of The United StatesChristopher ColumbusPuerto RicoVoyages Of Christopher ColumbusSt. Augustine, FloridaSanta Fe, New MexicoMississippi RiverEnglish Overseas PossessionsColony Of VirginiaJamestown, VirginiaPilgrims (Plymouth Colony)Plymouth ColonyEnglish DissentersFreedom Of ReligionHouse Of BurgessesMayflower CompactFundamental Orders Of ConnecticutCash CropsScotch-Irish AmericanIndentured ServitudeProvince Of GeorgiaThirteen ColoniesRights Of EnglishmenChristian RevivalFirst Great AwakeningSeven Years' WarFrench And Indian WarFrench LanguageNative Americans In The United StatesSpanish NavyJuan José Pérez HernándezNootka SoundFurAbaloneCaliforniaAsiaPortugalRussiansFur TradingAlaskaPacific NorthwestAlta CaliforniaCape Foulweather43rd Parallel NorthBligh Island (Canada)Yuquot, British ColumbiaNuu-chah-nulth PeopleAmerican Indian WarsPopulation History Of Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasJames CookEnlargeJohann ZoffanyNative Americans In The United StatesAmerican Indian WarsPopulation History Of Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasSmallpoxMeaslesIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasNorthwest PassageMauiHawaii IslandKealakekua BayAmerican Revolutionary WarUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceAmerican RevolutionTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesEnlargeDeclaration Of Independence (Trumbull)John TrumbullRepublicanism In The United StatesRights Of EnglishmenAmerican RevolutionLee ResolutionSecond Continental CongressUnited States Declaration Of IndependenceKingdom Of Great BritainThirteen ColoniesIndependence Day (United States)Articles Of ConfederationSiege Of YorktownTreaty Of Paris (1783)Mississippi RiverConstitutional Convention (United States)United States ConstitutionRatification Of The United States ConstitutionPresident Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsNatural And Legal RightsDeep SouthSecond Great AwakeningEvangelicalismAbolitionism In The United StatesUnited States Territorial AcquisitionsAmerican Indian WarsLouisiana PurchaseWar Of 1812Adams–Onís TreatySteam EngineSteamboatsCanalErie CanalIllinois And Michigan CanalJacksonian DemocracySecond Party SystemTrail Of TearsIndian Removal ActIndian ReservationsRepublic Of TexasManifest DestinyOregon TreatyNorthwestern United StatesMexican–American WarMexican CessionSouthwestern United StatesCalifornia Gold RushAmerican Civil WarRail Transportation In The United StatesAmerican BisonPlains IndiansPresidency Of Ulysses S. GrantEnlargeStatue Of LibertyNew York CityAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraEnlargeBattle Of GettysburgThure De ThulstrupSlavery In The United StatesAfricansAfrican AmericansOrigins Of The American Civil WarSlave States And Free StatesUnited States Presidential Election, 1860Abraham LincolnRepublican Party (United States)Confederate States Of AmericaUnion (American Civil War)Emancipation ProclamationThirteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionReconstruction AmendmentsFourteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionAfrican AmericanFifteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesReconstruction (United States)Assassination Of Abraham LincolnCompromise Of 1877United States Presidential Election, 1876RedeemersJim Crow LawsDisenfranchisement After The Reconstruction EraRacial Segregation In The United StatesLynching In The United StatesEconomic History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesEnlargeEllis IslandImmigration To The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesSouthern EuropeEastern EuropeFirst Transcontinental TelegraphFirst Transcontinental RailroadAmerican FrontierIncandescent Light BulbTelephoneEnlargeAmerican Indian WarsAlaska PurchaseRussian EmpireOverthrow Of The Kingdom Of HawaiiKingdom Of HawaiiRepublic Of HawaiiTerritory Of HawaiiPuerto RicoGuamPhilippinesSpanish–American WarAmerican SamoaSecond Samoan Civil WarU.S. Virgin IslandsGilded AgeBusiness MagnateCornelius VanderbiltJohn D. RockefellerAndrew CarnegieRailwaysPetroleum IndustryHistory Of The Steel IndustryJ. P. MorganThomas EdisonNikola TeslaHenry FordAutomotive IndustryGreat PowerPeople's Party (United States)History Of The Socialist Movement In The United StatesAnarchism In The United StatesProgressive EraWomen's SuffrageProhibition In The United StatesUnited States Antitrust LawWorld War IGreat DepressionWorld War IIEnlargeWall StreetWorld War IAllies Of World War ICentral PowersWoodrow WilsonParis Peace Conference, 1919League Of NationsTreaty Of VersaillesNineteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionWomen's Suffrage In The United StatesRadioMass CommunicationTelevisionRoaring TwentiesWall Street Crash Of 1929Great Depression In The United StatesFranklin D. RooseveltNew DealSocial Security (United States)Great Migration (African American)Dust BowlMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIAllies Of World War IILend-LeaseEmpire Of JapanAttack On Pearl HarborAxis PowersFour PolicemenWorld War II CasualtiesBretton Woods ConferenceYalta ConferenceVictory In Europe DayUnited Nations Conference On International OrganizationSan FranciscoUnited Nations CharterManhattan ProjectAtomic Bombings Of Hiroshima And NagasakiSurrender Of JapanVictory Day (United States)History Of The United States (1945–64)History Of The United States (1964–80)History Of The United States (1980–91)Cold WarCivil Rights MovementWar On PovertySpace RaceReaganomicsEnlargeRonald ReaganTear Down This Wall!BerlinSoviet UnionCold WarCapitalismCommunismGeopoliticsEuropeNATOWarsaw PactContainmentProxy WarThird WorldPeople's Liberation ArmyNorth KoreaKorean WarSputnik 1Vostok 1Space RaceApollo 11Vietnam WarPost–World War II Economic ExpansionPost–World War II Baby BoomInterstate Highway SystemInner CitySuburbHawaiiCivil Rights MovementNonviolenceMartin Luther King Jr.Civil Rights Act Of 1968Counterculture Of The 1960sOpposition To United States Involvement In The Vietnam WarBlack NationalismSexual RevolutionWar On PovertyMedicare (United States)MedicaidMeans-testedFood Stamp ProgramAid To Families With Dependent ChildrenStagflationRonald ReaganReaganomicsDétenteRollbackCold War (1985–91)Dissolution Of The Soviet UnionUnipolarityPax AmericanaNew World Order (politics)History Of The United States (1991–2008)History Of The United States (2008–present)Gulf WarSeptember 11 AttacksWar On Terror2008 Financial CrisisAffordable Care ActWorld Trade Center (1973–2001)Lower ManhattanSeptember 11 AttacksOne World Trade CenterBa'athist IraqSadaam HusseinInvasion Of KuwaitGeorge H.W. BushGulf WarGulf WarCoalition Of The Gulf WarARPANETInternetDot-com BoomAlan GreenspanPersonal Responsibility And Work Opportunity Act1990s United States BoomNorth American Free Trade AgreementSeptember 11 AttacksAl-QaedaWorld Trade Center (1973–2001)The PentagonWar On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–2014)Iraq WarIraq War Troop Surge Of 2007United States Housing Bubble2008 Financial CrisisBarack ObamaAfrican AmericanMultiracial AmericanUnited States Presidential Election, 2008American Reinvestment And Recovery ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform And Consumer Protection ActPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActHealth Care In The United StatesPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActPremium Tax CreditHealth Insurance MarketplaceUnited States House Of Representatives Elections, 2010United States Senate Elections, 2014Withdrawal Of U.S. Troops From IraqIraqi Insurgency (2011–13)Islamic State Of Iraq And The LevantUnited States–Cuban ThawCuba–United States RelationsWikipedia:Manual Of Style/Dates And NumbersP5+1Joint Comprehensive Plan Of ActionNuclear Program Of IranGeography Of The United StatesClimate Of The United StatesEnvironment Of The United StatesEnlargeEnlargeKöppen Climate ClassificationContiguous United StatesHawaiiPacific OceanPuerto RicoAmerican SamoaGuamNorthern Mariana IslandsUnited States Virgin IslandsList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaChinaIndiaEncyclopædia BritannicaThe World FactbookAtlantic OceanDeciduousPiedmont (United States)Appalachian MountainsGreat LakesMidwestern United StatesMississippi RiverMissouri RiverList Of Rivers By LengthPrairieGreat PlainsU.S. Interior HighlandsRocky MountainsColoradoGreat BasinChihuahuan DesertMojave DesertSierra Nevada (U.S.)Cascade RangeWest Coast Of The United StatesExtreme Points Of The United StatesContiguous United StatesCaliforniaDenaliVolcanoAlexander ArchipelagoAleutian IslandsSupervolcanoYellowstone National ParkRockies100th Meridian WestHumid Continental ClimateHumid Subtropical ClimateAlpine ClimateMediterranean ClimateCoastal CaliforniaOceanic ClimateOregonWashington (state)FloridaGulf Of MexicoTropical CycloneTornadoTornado AlleyFauna Of The United StatesFlora Of The United StatesCategory:Biota Of The United StatesEnlargeBald EagleNational Bird Of The United StatesMegadiverse CountriesVascular PlantFlowering PlantBald EagleList Of National BirdsList Of National AnimalsList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemWildernessProtected AreaEnvironmental Issues In The United StatesNuclear Binding EnergyDeforestationUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyEndangered Species ActUnited States Fish And Wildlife ServiceDemography Of The United StatesAmericansList Of U.S. States By PopulationList Of United States Cities By Population1790 United States Census1800 United States Census1810 United States Census1820 United States Census1830 United States Census1840 United States Census1850 United States Census1860 United States Census1870 United States Census1880 United States Census1890 United States Census1900 United States Census1910 United States Census1920 United States Census1930 United States Census1940 United States Census1950 United States Census1960 United States Census1970 United States Census1980 United States Census1990 United States Census2000 United States Census2010 United States CensusNative Americans In The United StatesUnited States Census BureauChinaIndiaPopulation GrowthTotal Fertility RateImmigration To The United StatesChain MigrationPermanent Residence (United States)MexicoImmigration And Nationality Act Of 1965PhilippinesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesMinority GroupNon-Hispanic WhitesHomosexualityBisexualityTransgenderGallup (company)LGBTDistrict Of ColumbiaNorth DakotaCenters For Disease Control And PreventionNative Americans In The United StatesAlaska NativesNative HawaiiansPacific IslanderHispanic And Latino AmericansDemographic TransitionRace And Ethnicity In The United States CensusMexican AmericanForeign BornLatin AmericaUnited States Urban AreaGreat Lakes MegalopolisNortheast MegalopolisSouthern CaliforniaList Of United States Cities By PopulationGlobal CityNew York CityLos AngelesChicagoHoustonList Of Metropolitan Statistical AreasSan Bernardino, CaliforniaDallasAtlantaPhoenix, ArizonaList Of Metropolitan Statistical AreasTemplate:Largest Metropolitan Areas Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:Largest Metropolitan Areas Of The United StatesList Of Metropolitan Statistical AreasNew York CityNew York CityLos AngelesLos AngelesChicagoChicagoDallasDallasNew York CityNew York Metropolitan AreaNortheastern United StatesLos AngelesLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaWestern United StatesChicagoChicago Metropolitan AreaMidwestern United StatesDallas–Fort Worth MetroplexDallas–Fort Worth MetroplexSouthern United StatesHoustonGreater HoustonSouthern United StatesWashington, D.C.Washington Metropolitan AreaSouthern United StatesPhiladelphiaDelaware ValleyNortheastern United StatesMiamiMiami Metropolitan AreaSouthern United StatesAtlantaAtlanta Metropolitan AreaSouthern United StatesBostonGreater BostonNortheastern United StatesSan FranciscoSan Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical AreaWestern United StatesPhoenix, ArizonaPhoenix Metropolitan AreaWestern United StatesInland EmpireInland EmpireWestern United StatesDetroitMetro DetroitMidwestern United StatesSeattleSeattle Metropolitan AreaWestern United StatesMinneapolis–Saint PaulMinneapolis–Saint PaulMidwestern United StatesSan DiegoSan Diego County, CaliforniaWestern United StatesTampa Bay AreaTampa Bay AreaSouthern United StatesDenverDenver Metropolitan AreaWestern United StatesSt. LouisGreater St. LouisMidwestern United StatesUnited States Census BureauLanguages Of The United StatesLanguage Spoken At Home In The United States Of AmericaList Of Endangered Languages In The United StatesLanguage Education In The United StatesEnglish LanguageAmerican EnglishDe FactoNational LanguageOfficial LanguageNaturalized Citizen Of The United StatesSpanish Language In The United StatesHawaiian LanguageHawaiiAlaskaAlaska Native LanguagesNew MexicoLouisianaFrench Language In The United StatesCaliforniaSamoan LanguageAmerican SamoaChamorro LanguageGuamCarolinian LanguageNorthern Mariana IslandsPuerto RicoList Of Most Commonly Learned Foreign Languages In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesLatinJapanese Language Education In The United StatesAmerican Sign LanguageItalian Language In The United StatesChinese Language In The United StatesEnglish LanguageSpanish LanguageSpanish-based Creole LanguagesPuerto RicoChinese LanguageMandarin ChineseCantoneseTagalog LanguageFilipino LanguageVietnamese LanguageArabic LanguageFrench LanguageFrench PatoisCajun FrenchKorean LanguageReligion In The United StatesChristianityProtestantEvangelicalism In The United StatesMainline ProtestantBlack ChurchCatholicMormonJehovah's WitnessesEastern OrthodoxJewishMuslimBuddhistHinduIrreligionAgnosticismAtheismEnlargeWashington National CathedralWashington, D.C.CathedralEpiscopal Church In The United StatesFirst Amendment To The United States ConstitutionFree Exercise ClauseEstablishment ClauseChristianityVermontMississippiIrreligionChristianity In The United StatesProtestantismCatholic Church In The United StatesAmerican JewsIslam In The United StatesBuddhism In The United StatesHinduism In The United StatesAgnosticismAtheismIrreligionUnitarian UniversalistScientologistBahá'í FaithSikhJainismShintoConfucianismTaoismNeo-DruidismNative American ReligionWiccaReligious HumanismDeismProtestantism In The United StatesBaptistsSouthern Baptist ConventionLutheranismScandinaviaGermanyNorth DakotaSouth DakotaPresbyterianismScottish PeopleUlster Scots PeopleDutch ReformedNew AmsterdamNondenominational ProtestantsMethodistsPentecostalsEpiscopal Church (USA)AnglicansHoliness MovementAdventistsAnabaptistsChristian FundamentalistsReformedPietistsQuakersList Of Christian DenominationsCatholic Church In The United StatesSpanish Colonization Of The AmericasFrench Colonization Of The AmericasProvince Of MarylandRhode IslandUtahMormonismMormon CorridorIdahoNevadaWyomingEastern OrthodoxyAlaskaRussian AlaskaEastern EuropeJehovah's WitnessesRestorationistsChurches Of ChristChristian ScientistsList Of Christian DenominationsBible BeltSouthern United StatesEvangelical ProtestantismNew EnglandWestern United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesEducational Attainment In The United StatesTeenage PregnancyAlabamaWyomingAbortion In The United StatesRoe V. WadeLists Of Landmark Court DecisionsSupreme Court Of The United StatesTotal Fertility RateAdoption In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesLGBT Adoption In The United StatesPolygamyFederal Government Of The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesLocal Government In The United StatesElections In The United StatesUnited States CapitolUnited States CongressUnited States SenateUnited States House Of RepresentativesWhite HousePresident Of The United StatesUnited States Supreme Court BuildingSupreme Court Of The United StatesFederationRepresentative DemocracyMajority RuleMinority RightsLaw Of The United StatesSeparation Of PowersDemocracy IndexItalyCorruption Perceptions IndexFederalismPolitical Divisions Of The United StatesLocal Government In The United StatesCounty (United States)Municipal CorporationPlurality Voting SystemProportional RepresentationLegislatureBicameralismUnited States CongressUnited States SenateUnited States House Of RepresentativesFederal LawDeclaration Of WarPower Of The PurseImpeachmentExecutive (government)President Of The United StatesCommander-in-chiefBill (law)Cabinet Of The United StatesJudiciarySupreme Court Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesConstitutionalityCongressional DistrictUnited States Congressional Apportionment2000 United States CensusDistrict Of ColumbiaTerritories Of The United StatesNon-voting Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesAt-largeTerm Limits In The United StatesUnited States Presidential ElectionElectoral College (United States)Washington, D.C.Chief Justice Of The United StatesNebraskaUnicameralismGovernor (United States)Article One Of The United States ConstitutionHabeas Corpus In The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsFourteenth Amendment To The United States ConstitutionJudicial ReviewMarbury V. MadisonJohn MarshallPolitical Divisions Of The United StatesU.S. StateTerritories Of The United StatesList Of States And Territories Of The United StatesIndian ReservationTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesUnited States Territorial AcquisitionsEnlargeExclusive Economic ZoneU.S. StateDistrict Of ColumbiaTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsDistrict Of ColumbiaTwenty-third Amendment To The United States ConstitutionTerritories Of The United StatesPuerto RicoNon-voting Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesTribal Sovereignty In The United StatesAmerican SamoaAlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareFloridaGeorgia (U.S. State)HawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachusettsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew York (state)North CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashington (state)West VirginiaWisconsinWyomingDelawarePennsylvaniaNew JerseyGeorgia (U.S. State)ConnecticutMassachusettsMarylandSouth CarolinaNew HampshireVirginiaNew York (state)North CarolinaRhode IslandVermontKentuckyTennesseeOhioLouisianaIndianaMississippiIllinoisAlabamaMaineMissouriArkansasMichiganFloridaTexasIowaWisconsinCaliforniaMinnesotaOregonKansasWest VirginiaNevadaNebraskaColoradoNorth DakotaSouth DakotaMontanaWashington (state)IdahoWyomingUtahOklahomaNew MexicoArizonaAlaskaHawaiiArticle Seven Of The United States ConstitutionAdmission To The UnionAmerican SamoaWashington, D.C.GuamNorthern Mariana IslandsPuerto RicoUnited States Virgin IslandsWashington, D.C.GuamPuerto RicoAmerican SamoaUnited States Virgin IslandsNorthern Mariana IslandsPolitics Of The United StatesPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesEnlargeBarack ObamaDonald TrumpPresident Of The United StatesMike PenceVice President Of The United StatesTwo-party SystemPrimary ElectionNominationGeneral ElectionUnited States Presidential Election, 1856Democratic Party (United States)History Of The United States Democratic PartyRepublican Party (United States)History Of The United States Republican PartyThird Party (United States)Theodore RooseveltProgressive Party (United States, 1912)United States Presidential Election, 1912Electoral College (United States)Political CultureCenter-right PoliticsConservatism In The United StatesCentre-left PoliticsModern Liberalism In The United StatesPolitics Of The Northeastern United StatesPolitics Of The Western United StatesRed States And Blue StatesPolitical Party Strength In U.S. StatesPolitics Of The Southern United StatesMidwestern United StatesPolitics Of The Western United StatesRepublican Party (United States)Donald TrumpUnited States Presidential Election, 2016President Of The United StatesMike PenceOrrin HatchParty Leaders Of The United States SenateMitch McConnellChuck SchumerPaul RyanParty Leaders Of The United States House Of RepresentativesKevin McCarthy (California Politician)Nancy Pelosi115th United States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateIndependent PoliticianNew Progressive Party Of Puerto RicoForeign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesEnlargeHeadquarters Of The United NationsMidtown ManhattanUnited Nations Security CouncilHeadquarters Of The United NationsG7G20Organisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentList Of Diplomatic Missions In The United StatesConsul (representative)List Of Diplomatic Missions Of The United StatesIran–United States RelationsNorth Korea–United States RelationsForeign Relations Of BhutanTaiwan–United States RelationsSix AssurancesSpecial RelationshipUnited Kingdom–United States RelationsCanada–United States RelationsAustralia–United States RelationsNew Zealand–United States RelationsPhilippines–United States RelationsJapan–United States RelationsSouth Korea–United States RelationsIsrael–United States RelationsEuropean UnionFrance–United States RelationsItaly–United States RelationsGermany–United States RelationsSpain–United States RelationsNATOOrganization Of American StatesUnited States Free Trade AgreementsNorth American Free Trade AgreementMexico–United States RelationsOfficial Development AssistanceGross National IncomeCompact Of Free AssociationFederated States Of MicronesiaMarshall IslandsPalauTrust Territory Of The Pacific IslandsU.S. Agency For International DevelopmentTaxation In The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetEnlargeTaxation In The United StatesGross Domestic ProductProgressive TaxRegressive TaxUnearned IncomeCongressional Budget OfficeTax IncidenceCorporate Tax In The United StatesRegressive TaxNational Debt Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesEnlargeCarrier Strike GroupUSS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76)USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72)United States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceCommander-in-chiefUnited States Secretary Of DefenseJoint Chiefs Of StaffUnited States Department Of DefenseUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardUnited States Department Of Homeland SecurityUnited States Department Of The NavyReserve Components Of The United States Armed ForcesNational Guard Of The United StatesConscription In The United StatesSelective Service SystemAircraft CarrierMarine Expeditionary UnitUnited States Fleet Forces CommandUnited States Pacific FleetUnited States Military DeploymentsMilitary Budget Of The United StatesSaudi ArabiaEnlargeMilitary Budget Of The United StatesIraq WarWar In Afghanistan (2001–2014)Law Enforcement In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesSecond Amendment To The United States ConstitutionHuman Rights In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesEnlargeSheriffState PoliceNew York City Police DepartmentFederal Bureau Of InvestigationUnited States Marshals ServiceCivil RightsNational Security Of The United StatesU.S. Federal CourtsCommon LawFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesPlea Bargaining In The United StatesPlea BargainJury TrialClearance RateGun Violence In The United StatesWorld Health OrganizationSecond Amendment To The United States ConstitutionGun Politics In The United StatesUniform Crime ReportsCapital PunishmentFurman V. GeorgiaOklahomaCapital Punishment In The United StatesIranPakistanSaudi ArabiaUnited States Incarceration RateIncarceration In The United StatesUnited States Federal Sentencing GuidelinesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesFederal Bureau Of PrisonsIncarceration In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Incarceration RateTerritories Of The United StatesU.S. Virgin IslandsPuerto RicoEconomy Of The United StatesEconomic History Of The United StatesGross Domestic ProductConsumer Price IndexEmployment-to-population RatioUnemployment In The United StatesLabor ForceNational Debt Of The United StatesWealth In The United StatesEnlargeCapitalismMixed EconomyNatural ResourceInternational Monetary FundGross World ProductPurchasing Power ParityG7List Of Countries By GDP (nominal) Per CapitaList Of Countries By GDP (PPP) Per CapitaUnited States DollarReserve CurrencyList Of Countries By ImportsList Of Countries By ExportsList Of Countries By Exports Per CapitaForeign Trade Of The United StatesCanadaChinaMexicoJapanGermanyFederal Reserve SystemManufacturing In The United StatesPost-industrial SocietyTertiary Sector Of The EconomyFranchisingMcDonald'sSubway (restaurant)Coca-ColaSoft DrinkLiquefied Natural GasSulfurSaltNational Mining AssociationCoalMineralBerylliumCopperLeadMagnesiumZincTitaniumAgriculture In The United StatesNational Agricultural Statistics ServicePeanutOatRyeWheatRiceCottonMaizeBarleyHayHelianthusVegetable OilUnited States Department Of AgricultureBeefPoultryPorkMilkGenetically Modified FoodCropsConsumer SpendingLabor Unions In The United StatesWestern EuropeGlobal Competitiveness ReportWelfare StateList Of Statutory Minimum Employment Leave By CountryPaid Family LeavePapua New GuineaSurinameLiberiaWorkforce ProductivityLuxembourgNorwayNetherlandsGreat RecessionCongressional Budget OfficeUnemploymentConsumer Confidence IndexUnited States Housing BubbleInflation2000s Energy CrisisEnlargeTract HousingSan Jose, CaliforniaIncome In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesUnited States Counties By Per Capita IncomeIncome Inequality In The United StatesHousehold IncomeList Of Countries By Average WageMedian Household IncomeGlobal Food Security IndexEuropean UnionUnited Nations Development ProgrammeHuman Development IndexHuman Development IndexIncome Inequality In The United StatesUpper ClassWikipedia:Disputed StatementTalk:United StatesWealth In The United StatesWealth Inequality In The United StatesGreat RecessionHousehold DebtHomelessness In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Poverty RateNew HampshireAmerican SamoaMississippiTransportation In The United StatesEnlargeInterstate Highway SystemNational Highway System (United States)Passenger Vehicles In The United StatesSport Utility VehicleEnlargeHigh-speed Rail In The United StatesMass Transit In The United StatesRail Transportation In The United StatesAmtrakRail Transportation In The United StatesLight Rail In The United StatesList Of Airlines Of The United StatesAirline Deregulation ActList Of Airports In The United StatesAmerican AirlinesUS AirwaysList Of The World's Busiest Airports By Passenger TrafficHartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International AirportO'Hare International AirportChicagoSeptember 11 AttacksTransportation Security AdministrationEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnlargeNorth American Electric Reliability CorporationEnergy In The United StatesKilowatt HourList Of Countries By Energy Consumption Per CapitaRenewable EnergyNuclear Power In The United StatesThree Mile Island AccidentDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesWater ScarcityWater Pollution In The United StatesClimate ChangeCombined Sewer OverflowEducation In The United StatesEnlargeUniversity Of VirginiaThomas JeffersonState SchoolUnited States Department Of EducationKindergartenFirst GradeTwelfth GradeHigh SchoolParochial SchoolNonsectarianPrivate SchoolHomeschoolingPublic UniversityLists Of American Institutions Of Higher EducationCommunity CollegeBachelor's DegreeLiteracyOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentStudent DebtCulture Of The United StatesAlaska NativesNative American Cultures In The United StatesCulture Of The Native HawaiiansSocial Class In The United StatesPublic Holidays In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesMulticulturalismNative Americans In The United StatesNative HawaiiansAlaska NativesWestern CultureEuropean AmericanAfrican-American CultureAsian AmericanLatin American CultureMelting PotSalad Bowl (cultural Idea)ProtestantismFrontierWork EthicCreedAmerican DreamSocio-economic Mobility In The United StatesClassless SocietySocializationAverage JoeCuisine Of The United StatesEnlargeApple PieWheatThanksgiving (United States)EnlargeTurkey (bird)Thanksgiving (United States)Mexican CuisineItalian CuisineBreakfastBritish CuisineJohn L. HessFast FoodDrive-throughObesity In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureAmerican PhilosophyArchitecture Of The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesAmerican Classical MusicEnlargeMark TwainComedyNathaniel HawthorneEdgar Allan PoeHenry David ThoreauMark TwainWalt WhitmanEmily DickinsonHerman MelvilleMoby-DickAdventures Of Huckleberry FinnF. Scott FitzgeraldThe Great GatsbyHarper LeeTo Kill A MockingbirdGreat American NovelNobel Prize In LiteratureBob DylanWilliam FaulknerErnest HemingwayJohn SteinbeckWestern FictionHardboiledBeat GenerationPostmodern LiteratureJohn BarthThomas PynchonDon DeLilloTranscendentalismRalph Waldo EmersonAmerican PhilosophyCharles Sanders PeirceWilliam JamesJohn DeweyPragmatismWillard Van Orman QuineRichard RortyNoam ChomskyAnalytic PhilosophyJohn RawlsRobert NozickPolitical PhilosophyCornel WestJudith ButlerChicago School Of EconomicsMilton FriedmanJames M. BuchananThomas SowellHudson River SchoolRealism (arts)Thomas EakinsArmory ShowModern ArtGeorgia O'KeeffeMarsden HartleyAbstract ExpressionismJackson PollockWillem De KooningPop ArtAndy WarholRoy LichtensteinPostmodernismFrank Lloyd WrightPhilip JohnsonFrank GehryPhotographyAlfred StieglitzEdward SteichenAnsel AdamsEnlargeTimes SquareNew York CityBroadway TheatreTheater District, ManhattanTheater Of The United StatesP. T. BarnumManhattanEdward HarriganMusical TheatreBroadway TheatreIrving BerlinCole PorterStephen SondheimTraditional Pop MusicEugene O'NeillPulitzer Prize For DramaTennessee WilliamsEdward AlbeeAugust WilsonCharles IvesHenry CowellJohn CageAaron CoplandGeorge GershwinChoreographyIsadora DuncanMartha GrahamModern DanceGeorge BalanchineJerome RobbinsMusic Of The United StatesEnlargeGrammy AwardAfrican-American MusicMusic Of The United StatesFolk MusicBluesOld-time MusicPopular MusicJazzLouis ArmstrongDuke EllingtonCountry MusicRhythm And BluesElvis PresleyChuck BerryRock And RollBob DylanAmerican Folk Music RevivalJames BrownFunkHip Hop MusicHouse MusicMichael JacksonMadonna (entertainer)Taylor SwiftBritney SpearsKaty PerryBeyoncéJay-ZEminemKanye WestMetallicaEagles (band)AerosmithList Of Best-selling Music ArtistsCinema Of The United StatesEnlargeHollywood SignLos AngelesHollywoodLos AngelesThomas EdisonKinetoscopeSound FilmD. W. GriffithFilmmakerFilm GrammarWalt DisneyAnimationMerchandisingJohn FordJohn HustonClassical Hollywood CinemaJohn WayneMarilyn MonroeMartin ScorseseFrancis Ford CoppolaRobert AltmanNew HollywoodAftermath Of World War IISteven SpielbergGeorge LucasJames CameronAvatar (2009 Film)American Film InstituteAFI 100Orson WellesCitizen KaneCasablanca (film)The GodfatherGone With The Wind (1939 Film)Lawrence Of Arabia (film)The Wizard Of Oz (1939 Film)The GraduateOn The WaterfrontSchindler's ListSingin' In The RainIt's A Wonderful LifeSunset Boulevard (film)Academy AwardsAcademy Of Motion Picture Arts And SciencesGolden Globe AwardsSports In The United StatesAmerican FootballBaseballBasketballIce HockeyAmerican FootballNational Football LeagueSuper BowlBaseballNational SportMajor League BaseballBasketballIce HockeyMajor Professional Sports Leagues In The United States And CanadaNational Basketball AssociationNational Hockey LeagueCollege FootballCollege BasketballAssociation Football1994 FIFA World CupUnited States Men's National Soccer TeamUnited States Women's National Soccer TeamFIFA Women's World CupMajor League SoccerOlympic Games2028 Summer OlympicsSummer Olympic GamesWinter Olympic GamesBaseballAmerican FootballBasketballVolleyballSkateboardingSnowboardingLacrosseSurfingIndividual SportGolfAuto RacingNASCARRugby UnionMedia Of The United StatesEnlargeAmerican Broadcasting CompanyNBCCBSAmerican Broadcasting CompanyFox Broadcasting CompanyTelevision NetworkCable Television In The United StatesNPRPBSU.S. Federal Communications CommissionThe Wall Street JournalThe New York TimesUSA TodayGannett CompanyThe McClatchy CompanyThe Village VoiceLA WeeklyComic StripAmerican Comic BookSupermanSuperheroDC ComicsWeb PortalWeb Search EngineFacebookYouTubeWikipediaYahoo!EBayAmazon.comTwitterScience And Technology In The United StatesScience Policy Of The United StatesEnlargeJames IrwinMoonApollo 15Apollo Lunar ModuleLunar RoverSpace RaceInterchangeable PartsMachine ToolAmerican System Of ManufacturingElectrificationAssembly LineMass ProductionAlexander Graham BellInvention Of The TelephoneThomas EdisonResearch InstitutePhonographIncandescent Light BulbKinetoscopeShow BusinessRansom E. OldsHenry FordAssembly LineWright BrothersWright FlyerFascismNazismAlbert EinsteinEnrico FermiJohn Von NeumannManhattan ProjectAtomic AgeSpace RaceMaterials ScienceAeronauticsTransistorElectronicsSilicon ValleyMicroprocessorAdvanced Micro DevicesIntelSoftwareComputer HardwareAdobe SystemsApple Inc.IBMMicrosoftSun MicrosystemsPersonal ComputerARPANETUnited States Department Of DefenseHistory Of The InternetInternetPersonalizationComputerImpact FactorHealth Care In The United StatesHealth Care Reform In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesEnlargeNew York-Presbyterian HospitalNew York CityHospitalWeill Cornell Graduate School Of Medical SciencesHawaiiAmerican SamoaObesity In The United StatesDiabetes Mellitus Type 2Coronary Artery DiseaseLung CancerStrokeChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseMajor Depressive DisorderMusculoskeletal DisorderAnxietyRisk FactorHypertensionHyperglycemiaPhysical InactivityAlzheimer's DiseaseKidney DiseaseList Of Nobel Laureates In Physiology Or MedicineList Of Countries By Total Health Expenditure (PPP) Per CapitaUniversal Health CareHealth InsuranceMassachusettsPatient Protection And Affordable Care ActPortal:United StatesBook:United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesLists Of U.S. State TopicsOutline Of The United StatesTitle 36 Of The United States CodeOfficial Language Of The United StatesHawaiian LanguageHawaiiAlaska Native LanguagesAlaskaAlgonquian LanguagesCherokee LanguageSioux LanguageFrench LanguageMaineLouisianaNew MexicoSpanish LanguageSpanish LanguageSamoan LanguageChamorro LanguageCarolinian LanguageTime In The United StatesUnited States Virgin IslandsAmerican SamoaGuamNorthern Mariana IslandsPuerto RicoUnited States Virgin IslandsBaker IslandHowland IslandJarvis IslandJohnston AtollKingman ReefMidway AtollPalmyra AtollBajo Nuevo BankNavassa IslandSerranilla BankWake IslandSpanish Expeditions To The Pacific NorthwestSir Joseph BanksMakahikiHawaiian ReligionLonoHMS Resolution (1771)HMS Discovery (1774)Hawaiian ReligionAliʻiKalaniʻōpuʻuKānekapōleiNative HawaiiansKanaʻinaU.s. AncestryGerman AmericanIrish AmericanMexican AmericanEnglish AmericanWhite AmericanRace (human Classification)African AmericanMinority GroupHispanic And Latino AmericansAsian AmericanChinese AmericanFilipino AmericanIndian AmericanFertilityReplacement RatesMinority GroupAmerican Community SurveyU.S. Census BureauCredit RatingStandard & Poor'sFitch RatingsMoody's Investors ServiceStockholm International Peace Research InstituteArms IndustryLeadPerchloratesDrinking Water Quality In The United StatesUnited States Census BureauInternational Monetary FundInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8090-7235-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85109-833-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-61530-045-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-300-05721-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4039-8085-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4522-6535-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8157-0004-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7618-3434-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4289-1052-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-38375-5Help:Cite Errors/Cite Error References No TextInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87004-562-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-231-06989-8Digital Object IdentifierJSTORCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListBibcodeDigital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8021-3888-8Michael R. WatersInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-62349-192-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-111-79083-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55786-938-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-90-481-3826-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-05316-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4567-7543-8Vanessa CollingridgeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-09-188898-0JSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7656-1817-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8078-4723-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-393-04665-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-88894-279-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-88894-279-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-57061-215-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4833-5988-5Wayback MachineCambridge University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-55203-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-74220-344-7W. W. NortonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-393-24369-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-226-73369-2RoutledgeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-135-34200-5Rowman AltamiraInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7591-2219-2Courier CorporationInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-486-22766-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-85771-350-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-56656-615-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55365-339-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-674-03194-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-32083-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-307-27110-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8139-2733-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4422-0881-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8139-2609-4Martin Ridge (historian)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8263-1981-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-56072-644-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8120-1834-9University Of North Carolina PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8078-4796-1McFarland & CompanyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7864-4210-2Rowman & LittlefieldInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7425-0019-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-21771-3Jeremy Black (historian)Indiana University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-253-35660-4University Of Nebraska PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8032-4787-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4381-3025-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-56101-188-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-521921-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-521-39559-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-56000-349-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-536394-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-60732-396-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8156-3186-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4381-1012-7CliffsNotesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7386-0070-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55861-139-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-205-52215-6Alfred A. KnopfInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-394-56004-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-507136-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8371-6267-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-679-72019-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/4-7700-2887-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-134-24167-5Michael Collins (astronaut)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-28233-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-515920-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-505394-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-549-41658-6Henry KissingerInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4391-2631-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4406-8639-9Charles KrauthammerEncyclopædia BritannicaEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-324-58999-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-07-463395-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-38376-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59884-921-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7425-4956-2George W. BushPeter FeaverForeign PolicyNBC NewsPeter J. WallisonEncounter BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59403-770-2Financial Crisis Inquiry CommissionInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-60796-348-6John B. TaylorNational Bureau Of Economic ResearchThe Wall Street JournalDow Jones & CompanyThe New York TimesThe New York Times CompanyInitiative On Global MarketsUniversity Of ChicagoDigital Object IdentifierCongressional Budget OfficeCNNPolitical Science QuarterlyDigital Object IdentifierUnited States Military AcademyPeter Baker (author)The New York TimesThe New York Times CompanyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59228-070-4Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-33341-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4289-3997-4United States Census BureauOffice Of Immigration StatisticsPew Research CenterThe Plain DealerThe Plain DealerUnited States Census BureauDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-85359-651-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-135-91680-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8108-4237-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-11-009946-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57306-047-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85743-133-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-3-11-017776-3Modern Language AssociationPew Research CenterPew Research CenterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-59671-8National Public RadioAll Things ConsideredInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7668-2759-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-01648-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-285-60571-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-988374-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-16-091708-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4034-6608-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85109-702-9Serranilla BankBajo Nuevo BankTitle 8 Of The United States CodeTitle 8 Of The United States CodeTitle 8 Of The United States CodeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59454-054-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-275-96252-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-495-50112-3Clerk Of The United States House Of RepresentativesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-329-26112-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-203-87270-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-85109-702-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7567-3394-0The New York TimesDigital Object IdentifierThe Heritage FoundationStockholm International Peace Research InstituteFrontline (magazine)The Hindu GroupInternational Standard Serial NumberFiveThirtyEightNPRThe American Journal Of MedicineDigital Object IdentifierReutersDeath Penalty Information CenterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-495-50228-9United States National Research CouncilNational Academies PressHuman Rights WatchInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4496-5439-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4422-0949-7The Washington PostInternational Centre For Prison StudiesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-495-55323-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4422-0173-8Bernard HarcourtInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-674-06616-2Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-691-16405-3The Times-PicayuneInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-76246-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8213-6545-2Center For Economic And Policy ResearchThe New York TimesDigital Object IdentifierOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentOECD Better Life IndexEconomic Policy InstituteTony AtkinsonThomas PikettyEmmanuel SaezDigital Object IdentifierOrganisation For Economic Co-operation And DevelopmentEmmanuel SaezUniversity Of California, BerkeleyPerspectives On PoliticsDigital Object IdentifierLarry BartelsDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-539213-5Political Research QuarterlyDigital Object IdentifierSocial Science Research NetworkDigital Object IdentifierThomas PikettyCapital In The Twenty-First CenturyHarvard University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-674-43000-XCNNMoneyFederal Reserve Bank Of New YorkUnited States Census BureauPhilip AlstonOffice Of The United Nations High Commissioner For Human RightsThe EconomistCato InstituteInternational Energy AgencyUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyMother Nature NetworkNPRInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7872-8145-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-205-41365-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-321-07058-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-253-34479-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8039-5912-5Samuel P. HuntingtonInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-684-87053-3American's CreedWilliam Tyler PageEconomic Policy InstituteInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-903900-08-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8014-8899-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-313-26111-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-58648-270-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8070-4629-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57233-259-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-23439-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4422-0874-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7656-1761-3Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, And Vascular BiologyHarold BloomInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7910-5106-4Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8160-6243-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4051-4691-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-306-80890-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4766-0389-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-89659-795-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-13-182895-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8263-2076-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-415-93704-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59033-303-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8065-2311-5International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-35830-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-292-74204-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7914-3938-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-136-86402-5Wayback MachineInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-32013-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7864-5740-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-375-50454-0USA TodayLos Angeles TimesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-262-19529-4Les DanielsTitan BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-85286-988-7David A. HounshellInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8018-2975-8Library Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-959215-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-615-14052-0The New York TimesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8144-7190-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-973757-4Digital Object IdentifierDigital Object IdentifierPubMed CentralPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-06-093845-5Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, And Vascular BiologyDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Serial NumberPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-470-76877-8Edward E. BaptistBasic BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-465-00296-XDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-618-99485-8Digital Object IdentifierPubMed IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-618-80161-9Johns Hopkins University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8018-5959-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-90-279-3358-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-688-11814-3Texas A&M University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-60344-254-1Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-87480-879-7John Wiley & SonsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-118-04494-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7614-2143-6The AtlanticInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-691-00607-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-231-12239-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4443-5978-7John Steele GordonHarperCollinsGreenwood Publishing GroupInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-35241-6RoutledgeInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-67344-5Westminster, MarylandInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-300-08553-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-107-12861-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-978142-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-06-195213-5Infobase PublishingInfobase PublishingInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8160-3337-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59486-744-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-465-04949-4Robert Leckie (author)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-06-016280-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-61069-995-2Melvyn P. LefflerOdd Arne WestadCambridge University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-83719-4Rowman & LittlefieldColumbia UniversityUniversity Of Massachusetts PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55849-483-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-520-23439-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-300-10099-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-312-37659-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-9753851-4-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8122-0038-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8122-4333-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8010-7773-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-06-134111-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-271-02299-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7656-2903-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7432-4955-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4381-0813-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4381-2677-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-533084-7University Of Illinois PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-252-07705-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-19-515437-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-61044-694-5David StannardOxford University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-508557-0JSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-670-87282-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8061-2220-5Digital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-06-207960-2Howard ZinnA People's History Of The United StatesHarper PerennialInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-06-083865-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-313-29018-3Journal Of Cold War StudiesPresident And Fellows Of Harvard CollegeMassachusetts Institute Of TechnologyDigital Object IdentifierWikipedia:Wikimedia Sister ProjectsThe World FactbookCentral Intelligence AgencyBBC NewsInternational FuturesTemplate:United States TopicsTemplate Talk:United States TopicsHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesThirteen ColoniesColonial American Military HistoryContinental CongressAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican FrontierAmerica's Critical PeriodTimeline Of Drafting And Ratification Of The United States ConstitutionFederalist EraWar Of 1812United States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesMexican–American WarAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraAmerican Indian WarsGilded AgeProgressive EraAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968)Spanish–American WarAmerican ImperialismHistory Of The United States (1865–1918)Roaring TwentiesGreat DepressionMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIUnited States Home Front During World War IIGerman American BundAmerican CenturyCold WarKorean WarSpace RaceSecond-wave FeminismVietnam WarHistory Of The United States (1991–2008)War On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarHistory Of The United States (2008–present)Outline Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States DiscoveriesEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of United States Debt CeilingTimeline Of United States InventionsTimeline Of United States Inventions (before 1890)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1890–1945)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1946–91)Timeline Of United States Inventions (after 1991)Military History Of The United StatesPostage Stamps And Postal History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesUnited States TerritoryCounty (United States)Washington, D.C.Federal EnclaveIndian ReservationTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsLists Of Populated Places In The United StatesU.S. StateList Of Earthquakes In The United StatesList Of Extreme Points Of The United StatesList Of Islands Of The United StatesList Of Mountains Of The United StatesList Of Mountain Peaks Of The United StatesList Of Mountain RangesAppalachian MountainsRocky MountainsNational Park ServiceList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemList Of Regions Of The United StatesEast Coast Of The United StatesWest Coast Of The United StatesGreat PlainsGulf Coast Of The United StatesMid-Atlantic (United States)Midwestern United StatesNew EnglandPacific StatesCentral United StatesEastern United StatesNorthern United StatesNortheastern United StatesNorthwestern United StatesSouthern United StatesSoutheastern United StatesSouthwestern United StatesWestern United StatesList Of Rivers Of The United StatesColorado RiverColumbia RiverMississippi RiverMissouri RiverOhio RiverRio GrandeYukon RiverTime In The United StatesDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesPolitics Of The United StatesFederal Government Of The United StatesCabinet Of The United StatesUnited States Federal Civil ServiceUnited States Federal Executive DepartmentsExecutive Office Of The President Of The United StatesIndependent Agencies Of The United States GovernmentFederal Law Enforcement In The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesPublic Policy Of The United StatesUnited States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesCurrent Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateCurrent Members Of The United States SenatePresident Pro Tempore Of The United States SenateVice President Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesUnited States Courts Of AppealsUnited States District CourtSupreme Court Of The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsCivil Liberties In The United StatesCode Of Federal RegulationsUnited States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesFederal PreemptionSeparation Of Powers Under The United States ConstitutionFederal ReporterUnited States CodeUnited States ReportsUnited States Intelligence CommunityCentral Intelligence AgencyDefense Intelligence AgencyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationNational Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyNational Reconnaissance OfficeNational Security AgencyDirector Of National IntelligenceUniformed Services Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardNational Guard Of The United StatesNOAA Commissioned Officer CorpsUnited States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps51st StatePolitical Status Of Puerto RicoDistrict Of Columbia Statehood MovementElections In The United StatesElectoral College (United States)Foreign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesHawaiian Sovereignty MovementPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesAnti-AmericanismAmerican ExceptionalismAmerican NationalismLocal Government In The United StatesPolitical Parties In The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Republican Party (United States)Third Party (United States)Red States And Blue StatesPurple AmericaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesGovernor (United States)State Legislature (United States)State Court (United States)Uncle SamEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of The United States By SectorAgriculture In The United StatesBanking In The United StatesCommunications In The United StatesEnergy In The United StatesInsurance In The United StatesManufacturing In The United StatesMining In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesForeign Trade Of The United StatesTransportation In The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United States By StateUnited States DollarList Of Exports Of The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetFederal Reserve SystemFinancial Position Of The United StatesLabor Unions In The United StatesNational Debt Of The United StatesSocial Programs In The United StatesTaxation In The United StatesUnemployment In The United StatesWall StreetSociety Of The United StatesCulture Of The United StatesAmericanaArchitecture Of The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesEducation In The United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmerican EnglishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguagePlains Indian Sign LanguageArabic Language In The United StatesChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesSpanish Language In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureMedia Of The United StatesHistory Of American JournalismInternet In The United StatesHistory Of American NewspapersRadio In The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMusic Of The United StatesNaming In The United StatesAmericansAmerican PhilosophyPublic Holidays In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesSexuality In The United StatesSports In The United StatesTheater In The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesAmerican DreamEducational Attainment In The United StatesHomelessness In The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesProfessional And Working Class Conflict In The United StatesStandard Of Living In The United StatesWealth In The United StatesSocial Issues In The United StatesAges Of Consent In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCriticism Of The United States GovernmentDiscrimination In The United StatesAffirmative Action In The United StatesAntisemitism In The United StatesIntersex Rights In The United StatesIslamophobia In The United StatesLGBT Rights In The United StatesRacism In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnvironmental Movement In The United StatesGun Politics In The United StatesHealth Care In The United StatesAbortion In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesObesity In The United StatesTobacco In The United StatesHuman Rights In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesInternational Rankings Of The United StatesNational Security Of The United StatesMass Surveillance In The United StatesTerrorism In The United StatesSeparation Of Church And State In The United StatesOutline Of The United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesBook:United StatesCategory:United StatesPortal:United StatesHelp:Authority ControlVirtual International Authority FileLibrary Of Congress Control NumberInternational Standard Name IdentifierIntegrated Authority FileLIBRISSystème Universitaire De DocumentationBibliothèque Nationale De FranceHistorical Dictionary Of SwitzerlandNational Library Of AustraliaNational Diet LibraryBiblioteca Nacional De EspañaHelp:CategoryCategory:United StatesCategory:Countries In North AmericaCategory:English-speaking Countries And TerritoriesCategory:Federal Constitutional RepublicsCategory:Former ConfederationsCategory:G7 NationsCategory:G8 NationsCategory:G20 NationsCategory:Member States Of NATOCategory:Member States Of The United NationsCategory:States And Territories Established In 1776Category:SuperpowersCategory:1776 Establishments In The United StatesCategory:Pages With Reference ErrorsCategory:Pages With Broken Reference NamesCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Semi-protected PagesCategory:Wikipedia Indefinitely Move-protected PagesCategory:Good ArticlesCategory:Use Mdy Dates From February 2018Category:Use American English From April 2017Category:All Wikipedia Articles Written In American EnglishCategory:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:Articles Containing Latin-language TextCategory:Pages Using Infobox Country Or Infobox Former Country With The Symbol Caption Or Type ParametersCategory:Pages Using Multiple Image With Auto Scaled ImagesCategory:Wikipedia Articles In Need Of Updating From June 2017Category:All Wikipedia Articles In Need Of UpdatingCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2012Category:All Articles Containing Potentially Dated StatementsCategory:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2007Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2014Category:All Accuracy DisputesCategory:Articles With Disputed Statements From April 2015Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From September 2014Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From 2013Category:Articles Containing Potentially Dated Statements From May 2013Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListCategory:Wikipedia Articles With VIAF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With LCCN IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With ISNI IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With GND IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With SELIBR IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With BNF IdentifiersCategory:Wikipedia Articles With NLA IdentifiersDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]This Page Is Protected. You Can View Its Source [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link