Contents 1 Propagation characteristics 2 Antennas 3 Applications 4 Examples of UHF frequency allocations 4.1 Australia 4.2 Canada 4.3 United Kingdom 4.4 United States 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


Propagation characteristics[edit] Walkie talkies which operate on the 446 MHz PMR (Professional Mobile Radio) band. The 67 cm wavelength permits them to use very short "Rubber Ducky" antennas. Main article: radio propagation Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by line-of-sight propagation (LOS) and ground reflection; unlike in the HF band there is little to no reflection from the ionosphere (skywave propagation), or ground wave.[2] They are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception. Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees, vehicles and other common objects, reflection and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation, especially in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles (48–64 km) and often to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas (frequency reuse). Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, and UHF CB are often found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs ("Wi-Fi"). The widely adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required. Occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.


Antennas[edit] Corner reflector UHF-TV antenna from 1950s The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently stubby and short; at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common omnidirectional antenna is between 2.5 and 25 cm long. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, and for portable wireless devices; cordless phones and cell phones. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas. The short wavelengths also allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical. For satellite communication, helical, and turnstile antennas are used since satellites typically employ circular polarization which is not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the slot antenna or helical antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas.


Applications[edit] UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, industrial, public safety, and military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ significantly between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range. This allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet. UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers.[3]


Examples of UHF frequency allocations[edit] Australia[edit] UHF Citizens Band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Canada[edit] 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band) 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television (with select channels in the 700 MHz band left vacant) 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting (L band)[4] Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts United Kingdom[edit] 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 70 cm band) 446.0–446.1;MHz: Private mobile radio 446.1–446.2;MHz: Digital private mobile radio 457–464 MHz: Scanning telemetry and telecontrol, assigned mostly to the water, gas, and electricity industries 606–614 MHz: Radio microphones and radio-astronomy 470–862 MHz: Previously used for analogue TV channels 21–69 (until 2012). Currently channels 21–35, 37 and 39–60 are used for Freeview digital TV.[5] Channel 36 is used for radar; channel 38 was used for radio astronomy but has been cleared to allow PMSE users access on a licensed, shared basis. 791–862 MHz,[6] i.e. channels 61–69 inclusive were previously used for licensed and shared wireless microphones (channel 69 only), has since been allocated to 4G cellular communications. 863 - 865 MHz: Used for licence-exempt wireless systems. 863–870 MHz: Short range devices, LPWAN IoT devices such as NarrowBand-IoT. 870–960 MHz: Cellular communications (GSM900 - Vodafone and O2 only) including GSM-R and future TETRA 1240–1325 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 23 cm band) 1710–1880 MHz: 2G Cellular communications (GSM1800) 1880–1900 MHz: DECT cordless telephone 1900–1980 MHz: 3G cellular communications - mobile phone uplink 2110–2170 MHz: 3G cellular communications - base station downlink 2310–2450 MHz: Amateur radio (ham – 13 cm band) United States[edit] UHF channels are used for digital television broadcasting on both over the air channels and cable television channels. Since 1962, UHF channel tuners (at the time, channels 14-83) have been required in television receivers by the All-Channel Receiver Act. However, because of their more limited range, and because few sets could receive them until older sets were replaced, UHF channels were less desirable to broadcasters than VHF channels (and licenses sold for lower prices). A complete list of US Television Frequency allocations can be found at North American Television Frequencies. There is a considerable amount of lawful unlicensed activity (cordless phones, wireless networking) clustered around 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz, regulated under Title 47 CFR Part 15. These ISM bands – frequencies with a higher unlicensed power permitted for use originally by Industrial, Scientific, Medical apparatus – are now some of the most crowded in the spectrum because they are open to everyone. The 2.45 GHz frequency is the standard for use by microwave ovens, adjacent to the frequencies allocated for Bluetooth network devices. The spectrum from 806 MHz to 890 MHz (UHF channels 70–83) was taken away from TV broadcast services in 1983, primarily for analog mobile telephony. In 2009, as part of the transition from analog to digital over-the-air broadcast of television, the spectrum from 698 MHz to 806 MHz (UHF channels 52–69) was removed from TV broadcasting, making it available for other uses. Channel 55, for instance, was sold to Qualcomm for their MediaFLO service, which was later sold to AT&T, and discontinued in 2011. Some US broadcasters had been offered incentives to vacate this channel early, permitting its immediate mobile use. The FCC's scheduled auction for this newly available spectrum was completed in March 2008.[7] The FCC has allowed Americans to connect any device and any application to the 22 MHz of radio spectrum that people are calling the 700 MHz band. The FCC did not include a wholesale condition, which would have required the owner of the band to resell bandwidth to third parties who could then service the end user. Google argued that the wholesale requirement would have stimulated internet competition. As of 2007, 96% of the country's broadband access was controlled by DSL and cable providers. A wholesale condition could have meant a third option for internet service.[8] 225–420 MHz: Government use, including meteorology, military aviation, and federal two-way use[9] 420–450 MHz: Government radiolocation and amateur radio (70 cm band) 433 MHz: Short range consumer devices including automotive, alarm systems, home automation, temperature sensors 450–470 MHz: UHF business band, General Mobile Radio Service, and Family Radio Service 2-way "walkie-talkies", public safety 470–512 MHz: Low-band TV channels 14–20 (shared with public safety land mobile 2-way radio in 12 major metropolitan areas scheduled to relocate to 700 MHz band by 2023[10]) 512–608 MHz: Medium-band TV channels 21–36 608–614 MHz: Channel 37 used for radio astronomy and wireless medical telemetry[11] 614–698 MHz: Mobile broadband shared with TV channels 38–51 auctioned in April 2017. TV stations will relocate by 2020. 617–652 MHz: Mobile broadband service downlink 652–663 MHz: Wireless microphones (higher priority) and unlicensed devices (lower priority) 663–698 MHz: Mobile broadband service uplink 698–806 MHz: Was auctioned in March 2008; bidders got full use after the transition to digital TV was completed on June 12, 2009 (formerly high-band UHF TV channels 52–69) 806–816 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 70–72) 817–824 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (mobile phone) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way) 824–849 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, terminal (mobile phone) (formerly TV channels 73–77) 849–851 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo) 851–861 MHz: Public safety and commercial 2-way (formerly TV channels 77–80) 862–869 MHz: ESMR band for wideband mobile services (base station) (formerly public safety and commercial 2-way) 869–894 MHz: Cellular A & B franchises, base station (formerly TV channels 80–83) 894–896 MHz: Commercial aviation air-ground systems (Gogo) 902–928 MHz: ISM band, amateur radio (33 cm band), cordless phones and stereo, radio-frequency identification, datalinks 929–930 MHz: Pagers 931–932 MHz: Pagers 935–941 MHz: Commercial 2-way radio 941–960 MHz: Mixed studio-transmitter links, SCADA, other. 960–1215 MHz: Aeronautical radionavigation 1240–1300 MHz: Amateur radio (23 cm band) 1390–1395 MHz: Proposed Wireless Medical Telemetry Service. TerreStar failed to provide service by the required deadline[12]. 1395–1400 MHz: Wireless Medical Telemetry Service 1427–1432 MHz: Wireless Medical Telemetry Service 1432–1435 MHz: Proposed Wireless Medical Telemetry Service. TerreStar failed to provide service by the required deadline[12]. 1452–1492 MHz: Military use (therefore not available for Digital Audio Broadcasting, unlike Canada/Europe) 1525–1559 MHz: Skyterra downlink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use[13]) 1559–1610 MHz: Radio Navigation Satellite Services (RNSS) Upper L-band 1563–1587 MHz: GPS L1 band 1593–1610 MHz: GLONASS G1 band 1559–1591 MHz: Galileo E1 band (overlapping with GPS L1[14]) 1610–1660.5 MHz: Mobile Satellite Service 1610–1618: Globalstar uplink 1618–1626.5 MHz: Iridium uplink and downlink[13] 1626.5–1660.5 MHz: Skyterra uplink (Ligado is seeking FCC permission for terrestrial use[13]) 1675–1695 MHz: Meteorological federal users 1695–1780 MHz: AWS mobile phone uplink (UL) operating band 1695–1755 MHz: AWS-3 blocks A1 and B1 1710–1755 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F 1755–1780 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J (various federal agencies transitioning by 2025[15]) 1780–1850 MHz: exclusive federal use (Air Force satellite communications, Army's cellular-like communication system, other agencies) 1850–1920 MHz: PCS mobile phone—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz 1920–1930 MHz: DECT cordless telephone 1930–2000 MHz: PCS base stations—order is A, D, B, E, F, C, G, H blocks. A, B, C = 15 MHz; D, E, F, G, H = 5 MHz 2000–2020 MHz: lower AWS-4 downlink (mobile broadband) 2020–2110 MHz: Cable Antenna Relay service, Local Television Transmission service, TV Broadcast Auxiliary service, Earth Exploration Satellite service 2110–2155 MHz: AWS mobile broadband downlink 2110–2155 MHz: AWS-1 blocks A, B, C, D, E, F 2155–2180 MHz: AWS-3 blocks G, H, I, J 2180–2200 MHz: upper AWS-4 2290–2300 MHz: NASA Deep Space Network 2300–2305 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, lower segment) 2305–2315 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service uplink blocks A and B 2315–2320 MHz: WCS block C (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment[16]) 2320–2345 MHz: Satellite radio (Sirius and XM) 2345–2350 MHz: WCS block D (AT&T is pursuing smart grid deployment[16]) 2350–2360 MHz: WCS mobile broadband service downlink blocks A and B 2360–2390 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems 2390–2395 MHz: Aircraft landing and safety systems (secondary deployment in a dozen of airports), amateur radio otherwise 2395–2400 MHz: Amateur radio (13 cm band, upper segment) 2400–2483.5 MHz: ISM, IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n wireless LAN, IEEE 802.15.4-2006, Bluetooth, radio-controlled aircraft, microwave ovens, ZigBee 2483.5–2495 MHz: Globalstar downlink and Terrestrial Low Power Service suitable for TD-LTE small cells[17]


See also[edit] Digital Audio Broadcasting and its regional implementations Digital terrestrial television Thing (listening device)


References[edit] ^ "IEEE 521-2002 - IEEE Standard Letter Designations for Radar-Frequency Bands". Standards.ieee.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–58. ISBN 0471743682.  ^ MINNICK, WENDELL (22 November 2014). "China's Anti-Stealth Radar Comes to Fruition". Defensenews.com. Gannett. Retrieved 25 November 2014.  ^ "Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) - History of Canadian Broadcasting". Broadcasting-history.ca. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ UK Digital Terrestrial Television Transmitter Frequency and Site Data, Ofcom, retrieved 16 October 2013 ^ "800 MHz & 2.6 GHz Combined Award". The Office of Communications. Retrieved 2014-11-21.  ^ Hansell, Saul. "Going Once…Going Twice…The 700 Mhz Spectrum is Sold". Bits.blos.nytimes.com. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ FCC opens up US wireless spectrum, The Register, 1 August 2007, Cade Metz ^ [1][dead link] ^ "T-Band Report" (PDF). Npstc.org. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS)". Fcc.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ a b "TerreStar Corporation Request for Temporary Waiver of Substantial Service Requirements for 1.4 GHz Licenses" (PDF). the FCC. 2017-10-10. Retrieved 2017-10-11.  ^ a b c "Ligado Ex Parte re Iridium Analysis (PUBLIC 11-2-2016)" (PDF). Ecfsapi.fcc.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "Galileo Signal Plan". Navipedia.net. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "AWS-3 Transition". Ntia.doc.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ a b "AT&T Mobility Petition for Limited Waiver of Interim Performance Requirement for 2.3 GHz WCS C and D Block Licenses" (PDF). Ecfsapi.fcc.gov. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "Globalstar Overview" (PDF). Globalstar.com. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 


External links[edit] U.S. cable television channel frequencies Tomislav Stimac, "Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.)". IK1QFK Home Page (vlf.it). v t e Radio spectrum (ITU) ELF 3 Hz/100 Mm 30 Hz/10 Mm SLF 30 Hz/10 Mm 300 Hz/1 Mm ULF 300 Hz/1 Mm 3 kHz/100 km VLF 3 kHz/100 km 30 kHz/10 km LF 30 kHz/10 km 300 kHz/1 km MF 300 kHz/1 km 3 MHz/100 m HF 3 MHz/100 m 30 MHz/10 m VHF 30 MHz/10 m 300 MHz/1 m UHF 300 MHz/1 m 3 GHz/100 mm SHF 3 GHz/100 mm 30 GHz/10 mm EHF 30 GHz/10 mm 300 GHz/1 mm THF 300 GHz/1 mm 3 THz/0.1 mm v t e Electromagnetic spectrum ← higher frequencies       longer wavelengths → Gamma rays X-rays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Terahertz radiation Microwave Radio Visible (optical) Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Microwaves W band V band Q band Ka band K band Ku band X band S band C band L band Radio EHF SHF UHF VHF HF MF LF VLF ULF SLF ELF Wavelength types Microwave Shortwave Medium wave Longwave v t e Analog television broadcasting topics Systems 180-line 405-line ( System A ) 441-line 525-line ( System J , System M ) 625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H , System I , System K , System L , System N ) 819-line ( System E , System F ) Color systems NTSC PAL PAL-M PAL-S PALplus SECAM Video Back porch and front porch Black level Blanking level Chrominance Chrominance subcarrier Colorburst Color killer Color TV Composite video Frame (video) Horizontal scan rate Horizontal blanking interval Luma Nominal analogue blanking Overscan Raster scan Safe area Television lines Vertical blanking interval White clipper Sound Multichannel television sound NICAM Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton Modulation Frequency modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation Vestigial sideband modulation (VSB) Transmission Amplifiers Antenna (radio) Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station Cavity amplifier Differential gain Differential phase Diplexer Dipole antenna Dummy load Frequency mixer Intercarrier method Intermediate frequency Output power of an analog TV transmitter Pre-emphasis Residual carrier Split sound system Superheterodyne transmitter Television receive-only Direct-broadcast satellite television Television transmitter Terrestrial television Transposer Frequencies & Bands Frequency offset Microwave transmission Television channel frequencies UHF VHF Propagation Beam tilt Distortion Earth bulge Field strength in free space Knife-edge effect Noise (electronics) Null fill Path loss Radiation pattern Skew Television interference Testing Distortionmeter Field strength meter Vectorscope VIT signals Zero reference pulse Artifacts Dot crawl Ghosting Hanover bars Sparklies v t e Telecommunications History Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter (teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language Pioneers Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin Transmission media Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line Network topology and switching Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange Multiplexing Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division Networks ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web Category Portal v t e Analog and digital audio broadcasting Terrestrial Radio modulation AM FM COFDM Frequency allocations LW (LF) MW (MF) SW (HF) VHF (low / mid / high) L band (UHF) Digital systems CAM-D DAB/DAB+ DRM/DRM+ FMeXtra HD Radio CDR DVB-T2 Lite Satellite Frequency allocations C band Ku band L band S band Digital systems ADR DAB-S DVB-SH S-DMB SDR Commercial radio providers 1worldspace Sirius XM Holdings SiriusXM Canada Codecs AAC AMR-WB+ HDC HE-AAC MPEG-1 Audio Layer II Subcarrier signals AMSS DirectBand PAD RDS/RBDS SCA/SCMO DARC Related topics Technical (audio) Audio data compression Audio signal processing Technical (AM stereo formats) Belar C-QUAM Harris Kahn-Hazeltine Magnavox Technical (emission) AM broadcasting AM expanded band Cable radio Digital radio Error detection and correction FM broadcast band FM broadcasting Multipath propagation Shortwave relay station Cultural History of radio International broadcasting Comparison of radio systems Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ultra_high_frequency&oldid=822010111" Categories: Radio spectrumTelevision technologyWirelessHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Articles needing additional references from December 2009All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2017


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ZworykinTransmission MediumCoaxial CableFiber-optic CommunicationOptical FiberFree-space Optical CommunicationMolecular CommunicationRadio WaveTransmission LineNetwork TopologyTelecommunications LinkNode (networking)Terminal (telecommunication)Network SwitchCircuit SwitchingPacket SwitchingTelephone ExchangeMultiplexingSpace-division Multiple AccessFrequency-division MultiplexingTime-division MultiplexingPolarization-division MultiplexingOrbital Angular Momentum MultiplexingCode-division Multiple AccessTelecommunications NetworkARPANETBITNETCellular NetworkComputer NetworkCYCLADESEthernetFidoNetInternetIntegrated Services Digital NetworkLocal Area NetworkMobile TelephonyNext-generation NetworkNPL NetworkPublic Switched Telephone NetworkRadio NetworkTelecommunications EquipmentTelevision NetworkTelexWide Area NetworkWireless NetworkWorld Wide WebCategory:TelecommunicationsPortal:TelecommunicationTemplate:Audio BroadcastingTemplate Talk:Audio BroadcastingAnalog RecordingDigital AudioBroadcastingRadioModulationAmplitude ModulationFrequency ModulationOrthogonal Frequency-division MultiplexingFrequency AllocationLongwaveLow FrequencyMedium WaveMedium FrequencyShortwave RadioHigh FrequencyVery High FrequencyBand IBand IIBand IIIL BandCAM-DDigital Audio BroadcastingDigital Radio MondialeFMeXtraHD RadioDVB-T2C Band (IEEE)Ku BandL BandS BandAstra Digital RadioDigital Audio BroadcastingDVB-SHS-DMBETSI Satellite Digital RadioCommercial Broadcasting1worldspaceSirius XM HoldingsSiriusXM CanadaCodecAdvanced Audio CodingExtended Adaptive Multi-Rate – WidebandHigh-Definition CodingHigh-Efficiency Advanced Audio CodingMPEG-1 Audio Layer IISubcarrierAmplitude Modulation Signalling SystemDirectBandProgram-associated DataRadio Data SystemSubsidiary Communications AuthorityData Radio ChannelAudio Data CompressionAudio Signal ProcessingAM StereoAM StereoC-QUAMAM StereoAM StereoAM StereoAM BroadcastingAM Expanded BandCable RadioDigital RadioError Detection And CorrectionFM Broadcast BandFM BroadcastingMultipath PropagationShortwave Relay StationHistory Of RadioInternational BroadcastingComparison Of Radio SystemsHelp:CategoryCategory:Radio SpectrumCategory:Television TechnologyCategory:WirelessCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From December 2017Category:Articles Needing Additional References From December 2009Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From February 2017Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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