Contents 1 Overview 2 History 2.1 Origins 2.2 Formation and subsequent history 3 Organization, budget and tasks 3.1 Inactive 4 Discrimination 4.1 Pigford v. Glickman 5 Related legislation 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 Further reading 9 External links


Overview[edit] Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.[4] USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness,[5] where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits. The Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 (b) and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954, also known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation.


History[edit] Harvey Washington Wiley, Chief Chemist of the Department of Agriculture's Division of Chemistry (third from the right) with his staff, not long after he joined the division in 1883 Origins[edit] Early in its history, the economy of the United States was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State. He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes."[citation needed] Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."[citation needed] In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring.[citation needed] Formation and subsequent history[edit] The Jamie L. Whitten Building in Washington D.C. is the USDA headquarters. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, and the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.[6] Lincoln called it the "people's department." In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. Finally, on February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level.[7] In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 then funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, and other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state.[citation needed] During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther.[8] USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, and contributed to the education of the rural youth.[citation needed]


Organization, budget and tasks[edit] The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:[1] Program Funding (in billions) Management and Finance (United States Secretary of Agriculture, United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture) Departmental Administration 0.3 Office of the Inspector General 0.1 Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services (Under Secretary for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services) Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation 6.2 Risk Management Agency Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 8.7 Foreign Agricultural Service 1.8 Rural Development (Under Secretary for Rural Development) Rural Business-Cooperative Service 1.3 Rural Utilities Service 7.3 Rural Housing Service 28.4 Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services) Food and Nutrition Service 112.2 Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Food Safety (Under Secretary for Food Safety) Food Safety and Inspection Service 1.0 Natural Resources and Environment (Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment) Natural Resources Conservation Service 4.2 United States Forest Service 4.8 Marketing and Regulatory Programs (Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 1.1 Agricultural Marketing Service 1.3 Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 0.04 Research, Education, and Economics (Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics) Agricultural Research Service 1.1 National Institute of Food and Agriculture 1.5 Economic Research Service 0.1 National Agricultural Statistics Service 0.2 National Agricultural Library Total 139.7 A nutrition researcher considers canned peas Inactive[edit] Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) (became part of the Farm Service Agency in 1994) Animal Damage Control (renamed Wildlife Services) Soil Conservation Service (SCS) renamed Natural Resources Conservation Service Section of Vegetable Pathology, Division of Botany (1887–90)[9] Renamed Division of Vegetable Pathology (1890–95)[9] In 2015, Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack expressed the desire to resign to President Obama. The Washington Post reports that he said "There are days when I have literally nothing to do," he recalled thinking as he weighed his decision to quit."[10] President Obama did not accept his resignation but assigned him additional tasks of combating opioid addiction, a task usually not assigned to the Department of Agriculture.[10]


Discrimination[edit] Allegations have been made that throughout the agency's history that its personnel have discriminated against farmers of various backgrounds, denying them loans and access to other programs well into the 1990s.[11] The effect of this discrimination has been the reduction in the number of African-American farmers in the United States.[12] Many black farmers across the nation experienced discrimination in their dealings with in-state USDA agencies. Across the nation, black farmers alleged, and the USDA later agreed, they were denied access to loans and subsidies provided by the government.[13] On a national level, farm subsidies that were afforded to white farmers were not afforded to black farmers.[14] Since they were denied government loans, emergency or disaster assistance, and other aid, many black farmers lost their farms and homes.[15] In 1999, the USDA settled a class action lawsuit, the Pigford Case, alleging discrimination against African-American farmers in the late twentieth century. The government's settlement of nearly $1 billion with more than 13,300 farmers was reportedly the largest civil rights claim to date.[16] The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional farmers to have their claims heard, as 70,000 had filed late in the original program.[16] In 2010 the federal government made another $1.2 billion settlement in what is called Pigford II for outstanding claims.[17] Pigford v. Glickman[edit] Main article: Pigford v. Glickman Following long-standing concerns, black farmers joined a class action discrimination suit against the USDA filed in federal court in 1997.[17] An attorney called it "the most organized, largest civil rights case in the history of the country."[18] Also in 1997, black farmers from at least five states held protests in front of the USDA headquarters in Washington, D.C.[19] Protests in front of the USDA were a strategy employed in later years as the black farmers sought to keep national attention focused on the plight of the black farmers. Representatives of the National Black Farmers Association met with President Bill Clinton and other administration officials at the White House. And NBFA's president testified before the United States House Committee on Agriculture.[20] In Pigford v. Glickman, U.S. Federal District Court Judge Paul L. Friedman approved the settlement and consent decree on April 14, 1999.[17] The settlement recognized discrimination against 22,363 black farmers but the NBFA would later call the agreement incomplete because more than 70,000 were excluded.[21] Nevertheless, the settlement was deemed to be the largest-ever civil rights class action settlement in American history. Lawyers estimated the value of the settlement to be more than $2 billion.[13] Some farmers would have their debts forgiven.[22] Judge Friedman appointed a monitor to oversee the settlement.[13] Farmers in Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Georgia were among those affected by the settlement.[23] The NBFA's president was invited to testify before congress on this matter numerous times following the settlement including before the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture on September 12, 2000, when he testified that many farmers had not yet received payments and others were left out of the settlement. NBFA asked Congress to pass legislation that would ensure a full resolution of the discrimination cases.[citation needed] Environmental Working Group and NBFA issued a report in July 2004 accusing the USDA of withholding nearly three out of every four dollars in the multibillion-dollar settlement of discrimination cases.[24] The report says that the U.S. Department of Justice and the USDA pursued a path of "willful obstruction of justice" in blocking many of the cases. It was later revealed that one DoJ staff "general attorney" was unlicensed while she was handling black farmers' cases.[25] NBFA called for all those cases to be reheard.[citation needed] The Chicago Tribune reported in 2004 that the result of such longstanding USDA discrimination was that black farmers had been forced out of business at a rate three times faster than white farmers. In 1920, 1 in 7 U.S. farmers was African-American, and by 2004 the number is 1 in 100. USDA spokesman Ed Loyd, when acknowledging that the USDA loan process was unfair to minority farmers, had claimed it was hard to determine the effect on such farmers.[26] In 2006 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report highly critical of the USDA in its handling of the black farmers cases.[27] NBFA continued to lobby Congress to provide relief. NBFA's Boyd secured congressional support for legislation that would provide $100 million in funds to settle late-filer cases. In 2006 a bill was introduced into the House of Representatives and later the Senate by Senator George Felix Allen.[28] In 2007 Boyd testified before the United States House Committee on the Judiciary about this legislation.[citation needed] As the organization was making headway by gathering Congressional supporters in 2007 it was revealed that some USDA Farm Services Agency employees were engaged in activities aimed at blocking Congressional legislation that would aid the black farmers.[29] President Barack Obama, then a U.S. Senator, lent his support to the black farmers' issues in 2007.[30] A bill cosponsored by Obama passed the Senate in 2007.[31] In early June 2008 hundreds of black farmers, denied a chance to have their cases heard in the Pigford settlement, filed a new lawsuit against USDA.[32] The Senate and House versions of the black farmers bill, reopening black farmers discrimination cases, became law in June 2008.[15] Some news reports said that the new law could affect up to 74,000 black farmers.[33] In October 2008, the GAO issued a report criticizing the USDA's handling of discrimination complaints.[34] The GAO recommended an oversight review board to examine civil rights complaints.[35] After numerous public rallies and an intensive NBFA member lobbying effort, Congress approved and Obama signed into law in December 2010 legislation that set aside $1.15 billion to resolve the outstanding black farmers cases.[36] NBFA's John W. Boyd, Jr., attended the bill-signing ceremony at the White House.[citation needed] As of 2013, 90,000 African-American, Hispanic, female and Native American farmers had filed claims. It was reported that some had been found fraudulent, or transparently bogus. In Maple Hill, North Carolina by 2013, the number of successful claimants was four times the number of farms with 1 out of 9 African-Americans being paid, while "claimants were not required [by the USDA] to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm." Lack of documentation is an issue complicated by the USDA practice of discarding denied applications after three years.[37]


Related legislation[edit] Important legislation setting policy of the USDA includes the: 1890, 1891, 1897, 1906 Meat Inspection Act 1906: Pure Food and Drug Act 1914: Cotton Futures Act 1916: Federal Farm Loan Act 1917: Food Control and Production Acts 1921: Packers and Stockyards Act 1922: Grain Futures Act 1922: National Agricultural Conference 1923: Agricultural Credits Act 1930: Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act 1930: Foreign Agricultural Service Act 1933: Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) 1933: Farm Credit Act 1935: Resettlement Administration 1936: Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act 1937: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act 1941: National Victory Garden Program 1941: Steagall Amendment Play media Hemp for Victory, a short documentary produced by the United States Department of Agriculture during World War 2 The Secretary of Agriculture's office is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building. USDA Visitor's Center in the Jamie L. Whitten Building. The Beagle Brigade are part of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. This piece of luggage at Dulles Airport may contain contraband. 1946: Farmers Home Administration 1946: National School Lunch Act PL 79-396 1946: Research and Marketing Act 1947: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act PL 80-104 1948: Hope-Aiken Agriculture Act PL 80-897 1949: Agricultural Act PL 81-439 (Section 416 (b)) 1954: Food for Peace Act PL 83-480 1954: Agricultural Act PL 83-690 1956: Soil Bank Program authorized 1956: Mutual Security Act PL 84-726 1957: Poultry Products Inspection Act PL 85-172 1958: Food Additives Amendment PL 85-929 1958: Humane Slaughter Act 1958: Agricultural Act PL 85-835 1961: Agricultural Act PL 87-128 1964: Agricultural Act PL 88-297 1964: Food Stamp Act PL 88-525 1964: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Extension PL 88-305 1965: Appalachian Regional Development Act 1965: Food and Agriculture Act PL 89-321 1966: Child Nutrition Act PL 89-642 1967: Wholesome Meat Act PL 90-201 1968: Wholesome Poultry Products Act PL 90-492 1970: Agricultural Act PL 91-524 1972: Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act PL 92-516 1970: Environmental Quality Improvement Act 1970: Food Stamp Act PL 91-671 1972: Rural Development Act 1972: Rural Development Act Reform 3.31 1972: National School Lunch Act Amendments (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) PL 92-433 1973: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act PL 93-86 1974: Safe Drinking Water Act PL 93-523 1977: Food and Agriculture Act PL 95-113 1985: Food Security Act PL 99-198 1990: Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 PL 101-624 (This act includes the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990) 1996: Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act PL 104-127 1996: Food Quality Protection Act PL 104-170 2000: Agriculture Risk Protection Act PL 106-224 2002: Farm Security and Rural Investment Act PL 107-171 2008: Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 PL 110-246 2010: Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 PL 111-296


See also[edit] Adjusted Gross Revenue Insurance Alternative Agricultural Research and Commercialization Corporation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Dairy Termination Program Endangered Species Act Food and Drug Administration Learning agenda Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 9 of the Code of Federal Regulations Migratory Bird Treaty Act National Transportation Safety Board The Wildlife Society United States Agricultural Society US Fish and Wildlife Service USDA home loan


Notes and references[edit] ^ a b "FY 2015 Budget Summary and Annual Performance Plan" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2015-07-14.  ^ "History of FNS" (PDF). usda.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-12. Retrieved July 1, 2016.  ^ Michael Lewis (November 2017). "Inside Trump's Cruel Campaign Against the U.S.D.A.'s Scientists". VanityFair.com. Retrieved November 5, 2017.  ^ "FNS Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)". 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "United States Interagency Council on Homelessness". USICH. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24.  ^ 12 Stat. 387, now codified at 7 U.S.C. § 2201. ^ 25 Stat 659 (February 9, 1889) ^ Ziegelman, Jane; Coe, Andrew (2016). A Square Meal: A Culinary History of the Great Depression. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-221641-0.  ^ a b "Records of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering [BPISAE]: Administrative History". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ a b Jaffe, Greg; Eilperin, Juliet (September 26, 2016). "Tom Vilsack's lonely fight for a 'forgotten' rural America". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 18, 2016.  ^ "USDA - Problems Continue to Hinder the Timely Processing of Discrimination Complaints" (PDF). General Accounting Office. January 1999.  ^ Brooks, Roy L. Atonement and Forgiveness: A New Model for Black Reparations. University of California Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-520-24813-9.  ^ a b c "Judge Approves Settlement for Black Farmers". New York Times. ASSOCIATED PRESS. April 15, 1999. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "ABC World News Tonight (2003)". Abcnews.go.com. 2003-11-21. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ a b Ben Evans (2008-06-28). "Reopening black farmers' suits could cost billions". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ a b Pickert, Kate (July 23, 2010). "When Shirley Sherrod Was First Wronged by the USDA". Time.  ^ a b c Tadlock Cowan and Jody Feder (14 June 2011). "The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 1 December 2011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "PBS The News Hour (1999)". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ Charlene Gilbert, Quinn Eli (2002). Homecoming: The Story of African-American Farmers. Beacon Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Treatment of minority and limited resource producers by the U.S. Department of Agriculture: .. U.S. G.P.O. Jan 1, 1997. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ M. Susan Orr Klopfer, Fred Klopfer, Barry Klopfer (2005). Where Rebels Roost... Mississippi Civil Rights Revisited. Lulu Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Black Farmers Lawsuit". NPR. March 2, 1999. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "Southern farmers among those affected by court case". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11.  ^ "Obstruction of Justice". Environmental Working Group. July 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-10-22.  ^ Daniel Pulliam (February 11, 2005). "Unlicensed Hire". GOVEXEC.com. Archived from the original on 2005-04-16.  ^ Martin, Andrew (2004-08-08). "USDA discrimination accused of withering black farmers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "Black Farmers Follow Up on USDA Grievances". National Public Radio. 25 Apr 2006. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "Allen Unveils Bill to Help Black Farmers". The Washington Post. Associated Press. September 29, 2006. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "Obama: USDA Should Not Undermine Legislation to Help Black Farmers". August 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-11-11.  ^ "The Hill newspaper (2007)". Thehill.com. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ Ben Evans (December 17, 2007). "Senate Votes to Reopen Black Farmers' Lawsuits". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2013-04-26.  ^ Ben Evans (June 4, 2008). "Black farmers file new suit against USDA". FOXNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ "Help Ahead for Black Farmers". NPR. December 31, 2007. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ Etter, Lauren (2008-10-23). "USDA Faulted Over Minority Farmers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ Fears, Darryl (2008-10-23). "USDA Action On Bias Complaints Is Criticized". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ CNN Wire Staff (2010-12-09). "Obama signs measure funding black farmers settlement". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2013-12-29.  ^ Sharon LaFraniere (April 25, 2013). "U.S. Opens Spigot After Farmers Claim Discrimination". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2013. ...claimants were not required to present documentary evidence that they had been unfairly treated or had even tried to farm. 


Further reading[edit] Griesbach, Rob (2010). "BARC History: Bureau of Plant Industry" (PDF).  Report: USDA Regulatory Policy Has Been 'Hijacked' by Agribusiness Industry - July 23, 2004. USDA releases 180-Day Report on Avian Influenza efforts and supplemental spending H5N1 efforts. USDA Bets the Farm on Animal ID Program USA: USDA Issues grants to support for robotics research USDA Awards $97 M for Renewable Energy Projects


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Department of Agriculture. Official website United States Department of Agriculture in the Federal Register National Archives document of the USDA's origins Works by or about United States Department of Agriculture at Internet Archive (historic archives) Historic technical reports from USDA (and other Federal agencies) are available in the Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL) Government of the United States portal Agriculture portal v t e Agencies under the United States Department of Agriculture Headquarters: Jamie L. Whitten Building Sonny Perdue, Secretary of Agriculture Stephen Censky, Deputy Secretary of Agriculture Under Secretary of Agriculture for Natural Resources and Environment Forest Service Office of Environmental Markets Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development* Rural Housing Service Rural Utilities Service Rural Business-Cooperative Service Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services Food and Nutrition Service Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food Safety Food Safety and Inspection Service Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics Agricultural Research Service Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service Economic Research Service National Agricultural Library National Agricultural Statistics Service National Institute of Food and Agriculture Under Secretary of Agriculture for Marketing and Regulatory Programs Agricultural Marketing Service Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs** Foreign Agricultural Service Commodity Credit Corporation Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm Production and Conservation** Farm Service Agency Risk Management Agency Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Natural Resources Conservation Service Office of the Chief Financial Officer National Finance Center *Reports directly to the Secretary of Agriculture **Created from Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services v t e United States government agencies involved in environmental science Environmental Protection Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Change Research Program Smithsonian Institution National Science Foundation Department of the Interior National Park Service United States Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Bureau of Reclamation Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Enforcement United States Geological Survey Office of Insular Affairs Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey National Marine Fisheries Service Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy National Laboratories Office of Environmental Management Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency Foreign Agricultural Service United States Forest Service Natural Resources Conservation Service National Water and Climate Center Rural Utilities Service Food and Nutrition Service Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Agricultural Research Service Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard Directorate for Science and Technology Department of Health and Human Services National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Department of Defense Office of Naval Research Air Force Research Laboratory United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command v t e Federal executive departments of the United States of America Executive Departments Agriculture Commerce Defense Education Energy Health and Human Services Homeland Security Housing and Urban Development Interior Justice Labor State Transportation Treasury Veterans Affairs Former Air Force Army Commerce and Labor Health, Education, and Welfare Navy Post Office War Government of the United States portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_States_Department_of_Agriculture&oldid=819827466" Categories: United States Department of AgricultureAgriculture ministriesMinistries established in 1889United States federal executive departments1889 establishments in the United States1862 establishments in the United StatesHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameterCoordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2017Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017Articles with Internet Archive linksArticles containing video clips


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