Contents 1 Procedure 2 Controversy 3 History 4 Respondent confidentiality 4.1 Historical FBI use of data 5 Data analysis 5.1 Regions and divisions 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

Procedure[edit] A woman with a Hollerith pantograph punch, the keyboard is for the 1920 US Census population card This 1940 Census publicity photo shows a census worker in Fairbanks, Alaska. The dog musher remains out of earshot to maintain confidentiality. Decennial U.S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U.S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and illegal immigrants. The Census Bureau bases its decision about whom to count on the concept of usual residence. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time. The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted; however, data from these operations are not considered as accurate as data obtained from traditional procedures.[4] The Census also uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown. This practice has effects across many areas, but is seen by some as controversial.[5] However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are specifically excluded from being counted in the census even though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees (military and civilian) and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U.S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government (either as employees or their dependents) will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used solely for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."[6] In the United States' recent censuses, Census Day has been April 1.[7] However, it was previously in August, as per these instructions given to U.S. Marshals: "All the questions refer to the day when the enumeration is to commence, the first Monday in August next. Your assistants will thereby understand that they are to insert in their returns all the persons belonging to the family on the first Monday in August, even those who may be deceased at the time when they take the account; and, on the other hand, that they will not include in it infants born after that day."[8]

Controversy[edit] Disadvantaged minorities are statistically more likely to be undercounted. For example, the Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats often argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans often argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U.S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, and that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas.[9] Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers.[10] In 2010 Jaime Grant, then director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."[11] Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census, she and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics.[11] In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census.[12]

History[edit] Censuses had been taken prior to the Constitution's ratification; in the early 17th century, a census was taken in Virginia, and people were counted in nearly all of the British colonies that became the United States. Throughout the years, the country's needs and interests became more complex. This meant that statistics were needed to help people understand what was happening and have a basis for planning. The content of the decennial census changed accordingly. In 1810, the first inquiry on manufactures, quantity and value of products occurred; in 1840, inquiries on fisheries were added; and in 1850, the census included inquiries on social issues, such as taxation, churches, pauperism, and crime. The censuses also spread geographically, to new states and territories added to the Union, as well as to other areas under U.S. sovereignty or jurisdiction. There were so many more inquiries of all kinds in the census of 1880 that almost a full decade was needed to publish all the results. In response to this, the census was mechanized in 1890, with tabulating machines made by Herman Hollerith. This reduced the processing time to two and a half years.[13] For the first six censuses (1790–1840), enumerators recorded only the names of the heads of household and a general demographic accounting of the remaining members of the household. Beginning in 1850, all members of the household were named on the census. The first slave schedules were also completed in 1850, with the second (and last) in 1860. Censuses of the late 19th century also included agricultural and industrial schedules to gauge the productivity of the nation's economy. Mortality schedules (taken between 1850 and 1880) captured a snapshot of life spans and causes of death throughout the country. The first nine censuses (1790–1870) were conducted by U.S. Marshals before the Census Bureau was created.[14] Appointed US Marshals of each judicial district hired assistant marshals to conduct the actual enumeration. The census enumerators were typically from the village or neighbourhood and often knew the residents. Before enabling self-identification on the censuses, the US Census Bureau relied on local people to have some knowledge of residents. Racial classification was made by the census enumerator in these decades, rather than by the individual. Num Year Date Taken Population Notes 1 1790 August 2, 1790 3,929,326 2 1800 August 4, 1800 5,308,483 3 1810 August 6, 1810 7,239,881 4 1820 August 7, 1820 9,638,453 5 1830 June 1, 1830 12,866,020 6 1840 June 1, 1840 17,069,453 The census estimated the population of the United States at 17,100,000. The results were tabulated by 28 clerks in the Bureau of the Census. 7 1850 June 1, 1850 23,191,876 The 1850 census was a landmark year in American census-taking. It was the first year in which the census bureau attempted to record every member of every household, including women, children and slaves. Accordingly, the first slave schedules were produced in 1850. Prior to 1850, census records had only recorded the name of the head of the household and tabulated the other household members within given age groups. 8 1860 June 1, 1860 31,443,321 The results were tabulated by 184 clerks in the Bureau of the Census. This was the first census where the American Indians officially were counted, but only those who had 'renounced tribal rules'. The figure for the nation was 40,000. 9 1870 June 1, 1870 39,818,449 10 1880 June 1, 1880 50,189,209 This was the first census that permitted women to be enumerators. 11 1890 June 2, 1890 [n 1] 62,947,714 Because it was believed that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, the tracking of westward migration was not tabulated in the 1890 census.[15] This trend prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his milestone Frontier Thesis. The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using the new tabulating machines invented by Herman Hollerith. The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census (the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, and the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators) was to reduce the time required to fully process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census.[16] The total population, of 62,947,714, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this family, or rough, count).[17][18] The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was widely believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000.[19] This census is also notable for the fact it is one of only three for which the original data are no longer available. Almost all the population schedules were destroyed following a fire in 1921. 12 1900 June 1, 1900 76,212,168 13 1910 April 15, 1910 92,228,496 14 1920 January 1, 1920 106,021,537 This was the first census that recorded a population exceeding 100 million. 15 1930 April 1, 1930 [n 2] 122,775,046 16 1940 April 1, 1940 132,164,569 This is the most recent Census where individuals' data have now been released to the public (by the 72-year rule.). 17 1950 April 1, 1950 150,697,361 Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2022. 18 1960 April 1, 1960 179,323,175 Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2032. 19 1970 April 1, 1970 203,302,031 This was the first census that recorded a population exceeding 200 million. Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2042. 20 1980 April 1, 1980 226,545,805 Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2052. 21 1990 April 1, 1990 248,709,873 Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2062. 22 2000 April 1, 2000 281,421,906 Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2072. 23 2010 April 1, 2010 308,745,538 For the first time since 1940, the 2010 Census is a short-form-only census, as the decennial long form has been replaced by the American Community Survey. This was the first census that recorded a population exceeding 300 million. Because of the 72-year rule, this census will be available for public inspection on April 1, 2082. ^ Taken one day late because June 1 was a Sunday. ^ In the Alaska Territory, census-taking began on October 1, 1929. Census regional marketing logo in Minnesota.

Respondent confidentiality[edit] The principal purpose of the census is to divide the house seats by population. In addition, collected data are used in aggregate for statistical purposes.[20] Replies are obtained from individuals and establishments only to enable the compilation of such general statistics. The confidentiality of these replies is very important. By law, no one— neither the census takers nor any other Census Bureau employee— is permitted to reveal identifiable information about any person, household, or business. Without such protections, those living illegally in the United States or hiding from the government would be deterred from submitting census data. By law (Pub.L. 95–416, 92 Stat. 915, enacted October 5, 1978), individual census records are sealed for 72 years,[21] a number chosen in 1952[22] as slightly higher than the average female life expectancy, 71.6.[23] The individual census data most recently released to the public is the 1940 census, released on April 2, 2012. Aggregate census data are released when available. Historical FBI use of data[edit] Under the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), using primarily census records, compiled (1939–1941) the Custodial Detention Index ("CDI") on citizens, enemy aliens, and foreign nationals, who might be dangerous. The Second War Powers Act of 1941 repealed the legal protection of confidential census data, which was not restored until 1947. This information facilitated the internment of Japanese-Americans, following the Japanese attack on the U.S. at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and the internment of Italian- and German-Americans following the United States' entry into World War II.[24][25] In 1980, four FBI agents went to the Census Bureau's Colorado Springs office with warrants to seize Census documents, but were forced to leave with nothing. Courts upheld that no agency, including the FBI, has access to Census data.[26]

Data analysis[edit] The census records and data specific to individual respondents are not available to the public until 72 years after a given census was taken, but aggregate statistical data derived from the census are released as soon as they are available. Every census up to and including 1940 is currently available to the public and can be viewed on microfilm released by the National Archives and Records Administration, the official keeper of archived federal census records. Complete online census records can be accessed for no cost from National Archives facilities and many libraries,[27] and a growing portion of the census is freely available from non-commercial online sources.[28][29][30] Census microdata for research purposes are available for censuses from 1850 forward through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), and scanned copies of each of the decennial census questionnaires are available online from many websites. Computerized aggregate data describing the characteristics of small geographic areas for the entire period from 1790 to 2010 are available from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Regions and divisions[edit] US Census Bureau Population Regions The bureau recognizes four census regions within the United States and further organizes them into nine divisions. These regions are groupings of states that subdivide the United States for the presentation of data. They should not be construed as necessarily being thus grouped owing to any geographical, historical, or cultural bonds. US Census Regions Region 1: Northeast Region 2: Midwest Region 3: South Region 4: West Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific

See also[edit] Census-designated place (CDP), a populated community that lacks a separate municipal government Combined statistical area (CSA), an area that combines adjacent µSAs and MSAs DUALabs List of U.S. states by historical population, state-level US Census data, 1790-2010, in table form Race and ethnicity in the United States Census State censuses in the United States of America United States metropolitan area (MSA), an area that includes adjacent communities to major cities United States micropolitan area (µSA), an urban area based around a core city or town with a population of 10,000 to 49,999

Notes[edit] ^ Constitution of the United States ^ a b "Decennial Census - History - U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved 2015-03-19.  ^ Morello, Carol (March 28, 2013). "2020 Census will be done by Internet". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2013.  ^ Smith, Annetta; Smith, Denise (2001). U.S Census Bureau Census Special Reports Series CENSR/01-2. US GPO.  ^ Meng, Xiao-Li (1994). "Multiple-Imputation Inferences with Uncongenial Sources of Input". Statistical Science. 9 (4): 538–558. doi:10.1214/ss/1177010269. JSTOR 2246252.  ^ "Census Help". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ Arendt, Britta (April 3, 2010). "Census Day has passed - still time to be counted". Grand Rapids Herald-Review.  ^ "Instructions for the 1820 US census". The Upper St. John River Valley.  ^ Michael Teitelbaum; Jay Winter (30 August 1998). "Why People Fight So Much About the Census". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ "The Problem". Prisoners of the Census. September 26, 2005. Retrieved 2010-03-24.  ^ a b "'Queering the census' movement aims to get single gays counted". NY Daily News. Retrieved 2015-03-19.  ^ Mic. "Laverne Cox Calls for Transgender People to Be Counted Differently in Census Reporting". Mic. Retrieved 2015-09-29.  ^ Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray, "Computer a History of the Information Machine - Second Edition", Westview Press, pages 14-19 2004 ^ ^ Porter, Robert; Gannett, Henry; Hunt, William (1895). "Progress of the Nation", in "Report on Population of the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890, Part 1". Bureau of the Census. pp. xviii–xxxiv.  ^ Report of the Commissioner of Labor In Charge of The Eleventh Census to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1895. Washington, DC: United States Government Publishing Office. July 29, 1895. OCLC 867910652. Retrieved November 13, 2015.  Page 9: "You may confidently look for the rapid reduction of the force of this office after the 1st of October, and the entire cessation of clerical work during the present calendar year. ... The condition of the work of the Census Division and the condition of the final reports show clearly that the work of the Eleventh Census will be completed at least two years earlier than was the work of the Tenth Census." — Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner of Labor in Charge ^ "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau.  ^ Truesdell, Leon E. (1965) The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890-1940, US GPO, p.61 ^ Austrian, Geoffrey D. (1982) Herman Hollerith - Forgotten Giant of Information Processing, Columbia, pp.85-86 ^ "What is the purpose of the Census? What is the data used for?".  ^ "The "72-Year Rule"". U.S. Census Bureau.  ^ "The 1940 Census: 72-Year-Old Secrets Revealed".  ^ "Life expectancy in the USA, 1900-98".  ^ Minkel, JR (2007-03-30). "Confirmed: The U.S. Census Bureau Gave Up Names of Japanese-Americans in WW II". Scientific American. Retrieved 2009-11-02.  ^ El Nasser, Haya (2007-03-30). "Papers show Census role in WWII camps". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-11-02.  ^ Boyle, Mary (March 24, 2000). "Springs once tested Census' confidentiality". The Gazette (Colorado Springs). [dead link] ^ National Archives and Records Administration. "How can I search the Census Records?". Retrieved December 13, 2008.  ^ "Discover your Ancestors". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26.  ^ "The USGenWeb Free Census Project". Retrieved 2010-03-24.  ^ "The USGenWeb Census Project". Retrieved 2010-03-24. 

Further reading[edit] Anderson, Margo J. The American Census: A Social History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-04014-8 Anderson, Margo J. The American Census: A Social History, Second Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-300-19542-2 Anderson, Margo J. Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56802-428-2. Dorman, Robert L. "The Creation and Destruction of the 1890 Federal Census," American Archivist, 71 (Fall–Winter 2008), 350–83. Krüger, Stephen. "The Decennial Census", 19 Western State University Law Review 1, (Fall 1991); available at HeinOnline (subscription required) Lavin, Michael R. "Understanding the Census: A Guide for Marketers, Planners, Grant Writers, and Other Data Users". Kenmore, NY: Epoch Books, 1996. ISBN 0-89774-995-2. U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. Measuring America: the decennial censuses from 1790 to 2000. 2002

External links[edit] U.S. Census Bureau official website History of the U.S. Census Bureau Population Profile of the United States: 2000 Historical Census of Population and Housing reports 2010 Census Data National Historical Geographic Information System, a main source for freely downloading census data for the period 1790 through the present Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, the main source for census microdata for the period 1850 through the present CensusScope, from the Social Science Data Analysis Network Historical U.S. Census Browser, from the University of Virginia Library Census Findings - Questions Asked in Each Census Year, from How the Census Works, from HowStuffWorks, Inc. Sources of U.S. Census Data, from MIT Libraries 1890 Census Supplement Book-Set v t e United States Censuses 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 United States Census Bureau United States Census of Agriculture v t e United States Census Regions Division State Federal District Insular area American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico United States Virgin Islands ZIP Code Tabulation Area Native areas Alaska Native corporation Indian reservation list Hawaiian home land Off-reservation trust land Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Area Metropolitan Primary statistical area list Combined statistical area Core-based statistical area list Metropolitan statistical area list Micropolitan statistical area list New England city and town area Urban area list State-level Congressional district County list Alaska census area Independent city Municipio Place Census-designated Public use microdata area School district lists State legislative district Urban growth area County-level Census county division Minor civil division Traffic analysis zone Voting district Local Block Block group Tract Census Bureau Office of Management and Budget v t e Social survey research Gathering data Collection methods Census Sampling for surveys Random sampling Questionnaire Interview Structured Semi-structured Unstructured Couple Analyzing data Categorical data Contingency table Level of measurement Descriptive statistics Exploratory data analysis Multivariate statistics Psychometrics Statistical inference Statistical models Graphical Log-linear Structural Applications Audience measurement Demography Market research Opinion poll Public opinion Major surveys Afrobarometer American National Election Studies Comparative Study of Electoral Systems Eurobarometer European Social Survey European Values Study Gallup Poll General Social Survey International Social Survey Latinobarómetro List of household surveys in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study World Values Survey Associations American Association for Public Opinion Research European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research International Statistical Institute Pew Research Center World Association for Public Opinion Research Category Projects Business Politics Psychology Sociology Statistics Retrieved from "" Categories: Recurring events established in 1790Censuses in the United StatesUnited States Census BureauUnited States CensusHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Pages using deprecated image syntaxPages containing links to subscription-only content

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