Contents 1 Roman army 1.1 Republic 1.2 Empire 2 Byzantine Empire 3 References 4 Sources

Roman army[edit] Republic[edit] In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the time of the Punic Wars and Rome's expansion into Spain and Greece, the core of the Roman army was formed by citizens, augmented by contingents from Rome's allies (socii). The organization of the Roman legion of the period is described by the Greek historian Polybius (cf. the so-called "Polybian army"), who writes that each 4,200-strong infantry legion was accompanied by 300 citizen cavalry (equites). This contingent was divided into ten turmae.[1][2] According to Polybius, the squadron members would elect as their officers 3 decuriones ("leaders of 10 men"), of whom the first to be chosen would act as the squadron's commander and the other two as his deputies.[3] As in earlier times, these men were drawn from among the 18 centuriae of the equestrian order, the wealthiest classes of the Roman people, who could afford to provide for the horse and its equipment themselves.[1] Empire[edit] Reconstruction of a Roman cavalryman of the Principate, Nijmegen With the reorganization of the army under Emperor Augustus (r. 27 BC – 14 AD) and his successors, the turma became the basic sub-unit of the cavalry, the rough equivalent of the infantry centuria, both in the auxiliaries, who formed the bulk of the Roman cavalry, and in the legionary cavalry detachments. The auxiliary cohors equitata was a mixed unit combining infantry and cavalry, and existed in two types: the cohors equitata quingenaria, with an infantry cohort of 480 men and 4 turmae of cavalry, and the reinforced cohors equitata milliaria, with 800 infantry and 8 turmae. Likewise, the purely cavalry alae contained either 16 (ala quingenaria) or 24 turmae (ala milliaria).[4][5] Individual turmae of camel-riders (dromedarii) also appear among cohortes equitatae in the Middle East, and Emperor Trajan (r. 98–117) established the first all-camel cavalry unit, the Ala I Ulpia dromedariorum Palmyrenorum.[6] The turma was still commanded by a decurio, aided by two subaltern principales (under-officers), a sesquiplicarius (soldier with one-and-a-half times pay) and a duplicarius (soldier with double pay), as well as a signifer or vexillarius (a standard-bearer, cf. vexillum). These ranks corresponded respectively with the infantry's tesserarius (officer of the watch), optio, and signifer.[4][7] The exact size of the turma under the Principate, however, is unclear: 30 men was the norm in the Republican army and apparently in the cohortes equitatae, but not for the alae. The De Munitionibus Castrorum, for instance, records that a cohors equitata milliaria numbered exactly 240 troopers, i.e. 30 men per turma,[8] but also gives the number of horses for the ala milliaria, composed of 24 turmae, at 1000.[9] If one subtracts the extra horses of the officers (two for a decurio, one for each of the two subaltern under-officers), one is left with 832 horses, which does not divide evenly with 24. At the same time, Arrian explicitly says that the ala quingenaria counted 512 men,[10] suggesting a size of 32 men for each turma. As for the legions, during the Principate, each had a cavalry contingent organized in four turmae. A legionary turma was led by a centurion, assisted by an optio and a vexillarius as senior principales. Each of them led a file of ten troopers, for a grand total of 132 horsemen in each legion.[11] Their status was distinctly inferior to that of the legionary infantry: the centurions and principales of the legionary turmae were classed as supernumerarii and although their men were included in the legionary cohort lists, they camped separately from them.[11] In the late Roman army, the turma and its structure were retained, with changes in titelature only: the turma was still headed by a decurio, who also led the first ten-strong file, while the other two files were led by subaltern catafractarii, in essence the successors of the early Empire's duplicarii and sesquiplicarii.[12] Traces of this structure also apparently survived in the 6th-century East Roman army: in the late-6th-century Strategikon of Maurice, the cavalry files are led by a dekarchos (Greek: δέκαρχος, "leader of ten").[12]

Byzantine Empire[edit] In the 7th century, as a result of the crisis caused by the Muslim conquests, the Byzantine military and administrative system was reformed: the old late Roman division between military and civil administration was abandoned, and the remains of the East Roman army's field armies were settled in great districts, the themata, that were named after them.[13] The term turma, in its Greek transcription tourma (τούρμα or τοῦρμα), reappears at that time as the major subdivision of a thema.[14] The army of each thema (except for the Optimatoi) was divided into two to four tourmai,[14] and each tourma further into a number of moirai (μοίραι) or droungoi (δροῦγγοι), which in turn were composed of several banda (singular: bandon, βάνδον, from Latin: bandum, "banner").[15] This division was carried through to the territorial administration of each thema: tourmai and banda (but not the moirai/droungoi) were identified with clearly defined districts which served as their garrison and recruitment areas.[16] In his Taktika, Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) presents an idealized thema as consisting of three tourmai, each divided into three droungoi, etc.[17] This picture, however, is misleading, as the sources do not support any degree of uniformity in size or number of subdivisions in the different themata, nor indeed an exact correspondence of the territorial with the tactical divisions: depending on the tactical exigencies, smaller administrative tourmai could be joined together on campaign and larger ones broken up.[18] Since the elementary unit, the bandon, could itself number between 200 and 400 men, the tourma too could reach up to 6,000 men, although 2,000–5,000 seems to have been the norm between the seventh and early tenth centuries.[19] Each tourma was usually headed by a tourmarchēs (τουρμάρχης, "commander of a tourma"). In some cases, however, an ek prosōpou, a temporary representative of the governing stratēgos of each thema, could be appointed instead.[20] The title first appears in circa 626, when a certain George was tourmarchēs of the Armeniakoi.[21] The tourmarchēs was usually based in a fortress town. Aside from his military responsibilities, he exercised fiscal and judicial duties in the area under his control.[17] In the lists of offices (Taktika) and seals, tourmarchai usually hold the ranks of spatharokandidatos, spatharios or kandidatos.[22] In function and rank, the tourmarchēs corresponded with the topotērētēs of the professional imperial tagmata regiments.[23] The tourmarchai were paid according to the importance of their thema: those of the more prestigious Anatolian themes received 216 gold nomismata annually, while those of the European themes received 144 nomismata, the same amount paid to the droungarioi and the other senior officers of the thema.[24] In some sources, the earlier term merarchēs (μεράρχης, "commander of a meros, division"), which occupied a similar hierarchical position in the 6th–7th centuries,[25] is used interchangeably with tourmarchēs. In the 9th–10th centuries, it is often found in the variant form meriarchēs (μεριάρχης). It has, however, also been suggested by scholars like John B. Bury and John Haldon that the latter was a distinct post, held by the tourmarchēs attached to the governing stratēgos of each thema and residing at the thematic capital.[17][26] In the mid-10th century, the average size of most units fell. In the case of the tourma, it dropped from 2,000–3,000 men to 1,000 men and less, in essence to the level of the earlier droungos, although larger tourmai are still recorded. It is probably no coincidence that the term "droungos" disappears from use at around that time.[27] Consequently, the tourma was divided directly into five to seven banda, each of 50–100 cavalry or 200–400 infantry.[28] The term tourma itself fell gradually into disuse in the 11th century, but survived at least until the end of the 12th century as an administrative term. Tourmarchai are still attested in the first half of the 11th century, but the title seems to have fallen out of use thereafter.[22]

References[edit] ^ a b Goldsworthy 2003, p. 27. ^ Erdkamp 2007, p. 57. ^ Polybius. Histories, 6.25 ^ a b Erdkamp 2007, p. 194. ^ Goldsworthy 2003, pp. 57–58. ^ Erdkamp 2007, p. 258. ^ Sabin, van Wees & Whitby 2007, p. 53. ^ De Munitionibus Castrorum, 26. ^ De Munitionibus Castrorum, 16. ^ Arrian. Ars Tactica, 17.3. ^ a b Erdkamp 2007, p. 275. ^ a b Erdkamp 2007, p. 274. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 73–77. ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, p. 2100. ^ Haldon 1999, p. 113. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 112–113. ^ a b c Haldon 1999, p. 114. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 113–114. ^ Treadgold 1995, pp. 97, 105. ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 683, 2100. ^ Haldon 1999, p. 315. ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, pp. 2100–2101. ^ Treadgold 1995, p. 105. ^ Treadgold 1995, pp. 130–132. ^ Treadgold 1995, pp. 94–97. ^ Bury 1911, pp. 41–42; Kazhdan 1991, p. 1343. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 115–116; Treadgold 1995, pp. 97, 106. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 250.

Sources[edit] Bury, John Bagnell (1911). The Imperial Administrative System of the Ninth Century - With a Revised Text of the Kletorologion of Philotheos. London: Oxford University Press.  Erdkamp, Paul, ed. (2007). A Companion to the Roman Army. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-4051-2153-8.  Goldsworthy, Adrian (2003). The Complete Roman Army. London, United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson Limited. ISBN 0-500-05124-0.  Haldon, John F. (1999). Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565-1204. London, United Kingdom: University College London Press (Taylor & Francis Group). ISBN 1-85728-495-X.  Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  Sabin, Philip; van Wees, Hans; Whitby, Michael, eds. (2007). The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Volume 2: Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Empire. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78274-6.  Treadgold, Warren T. (1995). Byzantium and Its Army, 284–1081. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3163-2.  v t e Byzantine Empire topics History Preceding Roman Empire Dominate (330–717) Early Constantinian-Valentinian era (Constantinian dynasty - Valentinian dynasty) Theodosian era Leonid era Justinian era Heraclian era Twenty Years' Anarchy (717–1204) Middle Isaurian era Nikephorian era Amorian era Macedonian era Doukid era Komnenian era Angelid era (1204–1453) Late Fourth Crusade Frankokratia represented by Latin Empire Byzantine Successor States (Nicaea / Epirus–Thessalonica / Morea / Trebizond) Palaiologan era Decline of the Byzantine Empire Fall of Constantinople Governance Central Emperors Basileus Autokrator Senate Imperial bureaucracy Eparch Early Praetorian prefects Magister officiorum Comes sacrarum largitionum Comes rerum privatarum Quaestor sacri palatii Middle Logothetes tou dromou Sakellarios Logothetes tou genikou Logothetes tou stratiotikou Chartoularios tou sakelliou Chartoularios tou vestiariou Epi tou eidikou Protasekretis Epi ton deeseon Late Megas logothetes Mesazon Provincial Early Praetorian prefectures Dioceses Provinces Quaestura exercitus Exarchate of Ravenna Exarchate of Africa Middle Themata Kleisourai Bandon Catepanates Late Kephale Despotates Diplomacy Treaties Diplomats Military Army Battle tactics Military manuals Wars Battles Revolts Siege warfare Generals Mercenaries Early Late Roman army East Roman army Foederati Bucellarii Scholae Palatinae Excubitors Middle Themata Kleisourai Tourma Droungos Bandon Tagmata Domestic of the Schools Hetaireia Akritai Varangian Guard Late Komnenian army Pronoia Vestiaritai Palaiologan army Allagion Paramonai Grand Domestic Navy Karabisianoi Maritime themata Cibyrrhaeot Aegean Sea Samos Dromon Greek fire Droungarios of the Fleet Megas doux Admirals Naval battles Religion and law Religion Eastern Orthodox Church Byzantine Rite Ecumenical councils Saints Patriarchate of Constantinople Arianism Monophysitism Paulicianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Bogomilism Hesychasm Mount Athos Missionary activity Bulgaria Moravia Serbs Kievan Rus' Jews Muslims Law Codex Theodosianus Corpus Juris Civilis Ecloga Basilika Hexabiblos Mutilation Culture and society Architecture Secular Sacred Cross-in-square Domes Constantinople Great Palace of Constantinople Blachernae Palace Hagia Sophia Hagia Irene Chora Church Pammakaristos Church City Walls Thessalonica Arch of Galerius and Rotunda Hagios Demetrios Hagia Sophia Panagia Chalkeon Ravenna San Vitale Sant'Apollinare in Classe Sant'Apollinare Nuovo Other locations Daphni Monastery Hosios Loukas Nea Moni of Chios Saint Catherine's Monastery Mystras Art Icons Enamel Glass Mosaics Painters Macedonian period art Komnenian renaissance Economy Agriculture Coinage Mints Trade silk Silk Road Varangians Dynatoi Literature Novel Acritic songs Digenes Akritas Alexander romance Historians Everyday life Calendar Cuisine Dance Dress Flags and insignia Hippodrome Music Octoechos People Byzantine Greeks Slavery Units of measurement Science Learning Encyclopedias Inventions Medicine Philosophy Neoplatonism Scholars University Impact Byzantine commonwealth Byzantine studies Museums Byzantinism Cyrillic script Neo-Byzantine architecture Greek scholars in the Renaissance Third Rome Megali Idea Byzantine Empire portal v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution Retrieved from "" Categories: Cavalry units and formations of ancient RomeMilitary units and formations of the Byzantine EmpireMilitary units and formations of the Roman RepublicMilitary units and formations of the Roman EmpireMilitary units and formations by sizeHidden categories: Articles containing Greek-language textArticles containing Ancient Greek-language textArticles containing Latin-language text

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages БългарскиDeutschΕλληνικάEspañolFrançaisItalianoעבריתLatinaNederlandsPortuguêsРусскийSlovenščinaTürkçeУкраїнська Edit links This page was last edited on 25 June 2017, at 19:42. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.432","walltime":"0.518","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2045,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":178990,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":18140,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":0,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 428.705 1 -total"," 45.03% 193.043 1 Template:Lang-el"," 18.03% 77.313 1 Template:Byzantine_Empire_topics"," 17.09% 73.248 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 14.66% 62.840 7 Template:Cite_book"," 11.67% 50.041 1 Template:Reflist"," 9.38% 40.215 10 Template:Navbox"," 6.43% 27.571 26 Template:Harvnb"," 1.94% 8.302 2 Template:Lang"," 1.67% 7.147 1 Template:Refend"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.267","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":15380369,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1332","timestamp":"20180217161600","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":78,"wgHostname":"mw1327"});});

Turma - Photos and All Basic Informations

Turma More Links

LatinRoman CavalryRoman ArmyRoman RepublicRoman EmpireByzantine EmpireRegimentTheme (Byzantine District)Punic WarsHispaniaAncient GreeceRoman CitizenshipSociiRoman LegionGreeksPolybiusRoman Army Of The Mid-RepublicEquitesDecurioCenturiaEquestrian OrderHorseEnlargeImperial Roman ArmyAugustusCenturiaAuxiliaries (Roman Military)Cohort (military Unit)Ala (Roman Military)DromedariiTrajanDuplicariusSigniferVexillariusVexillumTesserariusOptioPrincipateDe Munitionibus CastrorumArrianPrincipateCenturionLate Roman ArmyEast Roman ArmyStrategikon Of MauriceGreek LanguageMuslim ConquestsTheme (Byzantine District)OptimatoiMoira (military)DroungosBandon (Byzantine Empire)Latin LanguageBannerTactica Of Emperor Leo VI The WiseLeo VI The WiseBandon (Byzantine Empire)Ek ProsopouStrategosArmeniacsTaktika (disambiguation)SpatharokandidatosSpathariosTopoteretesTagma (military)AnatoliaGoldSolidus (coin)MerarchesJohn B. BuryDe Munitionibus CastrorumDe Munitionibus CastrorumJ. B. BuryInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-4051-2153-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-500-05124-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-85728-495-XAlexander KazhdanThe Oxford Dictionary Of ByzantiumInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-19-504652-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-521-78274-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8047-3163-2Template:Byzantine Empire TopicsTemplate Talk:Byzantine Empire TopicsByzantine EmpireIndex Of Byzantine Empire-related ArticlesHistory Of The Byzantine EmpireRoman EmpireDominateByzantine Empire Under The Constantinian And Valentinian DynastiesConstantinian DynastyValentinian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Theodosian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Leonid DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Justinian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Heraclian DynastyTwenty Years' AnarchyByzantine Empire Under The Isaurian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Nikephorian DynastyByzantium Under The Amorian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Macedonian DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Doukas DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Komnenos DynastyByzantine Empire Under The Angelos DynastyFourth CrusadeFrankokratiaLatin EmpireEmpire Of NicaeaDespotate Of EpirusEmpire Of ThessalonicaDespotate Of The MoreaEmpire Of TrebizondByzantine Empire Under The Palaiologos DynastyDecline Of The Byzantine EmpireFall Of ConstantinopleList Of Byzantine EmperorsBasileusAutokratorByzantine SenateByzantine Aristocracy And BureaucracyPraefectus UrbiPraetorian PrefectureMagister OfficiorumComes Sacrarum LargitionumComes Rerum PrivatarumQuaestor Sacri PalatiiLogothetes Tou DromouSakellariosLogothetes Tou GenikouLogothetes Tou StratiotikouVestiarionEpi Tou EidikouProtasekretisEpi Ton DeeseonMegas LogothetesMesazonSubdivisions Of The Byzantine EmpirePraetorian PrefectureRoman DioceseRoman ProvinceQuaestura ExercitusExarchate Of RavennaExarchate Of AfricaTheme (Byzantine District)Kleisoura (Byzantine District)Bandon (Byzantine Empire)KatepanoKephale (Byzantine Empire)Despot (court Title)Byzantine DiplomacyCategory:Treaties Of The Byzantine EmpireCategory:Byzantine DiplomatsByzantine ArmyByzantine Battle TacticsByzantine Military ManualsList Of Byzantine WarsList Of Byzantine BattlesList Of Byzantine Revolts And Civil WarsCategory:Byzantine GeneralsCategory:Byzantine MercenariesLate Roman ArmyEast Roman ArmyFoederatiBucellariusScholae PalatinaeExcubitorsTheme (Byzantine District)Kleisoura (Byzantine District)TourmaDroungosBandon (Byzantine Empire)Tagma (military)Domestic Of The SchoolsHetaireiaAkritaiVarangian GuardByzantine Army (Komnenian Era)PronoiaVestiaritaiByzantine Army (Palaiologan Era)AllagionParamonaiGrand DomesticByzantine NavyKarabisianoiTheme (Byzantine District)Cibyrrhaeot ThemeAegean Sea (theme)Samos (theme)DromonGreek FireDroungarios Of The FleetMegas DouxCategory:Byzantine AdmiralsCategory:Naval Battles Involving The Byzantine EmpireCategory:Religion In The Byzantine EmpireEastern Orthodox ChurchByzantine RiteEcumenical CouncilCategory:Byzantine SaintsEcumenical Patriarchate Of ConstantinopleArianismMonophysitismPaulicianismByzantine IconoclasmEast–West SchismBogomilismHesychasmMount AthosChristianization Of BulgariaChristianization Of MoraviaChristianization Of The SerbsChristianization Of Kievan Rus'History Of The Jews In The Byzantine EmpireByzantine LawCodex TheodosianusCorpus Juris CivilisEclogaBasilikaKonstantinos ArmenopoulosPolitical Mutilation In Byzantine CultureByzantine ArchitectureCategory:Byzantine Secular ArchitectureCategory:Byzantine Sacred ArchitectureCross-in-squareHistory Of Roman And Byzantine DomesConstantinopleGreat Palace Of ConstantinoplePalace Of BlachernaeHagia SophiaHagia IreneChora ChurchPammakaristos ChurchWalls Of ConstantinopleThessalonikiArch Of Galerius And RotundaHagios DemetriosHagia Sophia (Thessaloniki)Church Of Panagia ChalkeonRavennaBasilica Of San VitaleBasilica Of Sant'Apollinare In ClasseBasilica Of Sant'Apollinare NuovoDaphni MonasteryHosios LoukasNea Moni Of ChiosSaint Catherine's MonasteryMystrasByzantine ArtIconByzantine EnamelByzantine GlassMosaicCategory:Byzantine PaintersMacedonian Art (Byzantine)Byzantine Civilisation In The Twelfth CenturyByzantine EconomyByzantine AgricultureByzantine CoinageByzantine MintsByzantine TradeByzantine SilkSilk RoadTrade Route From The Varangians To The GreeksDynatoiByzantine LiteratureByzantine NovelAcritic SongsDigenes AkritasAlexander RomanceCategory:Byzantine HistoriansByzantine CalendarByzantine CuisineByzantine DanceByzantine DressByzantine Flags And InsigniaHippodrome Of ConstantinopleByzantine MusicOctoechosCategory:Byzantine PeopleByzantine GreeksSlavery In The Byzantine EmpireByzantine Units Of MeasurementByzantine ScienceCategory:Byzantine Greek EncyclopediasList Of Byzantine InventionsByzantine MedicineByzantine PhilosophyNeoplatonismList Of Byzantine ScholarsUniversity Of ConstantinopleByzantine CommonwealthByzantine StudiesCategory:Byzantine MuseumsByzantinismCyrillic ScriptByzantine Revival ArchitectureGreek Scholars In The RenaissanceThird RomeMegali IdeaPortal:Byzantine EmpireTemplate:Greek Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Greek Terms For Country SubdivisionsGreek LanguageAdministrative DivisionDecentralized Administrations Of GreeceGovernor-generalGeographic Regions Of GreeceAdministrative Regions Of GreecePrefectures Of GreeceRegional Units Of GreeceMunicipalities And Communities Of GreeceProvinces Of GreeceMunicipalities And Communities Of GreeceArchonBandon (Byzantine Empire)DemeDespot (court Title)Roman DioceseDuxDroungosEparchyExarchKatepanoKephale (Byzantine Empire)Kleisoura (Byzantine District)MeridarchNaucrarySatrapStrategosTheme (Byzantine District)ToparchesHelp:CategoryCategory:Cavalry Units And Formations Of Ancient RomeCategory:Military Units And Formations Of The Byzantine EmpireCategory:Military Units And Formations Of The Roman RepublicCategory:Military Units And Formations Of The Roman EmpireCategory:Military Units And Formations By SizeCategory:Articles Containing Greek-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Ancient Greek-language TextCategory:Articles Containing Latin-language TextDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer