Contents 1 History 2 Usage 2.1 Traffic management 2.1.1 Types and sizes 2.2 Other forms 2.3 Indoor and non-traffic use 3 In popular culture 3.1 Television 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Traffic cones were invented by Charles D. Scanlon, an American who got the idea while working as a painter for the Street Painting Department of the City of Los Angeles.[3] The patent for his invention was granted in 1943.[4] Traffic cones were first used in the United Kingdom in 1958, when the M6 motorway opened. These traffic cones were a substitute for red lantern paraffin burners being used during construction on the Preston Bypass.[5] In 1961, David Morgan of Burford, Oxfordshire, UK believes that he constructed the first experimental plastic traffic cones, which replaced pyramid-shaped wooden ones previously used.[6] In the United States on May 1, 1959 the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in Oakland, California adopted the policy of placing the orange safety cones at left front and the left rear corners of their service trucks while parked on the street to increase visibility and safety for the workers. This policy was implemented as the result of a suggestion by their employee, Russell Storch, a cable splicer. He was awarded $45 for his suggestion. This policy is still in use today.[7] Although originally made of concrete, today's versions are more commonly brightly colored thermoplastic or rubber cones. Recycled PVCs from bottles can be used to create modern traffic cones.[8] Not all traffic cones are conical. Pillar-shaped movable bollards fulfill a similar function.[9]

Usage[edit] Traffic management[edit] Cones in use at the "Bridgegate" entrance to the George Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey Traffic cones are typically used outdoors during road work or other situations requiring traffic redirection or advance warning of hazards or dangers, or the prevention of traffic. Traffic cones are also used to mark where children are playing or to block off an area. For night time use or low-light situations traffic cones are usually fitted with a retroreflective sleeve to increase visibility. On occasion, traffic cones may also be fitted with flashing lights for the same reason. In the US, cones are required by the US Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) to be fitted with reflective white bands to increase night-time visibility. Reflective collars, white strips made from white reflective plastic, slip over cones snugly, and tape or adhesive can be used to permanently attach the collars to the cones. Traffic cones are designed to be highly visible and easily movable. Various sizes are used, commonly ranging from around 30 cm (11.8 in) to a little over 1 m (39.4 in). Traffic cones come in many different colors, with orange, yellow, pink, and red being the most common colors due to their brightness. Others come in green and blue, and may also have a retroreflective strip (commonly known as "flash tape") to increase their visibility. Types and sizes[edit] Traffic cone on the right is used to indicate that no parking is allowed (UK) Typical traffic cones are fluorescent "safety" orange, as well as lime green. Traffic cones also commonly come with reflective striping around them, to increase visibility. In the United States, they come in such sizes as: 12 in (305 mm), 1.5 lb (0.68 kg) – for indoor/outdoor applications 18 in (457 mm), 3 lb (1.4 kg) – for outdoor applications such as free-way line painting 28 in (711 mm), 7 lb (3.2 kg), (also called Metro cones for their use in cities) – for Non-highway applications e.g. Local street, 28 in (711 mm), 10 lb (4.5 kg) – for free-way/high-way applications (With reflective stripes) 36 in (914 mm), 10 lb (4.5 kg) – for free-way/high-way applications (With reflective stripes) Other forms[edit] Cones are easy to move or remove. Where sturdier (and larger) markers are needed, construction sites use traffic barrels (plastic orange barrels with reflective stripes, normally about the same size as a 55 US gallons (46 imp gal; 208 L) drum). When a lane closure must also be a physical barrier against cars accidentally crossing it, a Jersey barrier is preferred. See also Fitch Barrier. In many countries such as Australia or American states such as California, traffic barrels are rarely seen. Devices called bollards are used instead of cones where larger and sturdier warning or delineation devices are needed. Typically, bollards are 1,150 mm (45 in) high fluorescent orange posts with reflective sleeve and heavyweight rubber bases. Larger devices such as barrier boards may be used instead of cones where larger areas need to be excluded or for longer periods. In Canada they are often referred to as pylons. Indoor and non-traffic use[edit] Cones are used to lay out courses for autocross competitions. Cones are also frequently used in indoor public spaces to mark off areas which are closed to pedestrians, such as a restroom being out of order, or to denote a dangerous condition, such as a slippery floor. They can be used on school playgrounds to limit areas of a playing field, and on ice rinks to define class, private party, or private lesson areas. Some of the cones used for this purpose are miniature, as small as 5 cm (2.0 in) tall, and some are disposable full-size cones made of biodegradable paper. Being distinctive, easily portable and usually left unguarded, traffic cones are often stolen. Students are frequently blamed, to the extent that the British National Union of Students has attempted to play down this "outdated stereotype".[10] The term "road cone" is also commonly used in the construction industry as a lighthearted insult. It is used to describe an individual who spends most of the day just standing still, making no attempt to get involved in the work they should be doing.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit] In 2007 the artist Dennis Oppenheim commemorated the traffic cone with a monumental sculpture of five five-metre-tall cones. They were installed temporarily in Miami,[11] Seattle's Olympic Sculpture Park,[12] and Seoul, Korea. An orange-and-white cone is the logo used by VideoLAN (best known for its VLC media player software). German group Kraftwerk featured traffic cones on their first two albums, as well as in their concerts at the time. Traditionally, but unofficially, the Wellington Statue in Glasgow is decorated with a traffic cone. The presence of the cone is given as the reason the statue is in the Lonely Planet 1000 Ultimate Sights guide (at number 229) as a "most bizarre monument".[13] Television[edit] The Traffic Cones is a Belgian TV series on Nickelodeon.[14]

Gallery[edit] Giant traffic cone in Seattle, Washington Duke of Wellington statue, with cone Prank in Raglan, New Zealand

See also[edit] Amsterdammertje Bollard Cones Hotline Construction barrel Road traffic control Traffic barrier Traffic guard VideoLAN

References[edit] ^ McInerney, Matthew (22 July 2014). "Footballer gets 15-year ban for witch's hat attack". The Chronicle. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ Parish, Rebecca (6 April 2017). "No agencies own up as Killara locals search for witches hats owner". The Daily Telegraph. News Corp Australia. Retrieved 30 August 2017.  ^ "INTERSTATE RUBBER PROD. CORP. v. RADIATOR SPECIALTY CO." United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit. 214 F.2d 546 (1954). Retrieved 13 December 2013.  ^ "US Patent US2333273 A". Google. Retrieved 13 December 2013.  ^ "Cones". TPR Traffic Solutions. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ Eccentric Britain, 2nd: The Bradt Guide to Britain's Follies and Foibles. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 49–51. Retrieved 30 April 2012.  ^ PG&E file number 761.1, Suggestion number 1-1759 a letter dated May 1, 1959 from PG&E awarding Mr. Russell Storch an employee of PG&E $45.00 for his suggestion of the use of the cones ^ "Plastic". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010. PVC recovered from bottles may be used in traffic cones  ^ "History of The Traffic Cone". Traffic Safety Store. 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. bottles can be used to create modern traffic cones  ^ "Rowdy students 'must be tackled'". BBC Online. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 23 November 2010.  ^ "Scope Miami-2007". Retrieved 2009-02-12.  ^ Seattle Post-Intelligencer, "Oppenheim's big cones are a caution", May 29, 2008 ^ Bain, Andrew (2011). Lonely Planet's 1000 Ultimate Sights (1st ed.). Footscray, Vic.: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1742202938.  ^ "Un dessin-animé belge sur Nickelodeon" [A Belgian cartoon on Nickelodeon]. (in French). June 6, 2010. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Traffic cones. wikt:traffic cone Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices v t e Streets and roadways Types of road Limited-access Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway By country Australia Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States Main roads Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway systems by country Local roads Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane Other terms Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number Special route Business route Street hierarchy Toll road Road junctions Interchanges (grade-separated) Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet Intersections (at-grade) 3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out (RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround Surfaces Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete Reinforced concrete Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture Road hazards Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road debris Road slipperiness Road train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout Space and time allocation Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road diet Road verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf Demarcation Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone Structures Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel Glossary of road transport terms Road types by features Retrieved from "" Categories: American inventionsRoad safetyRoad transportSafety equipmentStreetworksTraffic signs1914 introductionsHidden categories: CS1 French-language sources (fr)All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2012Pages using div col with small parameterPages using div col with deprecated parameters

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