Contents 1 Ontology and merging 2 Current standard 3 Graphical notation 4 Data format 4.1 XML serialization formats 4.2 Other formats 5 Related standards 5.1 Topic Maps API 5.2 Query standard 5.3 Constraint standards 5.4 Earlier standards 6 RDF relationship 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Ontology and merging[edit] Topics, associations, and occurrences can all be typed, where the types must be defined by the one or more creators of the topic map(s). The definitions of allowed types is known as the ontology of the topic map. Topic maps explicitly support the concept of merging of identity between multiple topics or topic maps. Furthermore, because ontologies are topic maps themselves, they can also be merged thus allowing for the automated integration of information from diverse sources into a coherent new topic map. Features such as subject identifiers (URIs given to topics) and PSIs (published subject indicators) are used to control merging between differing taxonomies. Scoping on names provides a way to organise the various names given to a particular topic by different sources.

Current standard[edit] The work standardizing topic maps (ISO/IEC 13250) took place under the umbrella of the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34/WG3 committee (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 34, Working Group 3 – Document description and processing languages – Information Association).[1][2][3] However, WG3 was disbanded and maintenance of ISO/IEC 13250 was assigned to WG8. The topic maps (ISO/IEC 13250) reference model and data model standards are defined independent of any specific serialization or syntax. TMRM Topic Maps – Reference Model TMDM Topic Maps – Data Model

Graphical notation[edit] Topic Maps Martian Notation (example) There are different ways of notating topic maps graphically, in addition to GTM, listed below. One recently developed example is Topic Maps Martian Notation. TMMN (its acronym) is a simple graphical notation used to explain the Topic Maps data model, and map out both ontologies and representative instance data.[4] It is designed for use on whiteboard or paper, as well as within any diagram-based software including everyday presentation tools such as PowerPoint and TMMN uses only a very small number of symbols – "blob", "label", "line", "dotted line", and "arrow" – to represent the relationships and basic elements of the topic maps model: topics, names, associations (and roles), scope, and cccurrences (including subject identifiers and subject locators). The "Martian" refers to the archetypal "Martian Scientist",[citation needed] namely, the ability to communicate knowledge across linguistic and cultural barriers, known and unknown. It was developed as part of the musicDNA project.[5] Advanced Topic Maps Martian Notation is currently under development by the musicDNA community and includes shorthand notation for various types of whole-part relationships.

Data format[edit] The specification is summarized in the abstract as follows: "This specification provides a model and grammar for representing the structure of information resources used to define topics, and the associations (relationships) between topics. Names, resources, and relationships are said to be characteristics of abstract subjects, which are called topics. Topics have their characteristics within scopes: i.e. the limited contexts within which the names and resources are regarded as their name, resource, and relationship characteristics. One or more interrelated documents employing this grammar is called a topic map." XML serialization formats[edit] In 2000, Topic Maps was defined in an XML syntax XTM. This is now commonly known as "XTM 1.0" and is still in fairly common use. The ISO standards committee published an updated XML syntax in 2006, XTM 2.0 which is increasingly in use today. Note that XTM 1.0 predates and therefore is not compatible with the more recent versions of the (ISO/IEC 13250) standard. Other formats[edit] Other proposed or standardized serialization formats include: CXTM – Canonical XML Topic Maps format (canonicalization of topic maps) CTM – a Compact Topic Maps Notation (not based on XML) GTM – a Graphical Topic Maps Notation The above standards are all recently proposed or defined as part of ISO/IEC 13250. As described below, there are also other, serialization formats such as LTM, AsTMa= that have not been put forward as standards. Linear topic map notation (LTM) serves as a kind of shorthand for writing topic maps in plain text editors. This is useful for writing short personal topic maps or exchanging partial topic maps by email. The format can be converted to XTM. There is another format called AsTMa which serves a similar purpose. When writing topic maps manually it is much more compact, but of course can be converted to XTM. Alternatively, it can be used directly with the Perl Module TM (which also supports LTM). The data formats of XTM and LTM are similar to the W3C standards for RDF/XML or the older N3 notation.[6]

Related standards[edit] Topic Maps API[edit] A de facto API standard called Common Topic Maps Application Programming Interface (TMAPI) was published in April 2004 and is supported by many Topic Maps implementations or vendors: TMAPI – Common Topic Maps Application Programming Interface TMAPI 2.0 Topic Maps Application Programming Interface (v2.0) Query standard[edit] In normal use it is often desirable to have a way to arbitrarily query the data within a particular Topic Maps store. Many implementations provide a syntax by which this can be achieved (somewhat like 'SQL for Topic Maps') but the syntax tends to vary a lot between different implementations. With this in mind, work has gone into defining a standardized syntax for querying topic maps: ISO 18048: TMQL – Topic Maps Query Language Constraint standards[edit] It can also be desirable to define a set of constraints that can be used to guarantee or check the semantic validity of topic maps data for a particular domain. (Somewhat like database constraints for topic maps). Constraints can be used to define things like 'every document needs an author' or 'all managers must be human'. There are often implementation specific ways of achieving these goals, but work has gone into defining a standardized constraint language as follows: ISO 19756: TMCL – Topic Maps Constraint Language TMCL is functionally similar to RDF Schema with OWL.[6] Earlier standards[edit] The "Topic Maps" concept has existed for a long time. The HyTime standard was proposed as far back as 1992 (or earlier?). Earlier versions of ISO 13250 (than the current revision) also exist. More information about such standards can be found at the ISO Topic Maps site.

RDF relationship[edit] Some work has been undertaken to provide interoperability between the W3C's RDF/OWL/SPARQL family of semantic web standards and the ISO's family of Topic Maps standards though the two have slightly different goals. The semantic expressive power of Topic Maps is, in many ways, equivalent to that of RDF, but the major differences are that Topic Maps (i) provide a higher level of semantic abstraction (providing a template of topics, associations and occurrences, while RDF only provides a template of two arguments linked by one relationship) and (hence) (ii) allow n-ary relationships (hypergraphs) between any number of nodes, while RDF is limited to triplets.

See also[edit] Back-of-the-book index Index (publishing) Semantic Web Concept map Mind map Unified Modeling Language (UML) Ontology (information science) Web Ontology Language (OWL) Metamodeling Topincs (a commercial proprietary Topic Maps editor) Ontopia (a commercially supported open source Topic Maps editor)

References[edit] ^ ISO JTC1/SC34. "JTC 1/SC 34 – Document Description and Processing Languages". Retrieved 2009-12-25.  ^ "Home of SC34/WG3 – Information Association". 3 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-26.  ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 34 – Document description and processing languages". ISO. Retrieved 2009-12-25.  ^ Topic Maps Martian Notation tutorial ^ musicDNA ^ a b Lars Marius Garshol (2003). "Living With Topic Maps and RDF". Retrieved 2014-02-21.  Lutz Maicher and Jack Park: Charting the Topic Maps Research and Applications Landscape, Springer, ISBN 3-540-32527-1 Jack Park and Sam Hunting: XML Topic Maps: Creating and Using Topic Maps for the Web, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-74960-2 (in bibMap) Passin, Thomas B. (2004). Explorer's Guide to the Semantic Web. Manning Publications. ISBN 1-932394-20-6. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Topic Maps. Information portal about Topic Maps Home page of the Topic Maps ISO standards ISO/IEC 13250 Topic Maps, Second Edition XML Topic Maps (XTM) 1.0 Specification What Are Topic Maps? Towards knowledge organization with Topic Maps An Introduction to Topic Maps (MSDN) tinyTiM – The tiny Topic Maps engine (Open Source) Mappa – Topic Maps engine for Python (Open Source) Information portal of the Topic Maps Lab Topic Maps Snippets, news from the Topic Maps community, portal covering tools, conferences, papers and news Topic engine in Cfengine for configuration management with semantic knowledge map QuaaxTM – A PHP Topic Maps engine (Open Source) – Italian website about Topic Maps and XTM Wandora – Topic Maps authoring and creation application (Open Source) v t e List of International Electrotechnical Commission standards IEC standards IEC 60027 IEC 60034 IEC 60038 IEC 60062 IEC 60063 IEC 60068 IEC 60112 IEC 60228 IEC 60269 IEC 60297 IEC 60309 IEC 60320 IEC 60364 IEC 60446 IEC 60559 IEC 60601 IEC 60870 IEC 60870-5 IEC 60870-6 IEC 60906-1 IEC 60908 IEC 60929 IEC 60958 AES3 S/PDIF IEC 61030 IEC 61131 IEC 61131-3 IEC 61158 IEC 61162 IEC 61334 IEC 61346 IEC 61355 IEC 61400 IEC 61499 IEC 61508 IEC 61511 IEC 61850 IEC 61851 IEC 61883 IEC 61960 IEC 61968 IEC 61970 IEC 62014-4 IEC 62056 IEC 62061 IEC 62196 IEC 62262 IEC 62264 IEC 62304 IEC 62325 IEC 62351 IEC 62365 IEC 62366 IEC 62379 IEC 62386 IEC 62455 IEC 62680 IEC 62682 IEC 62700 ISO/IEC standards ISO/IEC 646 ISO/IEC 2022 ISO/IEC 4909 ISO/IEC 5218 ISO/IEC 6429 ISO/IEC 6523 ISO/IEC 7810 ISO/IEC 7811 ISO/IEC 7812 ISO/IEC 7813 ISO/IEC 7816 ISO/IEC 7942 ISO/IEC 8613 ISO/IEC 8632 ISO/IEC 8652 ISO/IEC 8859 ISO/IEC 9126 ISO/IEC 9293 ISO/IEC 9592 ISO/IEC 9593 ISO/IEC 9899 ISO/IEC 9945 ISO/IEC 9995 ISO/IEC 10021 ISO/IEC 10116 ISO/IEC 10165 ISO/IEC 10179 ISO/IEC 10646 ISO/IEC 10967 ISO/IEC 11172 ISO/IEC 11179 ISO/IEC 11404 ISO/IEC 11544 ISO/IEC 11801 ISO/IEC 12207 ISO/IEC 13250 ISO/IEC 13346 ISO/IEC 13522-5 ISO/IEC 13568 ISO/IEC 13818 ISO/IEC 14443 ISO/IEC 14496 ISO/IEC 14882 ISO/IEC 15288 ISO/IEC 15291 ISO/IEC 15408 ISO/IEC 15444 ISO/IEC 15445 ISO/IEC 15504 ISO/IEC 15511 ISO/IEC 15693 ISO/IEC 15897 ISO/IEC 15938 ISO/IEC 16262 ISO/IEC 17024 ISO/IEC 17025 ISO/IEC 18000 ISO/IEC 18004 ISO/IEC 18014 ISO/IEC 19752 ISO/IEC 19757 ISO/IEC 19770 ISO/IEC 19788 ISO/IEC 20000 ISO/IEC 21000 ISO/IEC 21827 ISO/IEC 23000 ISO/IEC 23003 ISO/IEC 23008 ISO/IEC 23270 ISO/IEC 23360 ISO/IEC 24707 ISO/IEC 24727 ISO/IEC 24744 ISO/IEC 24752 ISO/IEC 26300 ISO/IEC 27000 ISO/IEC 27000-series ISO/IEC 27002 ISO/IEC 27040 ISO/IEC 29119 ISO/IEC 33001 ISO/IEC 38500 ISO/IEC 42010 ISO/IEC 80000 Related International Electrotechnical Commission v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Retrieved from "" Categories: Knowledge representation languagesTechnical communicationISO standardsIEC standardsDiagramsHidden categories: Use dmy dates from October 2017All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2016

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