Contents 1 History of area 2 Natural history 2.1 Flora 2.2 Fauna 2.3 Topanga Nature Center 3 Recreation 3.1 Trails 4 Funding 4.1 California Department of Parks and Recreation 4.2 Federal trail improvements 5 See also 6 References 7 External links


History of area[edit] Native American The word Topanga is an old Shoshonean language word meaning 'above' and referring to the canyon settlement being above the flood waters of Topanga Creek.[3] The Tongva and Chumash peoples inhabited the area for thousands of years.[1] The land of Topanga Canyon was originally inhabited by Native American groups collectively referred to as the Topanga Culture, including the Chumash and Tongva. Colonial Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo first claimed California for Spain in 1542. The Topanga region was not invaded until after the establishment of the Pueblo de Los Angeles and Mission San Fernando Rey de España in the late 1700s. When Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, control of Alta California went to the new government. In 1828 the Mexican Governor of Alta California granted Francisco Sepulveda provisional title to the more than 30,000 acres called Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica. The rancho included the eastern portion of the City of Santa Monica, Santa Monica Canyon, and the mountains to the ridgeline on the west bank of Topanga Creek. The land remained relatively unused, except for flat portions used for crops and grazing. The steeper sections were deemed unusable, even for sheep and cattle.[4] Trippet Ranch area of the park. American California became part of the United States in 1848, and a state in 1850. Eventually ownership of the Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica Mexican land grant was confirmed by the U.S. Land Claims Commission. The land was made available under the Homestead Act. Among the many homestead patents filed in the Santa Monica Mountains, the one filed by a beekeeper named McAtee was for the western edge of the Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica, and area along what became Entrada Road, the current main entrance to Topanga State Park.[4] In the 1920s, the canyon became a popular weekend get-away destination for residents of growing Los Angeles. Summer cabins were built along Topanga Creek and throughout the area in subdivisions in the surrounding hills. In this same trend, in 1917, Oscar A. Trippet, Sr. bought half of the McAtee homestead, which he and his family used as a get-away from the city. When Trippet died in 1923, his son, Oscar Jr., commissioned Los Angeles architect Summer Spaulding to build the superintendent's house, horse stables, and a skeet lodge. A stock pond was also built which is still located inside the park at the northeast corner of the parking lot. The Trippet family owned of the land until 1963 when it was sold to a developer.[4][5] The next year, 1964, a park bond was approved by voters to purchase Trippet Ranch and some adjoined land. Topanga State Park was opened to the public in 1974. Its land includes more than 7,500 acres from the Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica land grant. Additional acreage has been added in the form of 1,500 acres from the Palisades Highlands and another 1,600 acres added in 2002, near the mouth of the Topanga Creek.[4] Sunset on the trail to Trippet Ranch.


Natural history[edit] Geologically, the park has many sedimentary sandstone rock formations, marine fossils, exposed faults, and volcanic intrusions. Flora[edit] See also: Flora of the Santa Monica Mountains The primary habitats in the park are of the Coastal sage scrub and montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregions. In Trippet Ranch there is a significant area of California oak woodland. The smaller habitats include bay laurel woodland (Umbellularia californica), walnut woodland (Juglans californica), and grassland savannah. The various types of plants and habitats are due to microclimate differences across the park. Fauna[edit] See also: Category:Fauna of the California chaparral and woodlands There are over eighty mammal species and more than sixty reptile and amphibian species. Snakes present include the Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri). Topanga State Park is home to many species of migratory and resident bird species.[1] Topanga Nature Center[edit] The Topanga Nature Center houses a collection of mounted native animals and birds, as well as hands-on displays of natural artifacts. It is dedicated to the flora, fauna and geography of the area.[2] The Center is located in the lodge formerly used by Trippet Ranch for skeet shooting, a short walk from the Trippet Ranch parking lot, and is currently open on Sunday afternoons only.


Recreation[edit] Points of interest in the park include: Eagle Rock, Eagle Spring Trail, and Hub Junction. Three historical attractions of the park are Trippet Ranch buildings, Will Roger’s cabin, and the Josepho Barn.[1] Trails[edit] Many trails exist within the park, which are accessible to hikers, mountain bikers, and horseback riders, as posted. The primary trailheads are at the Trippet Ranch area, including for the Musch Trail,[6] passing prominent Eagle Rock. Many trails also are wider dirt fire roads. Unpaved portions of Mulholland Drive are accessible through the Temescal Fire Road and Mulholland Drive.[1] The Backbone Trail System, a multi-use long-distance trail spanning nearly 70 miles across the Santa Monica Mountains, passes through Topanga State Park. It can be accessed via the Trippet Ranch trailhead. The Santa Inez Trail is accessible from Trippet Ranch on the west, or the Palisades Highlands neighborhood on the east. The trail's lower section follows Santa Inez Creek through riparian habitats, and then climbs through unique and massive sandstone formations to the Topanga Fire Road and Trippet Ranch.[6]


Funding[edit] California Department of Parks and Recreation[edit] While never actually closed to the public, Topanga State Park was on a list of 48 California state parks proposed in January 2008 for closure by California's then-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger as part of a deficit reduction program. In protest, environmentalists and area residents collected more than 17,000 signatures asking that the closure idea be halted, with the petition delivered to the governor by a symbolic delegation of school children. This direct public action was credited with averting the proposed closure.[2] In July 2012, it was reported that nearly $54 million in "hidden" funds was in the possession of California's state park system, creating widespread anger. The funds were more than enough to have covered any of the alleged state park budget shortfalls, and State Parks Director Ruth Coleman, in charge for a decade, resigned her position, with her second in command being fired. Coleman denied any knowledge of the secret assets.[7] Later, the $54 million figure was reported to be misrepresented, with the actual hidden surplus amounting to $20 million, still enough to cover the alleged shortfall that had prompted the plans to close as many as 70 California state parks. In February 2013 it was revealed that the approximately $20 million had been hidden for as long as 20 years by the California Department of Parks and Recreation.[8] Federal trail improvements[edit] In August 2012, Congressman Brad Sherman announced that he secured federal funds to help improve parks and public areas. His first project was to help restore sections of the 65 mile Backbone Trail, one of the most popular trails in the park and the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. The Congressman said, “The Backbone Trail provides thousands of hikers, bicyclists and other outdoor enthusiasts with an unparalleled recreational experience through the heart of the Santa Monica Mountains. These improvements will enhance that experience and improve safety for everyone that uses this popular trail.” The money is going to go to clearing back brush on the trails, fixing and preventing landslides along the trail, and repairing the Chicken Bridge in the park. Hikers have reported significant improvements to the trails, and the project was completed in 2013.[9]


See also[edit] California chaparral and woodlands Chaparral List of flora of the Santa Monica Mountains


References[edit] ^ a b c d e "Topanga State Park General Plan". California Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ a b c "Topanga State Park-Los Angeles-A Wildland Adventure in the Heart of the City". Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ Topanga Online.com: "What Does The Name "Topanga" Mean?" ^ a b c d "Topanga Parkland History". Topanga Canyon Docents. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ McKinney, John (2000). Day Hiker's Guide to California State Parks. Olympus. pp. 55–56.  ^ a b "Topanga SP". Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved 6 December 2012.  ^ http://www.sacbee.com/2012/07/21/4646682/hidden-parks-funds-spark-outrage.html ^ http://www.sacbee.com/2013/02/15/5192590/california-state-parks-had-hidden.html ^ Sherman, Brad (15 August 2012). "Congress Sherman Highlights Improvements to the Backbone Trail in the Santa Monica Mountains". FDCH Press Releases. Retrieved 6 December 2012. 


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Topanga State Park. California State Parks: official Topanga State Park website Topanga Canyon Docents — includes information about the park's nature center. v t e Protected areas of California National Park System National Parks Channel Islands Death Valley Joshua Tree Kings Canyon Lassen Volcanic Pinnacles Redwood Sequoia Yosemite National Preserves Mojave National Monuments Cabrillo Castle Mountains Cesar E. Chavez Devils Postpile Lava Beds Muir Woods World War II Valor in the Pacific National Seashores Point Reyes National Historical Parks Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front San Francisco Maritime National Historic Sites Eugene O'Neill Fort Point John Muir Manzanar National Memorials Port Chicago Naval Magazine National Recreation Areas Golden Gate Santa Monica Mountains Whiskeytown State Parks State Parks Ahjumawi Lava Springs Andrew Molera Angel Island Annadel Año Nuevo Anza-Borrego Desert Arthur B. 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Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalIUCNNatural MonumentMap Showing The Location Of Topanga State ParkMap Showing The Location Of Topanga State ParkMap Showing The Location Of Topanga State ParkLos Angeles County, CaliforniaUnited StatesLos Angeles, CaliforniaGeographic Coordinate SystemCalifornia Department Of Parks & RecreationCaliforniaState ParkSanta Monica MountainsLos Angeles County, CaliforniaCaliforniaSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaTopanga, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CaliforniaPacific Palisades, CaliforniaMullholland DriveShoshonean LanguageTongvaChumash PeopleJuan Rodriguez CabrilloCaliforniaPueblo De Los AngelesMission San Fernando Rey De EspañaAlta CaliforniaFrancisco SepulvedaRancho San Vicente Y Santa MonicaSanta MonicaEnlargeRanchos Of CaliforniaHomestead ActEnlargeSandstoneFossilFault (geology)Flora Of The Santa Monica MountainsHabitatCoastal Sage ScrubCalifornia Montane Chaparral And WoodlandsEcoregionCalifornia Oak WoodlandUmbellulariaJuglans CalifornicaGrasslandSavannahMicroclimateCategory:Fauna Of The California Chaparral And WoodlandsCrotalus Oreganus HelleriSkeet ShootingHikingCyclingEquestrianismTrailheadEagle Rock (Santa Monica Mountains)Mulholland DriveMulholland DriveBackbone Trail SystemLong-distance TrailSanta Monica MountainsRiparian ZoneSandstoneList Of California State ParksArnold SchwarzeneggerCalifornia Department Of Parks And RecreationBrad ShermanBackbone TrailSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaCalifornia Chaparral And WoodlandsChaparralList Of Flora Of The Santa Monica MountainsTemplate:Protected Areas Of CaliforniaTemplate Talk:Protected Areas Of CaliforniaProtected Areas Of The United StatesCaliforniaNational Park ServiceChannel Islands National ParkDeath Valley National ParkJoshua Tree National ParkKings Canyon National ParkLassen Volcanic National ParkPinnacles National ParkRedwood National And State ParksSequoia National ParkYosemite National ParkMojave National PreserveCabrillo National MonumentCastle Mountains National MonumentCesar E. 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Taylor State ParkSan Bruno Mountain State ParkSinkyone Wilderness State ParkSouth Yuba River State ParkSugarloaf Ridge State ParkSutter Buttes State ParkTolowa Dunes State ParkTomales Bay State ParkVan Damme State ParkWilder Ranch State ParkAntelope Valley California Poppy ReserveArmstrong Redwoods State Natural ReserveAzalea State Natural ReserveJohn Little State Natural ReserveJug Handle State Natural ReserveLos Osos Oaks State Natural ReserveMono Lake Tufa State Natural ReserveMontgomery Woods State Natural ReservePoint LobosTorrey Pines State Natural ReserveAlbany State Marine ReserveBig Creek State Marine Reserve And Marine Conservation AreaCarmel Pinnacles State Marine ReserveDel Mar Landing State Marine ReserveEmeryville Crescent State Marine ReserveEstero De Limantour State Marine Reserve & Drakes Estero State Marine Conservation AreaFitzgerald Marine ReserveLaguna Beach State Marine ReserveLovers Point State Marine ReserveMontara State Marine Reserve & Pillar Point State Marine Conservation AreaMoro Cojo Slough State Marine ReserveNatural Bridges State Marine ReservePoint LobosPoint Sur State Marine Reserve And Marine Conservation AreaRussian River State Marine Reserve And Russian River State Marine Conservation AreaStewarts Point State Marine Reserve & Stewarts Point State Marine Conservation AreaAnderson Marsh State Historic ParkAntelope Valley Indian Museum State Historic ParkBale Grist Mill State Historic ParkBenicia Capitol State Historic ParkBidwell Mansion State Historic ParkBodie, CaliforniaCalifornia Citrus State Historic ParkCalifornia State Indian MuseumChumash Painted Cave State Historic ParkColonel Allensworth State Historic ParkColumbia State Historic ParkPresidio Of Santa BarbaraEmpire Mine State Historic ParkFolsom Powerhouse State Historic ParkFort Humboldt State Historic ParkFort Ross State Historic ParkFort TejonGovernor's Mansion State Historic ParkHearst CastleIndian Grinding Rock State Historic ParkJack London State Historic ParkLa Purísima Mission State Historic ParkLeland Stanford Mansion State Historic ParkLos Angeles State Historic ParkLos Encinos State Historic ParkMalakoff Diggins State Historic ParkMarconi Conference Center State Historic ParkMarshall Gold Discovery State Historic ParkMonterey State Historic ParkOld Sacramento State Historic ParkOld Town San Diego State Historic ParkOlompali State Historic ParkRancho Petaluma AdobePigeon Point LighthousePio Pico State Historic ParkPoint Sur State Historic ParkRailtown 1897 State Historic ParkSan Juan Bautista State Historic ParkSan Pasqual Battlefield State Historic ParkSanta Cruz Mission State Historic ParkSanta Susana Pass State Historic ParkShasta, CaliforniaSonoma State Historic ParkSutter's Fort State Historic ParkWassama Round House State Historic ParkWatts Towers Of Simon Rodia State Historic ParkWeaverville Joss House State Historic ParkWill Rogers State Historic ParkWilliam B. 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Crown Memorial State BeachSalinas River State BeachSan Buenaventura State BeachSan Clemente State BeachSan Elijo State BeachSan Gregorio State BeachSan Onofre State BeachSanta Monica State BeachSchooner Gulch State BeachSeacliff State BeachSilver Strand State BeachSonoma Coast State BeachSouth Carlsbad State BeachSunset State BeachThornton State BeachTorrey Pines State BeachTrinidad State BeachTwin Lakes State BeachWestport-Union Landing State BeachWill Rogers State BeachWilliam Randolph Hearst Memorial State BeachZmudowski State BeachAdmiral William Standley State Recreation AreaAuburn State Recreation AreaAustin Creek State Recreation AreaBenbow Lake State Recreation AreaBenicia State Recreation AreaBethany Reservoir State Recreation AreaBrannan Island State Recreation AreaCandlestick Point State Recreation AreaCastaic Lake State Recreation AreaFolsom Lake State Recreation AreaFranks Tract State Recreation AreaGeorge J. Hatfield State Recreation AreaKenneth Hahn State Recreation AreaLake Oroville State Recreation AreaLake Perris State Recreation AreaMcConnell State Recreation AreaPicacho State Recreation AreaProvidence Mountains State Recreation AreaSalton Sea State Recreation AreaSan Luis Reservoir State Recreation AreaSilverwood Lake State Recreation AreaTurlock Lake State Recreation AreaWoodson Bridge State Recreation AreaCarnegie State Vehicular Recreation AreaOceano Dunes State Vehicular Recreation AreaOcotillo Wells State Vehicular Recreation AreaBurleigh H. Murray RanchCalifornia State Mining And Mineral MuseumCalifornia State Capitol MuseumCalifornia State Railroad MuseumCastro AdobeDelta Meadows River ParkEstero Bay (California)Hatton CanyonIndio Hills PalmsPoint Cabrillo Light StationPoint Lobos RanchPoint Montara Light StationSan Timoteo CanyonStone Lake (California)Verdugo MountainsWard Creek (Lake Tahoe)Wildwood CanyonUnited States National ForestAngeles National ForestButte Valley National GrasslandCleveland National ForestEldorado National ForestHumboldt-Toiyabe National ForestInyo National ForestKlamath National ForestLake Tahoe Basin Management UnitLassen National ForestLos Padres National ForestMendocino National ForestModoc National ForestPlumas National ForestRogue River – Siskiyou National ForestSan Bernardino National ForestSequoia National ForestShasta–Trinity National ForestSierra National ForestSix Rivers National ForestStanislaus National ForestTahoe National ForestAgua Tibia WildernessAnsel Adams WildernessBucks Lake WildernessCaribou WildernessCarson-Iceberg WildernessCastle Crags WildernessCucamonga WildernessDesolation WildernessDick Smith WildernessDinkey Lakes WildernessEmigrant WildernessGolden Trout WildernessHoover WildernessInyo Mountains WildernessIshi WildernessJennie Lakes WildernessJohn Muir WildernessKaiser WildernessMarble Mountain WildernessMokelumne WildernessMount Shasta WildernessPine Creek WildernessSan Gabriel WildernessSan Rafael WildernessSespe WildernessSiskiyou WildernessSnow Mountain WildernessSouth Fork Eel River WildernessSouth Sierra WildernessSouth Warner WildernessThousand Lakes WildernessTrinity Alps WildernessVentana WildernessYolla Bolly–Middle Eel WildernessGiant Sequoia National MonumentSan Gabriel Mountains National MonumentSanta Rosa And San Jacinto Mountains National MonumentSmith River National Recreation AreaWhiskeytown–Shasta–Trinity National Recreation AreaSand To Snow National MonumentList Of California State ForestsBoggs Mountain Demonstration State ForestJackson Demonstration State ForestLaTour Demonstration State ForestMount Zion State ForestSoquel Demonstration State ForestNational Wildlife RefugeAntioch Dunes National Wildlife RefugeBitter Creek National Wildlife RefugeBlue Ridge National Wildlife RefugeButte Sink National Wildlife RefugeCastle Rock National Wildlife RefugeClear Lake National Wildlife RefugeCoachella Valley National Wildlife RefugeColusa National Wildlife RefugeDelevan National Wildlife RefugeDon Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife RefugeEllicott Slough National Wildlife RefugeFarallon IslandsGuadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife RefugeHopper Mountain National Wildlife RefugeHumboldt Bay National Wildlife RefugeKern National Wildlife RefugeLower Klamath National Wildlife RefugeMarin Islands National Wildlife RefugeMerced National Wildlife RefugeModoc National Wildlife RefugePixley National Wildlife RefugeSacramento National Wildlife Refuge ComplexSacramento River National Wildlife RefugeSalinas River National Wildlife RefugeSan Diego Bay National Wildlife RefugeSan Diego National Wildlife RefugeSan Joaquin River National Wildlife RefugeSan Luis National Wildlife RefugeSan Pablo Bay National Wildlife RefugeSeal Beach National Wildlife RefugeSonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife RefugeStone Lakes National Wildlife RefugeSutter National Wildlife RefugeTijuana Slough National Wildlife RefugeTule Lake National Wildlife RefugeCalifornia Department Of Fish And WildlifeFremont Weir Wildlife AreaHollenbeck Canyon Wildlife AreaMendota Wildlife AreaMoss Landing Wildlife AreaPutah Creek Wildlife AreaSpenceville Wildlife AreaWillow Creek-Lurline Wildlife Management AreaYolo Bypass Wildlife AreaBair IslandBatiquitos Lagoon Ecological ReserveBoggs Lake Ecological ReserveBolsa Chica Ecological ReserveBonny Doon Ecological ReserveBuena Vista Lagoon Ecological ReserveCanebrake Ecological ReserveEden Landing Ecological ReserveElkhorn Slough Ecological ReserveLoch Lomond Vernal Pool Ecological ReserveNorth Table Mountain Ecological ReservePine Hill Ecological ReserveSan Elijo Lagoon Ecological ReserveSan Felipe Creek Ecological ReserveSanta Rosa Plateau Ecological ReserveUpper Newport Bay Ecological ReserveAño Nuevo State Marine Conservation AreaAsilomar State Marine ReserveBair IslandBatiquitos Lagoon State Marine Conservation AreaBolsa Chica Basin State Marine Conservation AreaCambria State Marine Conservation AreaCarmel Bay State Marine Conservation AreaCarmel Pinnacles State Marine ReserveCrystal Cove State Marine Conservation AreaDana Point State Marine Conservation AreaDuxbury Reef State Marine Conservation AreaEdward F. Ricketts State Marine Conservation AreaElkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation AreaElkhorn Slough State Marine ReserveGerstle Cove State Marine ReserveGreyhound Rock State Marine Conservation AreaLaguna Beach State Marine ReserveLovers Point State Marine ReserveMoro Cojo Slough State Marine ReserveNatural Bridges State Marine ReservePacific Grove Marine Gardens State Marine Conservation AreaPoint Lobos State Marine ReservePortuguese Ledge State Marine Conservation AreaRussian River State Marine Reserve And Russian River State Marine Conservation AreaSalt Point State Marine Conservation AreaSan Elijo Lagoon State Marine Conservation AreaSonoma Coast State Marine Conservation AreaSoquel Canyon State Marine Conservation AreaSwami’s State Marine Conservation AreaUpper Newport Bay State Marine Conservation AreaVandenberg State Marine ReserveWhite Rock (Cambria) State Marine Conservation AreaBureau Of Land ManagementNational Landscape Conservation SystemBerryessa Snow Mountain National MonumentCalifornia Coastal National MonumentCarrizo Plain National MonumentCascade-Siskiyou National MonumentFort OrdMojave Trails National MonumentSand To Snow National MonumentSanta Rosa And San Jacinto Mountains National MonumentKing Range (California)Big Maria Mountains WildernessBigelow Cholla Garden WildernessBright Star WildernessChemehuevi Mountains WildernessChimney Peak WildernessChuckwalla Mountains WildernessChumash WildernessCleghorn Lakes WildernessClipper Mountain WildernessDarwin Falls WildernessDick Smith WildernessEl Paso Mountains WildernessFish Creek Mountains WildernessHeadwaters Forest ReserveIndian Pass WildernessInyo Mountains WildernessKiavah WildernessLittle Picacho WildernessMatilija WildernessAlgodones DunesOld Woman Mountains WildernessOtay Mountain WildernessOwens Peak WildernessPahrump Valley WildernessPalo Verde Mountains WildernessPiper Mountain WildernessRed Buttes WildernessRice Valley WildernessRiverside Mountains WildernessSacatar Trail WildernessSan Gorgonio WildernessSanta Rosa WildernessSawtooth Mountains WildernessSespe WildernessSheephole Valley WildernessStateline WildernessStepladder Mountains WildernessSylvania Mountains WildernessTurtle Mountains WildernessWhipple Mountains WildernessUnited States National Marine SanctuaryChannel Islands National Marine SanctuaryCordell Bank National Marine SanctuaryGreater Farallones National Marine SanctuaryMonterey Bay National Marine SanctuaryNational Estuarine Research ReserveElkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research ReserveSan Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research ReserveTijuana River National Estuarine Research ReserveUniversity Of California Natural Reserve SystemAngelo Coast Range ReserveAño Nuevo Island ReserveBlue Oak Ranch ReserveBodega Marine ReservePhilip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research CenterBurns Piñon Ridge ReserveJames San Jacinto Mountains ReserveKendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh ReserveKenneth S. Norris Rancho Marino ReserveLandels-Hill Big Creek ReserveMcLaughlin Natural ReserveMotte Rimrock ReserveQuail Ridge ReserveSagehen Creek Field StationSanta Cruz IslandScripps Coastal ReserveSedgwick ReserveStebbins Cold Canyon ReserveStunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains ReserveSweeney Granite Mountains Desert Research CenterYounger Lagoon ReserveNational Natural LandmarkHelp:CategoryCategory:IUCN Category IIICategory:State Parks Of CaliforniaCategory:Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaCategory:Parks In Los AngelesCategory:Parks In Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Nature Centers In CaliforniaCategory:Geography Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Topanga, CaliforniaCategory:Santa Monica MountainsCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From June 2007Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Coordinates On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



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