Contents 1 Name 2 History 2.1 Pre-history 3 Contemporary tribe 3.1 History of organizations and casino dispute 3.2 Land use issues 4 Traditional narratives 5 Toponymy 6 Notable Tongva 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Name[edit] The first record of an endonym for the Tongva people was Kizh (also spelled Kij), from 1846.[13] Although subsequent authors[14] equated this with the word for "house" (also often spelled kizh), Hale gives the word for house as kītç in a list where the language was called "Kīj", suggesting that the words were distinct.[15] The term Kizh was generally used at that time to designate the language, and the first comprehensive publication on the language used it.[16] In 1875, Yarrow indicated that the name Kizh was unknown at Mission San Gabriel. He reported that the natives called themselves Tobikhar, meaning "settlers", and spoke almost exclusively Spanish.[14] In 1885, Hoffman also referred to the natives as Tobikhar.[17] The word Tongva was recorded by Merriam in 1903 from a single informant. Merriam could not pronounce the village name Toviscangna He ( abbreviated or spelled it Tong-vā; by his orthography, it would be pronounced /ˈtɒŋveɪ/, TONG-vay.[18][19] The name Tongva has become increasingly preferred as a self-designation since the 1990s,[20] although either "Gabrieleño" or "Gabrielino" is part of every official name. [21][22][23][24] The Gabrieleno/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel . [25]

History[edit] Pre-history[edit] Further information: Takic languages, Uto-Aztecan, Indigenous peoples of California, Population of Native California, and Archaic Southwest The territory which in historical times was occupied by the kizh (pronounced Keech) People of the willow houses had been inhabited for more than 10,000 years. A prehistoric milling area estimated to be 8,000 years old was discovered in 2006 at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains near Azusa, California. The find yielded arrowheads, hearths and stone slabs used to grind seeds as well as tools and implements, but no human or animal bones.[26] The Chowigna site in Palos Verdes, California, excavated in the 1930s, dates back 7,100 years or more.[27] In 2007 and early 2008, over 174 ancient American Indian remains were unearthed by archaeologists at a development site of Brightwater Hearthside Homes in the Bolsa Chica Mesa area in Huntington Beach, California. This land was once shared by the Tongva and Acjachemem tribes. The site was in legal limbo for years before Hearthside was given permission to start construction of over 300 homes. The Tongva and Acjachemem Indians are in dispute over the remains and how to handle them.[28] As speakers of a language of the Uto-Aztecan family, the remote ancestors of the Tongva probably coalesced as a people in the Sonoran Desert, between perhaps 3,000 and 5,000 years ago.[29] This was a center of that language family. The diversity within the Takic group is "moderately deep"; rough estimates by comparative linguists place the breakup of common Takic into the Luiseño-Juaneño on one hand, and the Tongva-Serrano on the other, at about 2,000 years ago (comparable to the proliferation of the Romance languages of Europe).[30] The division of the Tongva-Serrano group into the separate Tongva and Serrano peoples is more recent, and may have been influenced by Spanish missionary activity. Further information: Mission Indians and Serrano people Aliso Creek (Orange County) which traditionally marked the boundary between the Tongva and the Juaneño. The first Europeans arrived in the Los Angeles area in 1542, when Portuguese explorer Juan Cabrillo reached San Pedro Bay, near present-day San Pedro. Cabrillo stated that his ship was greeted by indigenous people in canoes.[citation needed] The Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was established by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in 1771. The Tongva/Gabrielino population numbered about 5,000 at this time.[31] Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834.[citation needed] The earliest ethnological surveys of the Christianized population of the San Gabriel area, who were then known by the Spanish as Gabrielino, were conducted in the mid-19th century. By this time, the pre-Christian religious beliefs and mythology were already fading. The Tongva language was on the brink of extinction by 1900, so only fragmentary records of the indigenous language and culture of the Tongva have been preserved. Along with the Chumash – their neighbors to the north and west – and other tribes along the Pacific coast, the Tongva built seaworthy canoes[citation needed] which they called ti'at. To build them, they used planks that were sewn together, edge to edge, and then caulked and coated with either pine pitch, or, more commonly, the tar that was available either from the La Brea Tar Pits, or as asphaltum that had washed up on shore from offshore oil seeps.[citation needed] The titi'at could hold as many as 12 people, their gear and the trade goods which they carried to trade with other people along the coast or on the Channel Islands.[citation needed] The library of Loyola Marymount University, located in Los Angeles (Westchester), has an extensive collection of archival materials related to the Tongva and their history.

Contemporary tribe[edit] In the 21st century, an estimated 1,700 people self-identify as members of the Tongva or Gabrielino tribe.[5] In 1994, the state of California recognized the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe (Spanish: Tribu de Gabrieleño-Tongva)[32] and the Fernandino-Tongva Tribe (Spanish: Tribu de Fernandeño-Tongva),[33] but neither has gained federal recognition. The Gabrielino/Tongva people do not accept one organization or government as representing them. They have had strong internal disagreements about governance and their future, largely related to plans supported by some members to open a gaming casino on land that would be considered part of the Gabrielino/Tongva's homeland. Gaming casinos have generated great revenues for many Native American tribes, but not all Tongva people believe the benefits outweigh negative aspects. The Gabrielino/Tongva Tribe (sometimes called the "slash" group) and Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe (sometimes called the "hyphen" group) are the two primary factions advocating a casino for the Tongva nation, with sharing of revenues by all the people. The Gabrielino/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel is the primary faction that does not support gaming. None of these organizations is recognized as a tribe by the federal government. History of organizations and casino dispute[edit] In 1990, the Gabrielino/Tongva of San Gabriel filed for federal recognition. Other Gabrielino groups have done the same. The Gabrielino/Tongva of California Tribal Council and the Coastal Gabrielino-Diegueno Band of Mission Indians filed federal petitions in 1997. These applications for federal recognition remain pending. The San Gabriel group gained acknowledgement of its nonprofit status by the state of California in 1994. In 2001, the San Gabriel council divided over concessions given to the developers of Playa Vista and a proposal to build an Indian casino in Compton, California. A Santa Monica faction formed that advocated gaming for the tribe, which the San Gabriel faction opposed. The San Gabriel council and Santa Monica faction sued each other over allegations that the San Gabriel faction expelled some members in order to increase gaming shares for other members. There were allegations that the Santa Monica faction stole tribal records in order to support its case for federal recognition.[34] In September 2006, the Santa Monica faction divided into the "slash" and "hyphen" groups: the Gabrielino/Tongva Tribe and Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe. Tribal secretary Sam Dunlap and tribal attorney Jonathan Stein confronted each other over various alleged fiscal improprieties and derogatory comments made to each other.[35] Since that time, the slash group has hired former state senator Richard Polanco as its chief executive officer. The hyphen group has allied with Stein and issued warrants for the arrest of Polanco and members of the slash group.[36] Stein's group (hyphen), the Gabrielino-Tongva Tribem is based in Santa Monica. It has proposed a casino to be built in Garden Grove, California, approximately two miles south of Disneyland.[37] In September 2007, the city council of Garden Grove unanimously rejected the casino proposal, instead choosing to build a water park on the land.[38] Land use issues[edit] Controversies have arisen in contemporary California related to land-use issues and Native American rights, including those of the Tongva. Since the late twentieth century, both the state and the United States governments have improved respect of indigenous rights and tribal sovereignty. The Tongva have challenged local development plans in the courts in order to protect and preserve some of their sacred grounds. Given the long indigenous history in the area, not all archeological sites have been identified. Sometimes land developers have inadvertently disturbed Tongva burial grounds.[39] The tribe denounced archeologists breaking bones of ancestral remains found during an excavation of a site at Playa Vista.[40] An important resolution was finally honored at the Playa Vista project site against the 'Westchester Bluffs' near the Ballona Wetlands estuary and by the historic natural course of Ballona Creek.[citation needed] In the 1990s, the Gabrielino/Tongva Springs Foundation revived use of the Kuruvungna Springs for sacred ceremonies. The natural springs are located on the site of a former Tongva village, now developed as the campus of University High School in West Los Angeles. The Tongva consider the springs, which flow at 22,000 gallons per day, to be one of their last remaining sacred sites and they regularly make them the centerpiece of ceremonial events.[citation needed] The Tongva have another sacred area known as Puvungna. They have believed it is the birthplace of the Tongva prophet Chingishnish, and many believe it to be the place of creation. The site contains an active spring and the area was formerly inhabited by a Tongva village. It has been developed as part of the grounds of California State University, Long Beach. A portion of Puvungna, a Tongva burial ground on the western edge of the campus, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Since 1992, developers have repeatedly tried to build a strip mall in the area. The Tongva petitioned the courts for relief, which blocked the development.[citation needed] Replica of a Tongva ki

Traditional narratives[edit] Further information: Traditional narratives (Native California) Tongva/Gabrieleño/Fernandeño oral literature is relatively little known, due to their early Christianization in the 1770s by Spanish missions in California. The available evidence suggests strong cultural links with the group's linguistic kin and neighbors to the south and east, the Luiseño and the Cahuilla.[41] According to Kroeber (1925), the pre-Christian Tongva had a "mythic-ritual-social six-god pantheon". The principal deity was Chinigchinix, also known as Quaoar. Another important figure is Weywot, the god of the sky, who was created by Quaoar.[42] Weywot ruled over the Tongva, but he was very cruel, and he was finally killed by his own sons. When the Tongva assembled to decide what to do next, they had a vision of a ghostly being who called himself Quaoar, who said he had come to restore order and to give laws to the people. After he had given instructions as to which groups would have political and spiritual leadership, he began to dance and slowly ascended into heaven.[43] Astronomers have used the name of Quaoar to name a large object in the Kuiper belt, 50000 Quaoar (2002), and named its satellite as Weywot (2009).[42]

Toponymy[edit] From the Spanish colonial period, Tongva place names have been absorbed into general use in California. Examples include: Pacoima, Tujunga, Topanga, Rancho Cucamonga, Azusa, and Cahuenga Pass. In other cases, toponyms or places have been recently named to honor the indigenous peoples. The Gabrielino Trail is a 28-mile path through the Angeles National Forest, created and named in 1970.[44] A 2,656-foot summit in the Verdugo Mountains, in Glendale, was named Tongva Peak in 2002, following a proposal by one Richard Toyon.[45] Tongva Park[46] is a 6.2-acre park in Santa Monica, California. The park is located just south of Colorado Avenue, between Ocean Avenue and Main Street. The park includes an amphitheater, playground, garden, fountains, picnic areas, and restrooms. The park was dedicated on October 13, 2013.

Notable Tongva[edit] Chief Red Blood Anthony Morales, chairman and tribal leader of the Gabrieleño/Tongva of the San Gabrieleño Band of Mission Indians. In 2008, he received the prestigious “Heritage Award” from the Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California.[citation needed] L. Frank, artist, author, indigenous language activist Adele Perez Dominguez, (b.1917), is one of the last full-blooded Gabrieleño-Tongva tribal elders; she is the great-granddaughter of the lineal chief Captain Romero and great-aunt of chief Red Blood Anthony Morales.[citation needed] Julia Louise Bogany, a Gabrieleño/Tongva Elder, and a member of the San Gabrieleño Band of Mission Indians in the San Gabriel Valley.[citation needed] Irene Verdugo, also known as Irene Valenzuela (b.1919), one of the oldest living descendants of the San Gabriel band of Mission Indians.[citation needed] Reginald "Reggie" Rodriguez, (b. 15 October 1948–d. 17 February 1969) a Vietnam War hero.[47] Reggie Rodriguez Park in Montebello, CA is named in his honor[48] and is an 11-acres (4.5 ha) area on which is located the Reggie Rodriguez Community Center, noted for its unique architecture and providing a central location for activities for the at-risk youth population in the city.[49] Reginald was a direct descendant of the San Gabriel Mission Indians (Tongva) with family buried on mission grounds.

See also[edit] Chinigchinix Mission Indians Tongva populated places

References[edit] Explanatory notes ^ Alternate spellings include Gabrielino and Fernardino. ^ Spanish names did not always differentiate between communities or ethnic groups. For example, the Spanish referred to both the Tongva in the San Fernando Valley and the nearby Tataviam people, who spoke a different language, as "Fernandeño." Citations ^ a b c d e f Lepowsky, M. (2004). "Indian revolts and cargo cults: Ritual violence and revitalization in California and New Guinea". In Harkin, M. E. Reassessing revitalization movements: Perspectives from North America and the Pacific Island. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 1–61. ISBN 9780803224063. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ a b Sutton, M. Q. (2009). "People and language: Defining the Takic expansion into southern California" (PDF). Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly. 41 (1–2): 31–93. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ Kerr, S. L.; Georganna, M. H. (2002). "Population replacement on the Southern Channel Islands: New evidence from San Nicolas Island" (PDF). Proceedings of the Fifth California Islands Symposium. Santa Barbara, CA: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: 546–554. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ Castillo, E. D. (1994). "Gender status decline, resistance, and accommodation among female neophytes in the missions of California: A San Gabriel case study". American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 18 (1): 67–93. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ a b c d Oropeza, J.; Scott, J.; Yee, L.; Davis, M.; Karnette, B. (January 31, 2008). "Senate Bill No. 1134". California Legislative Information. Legislative Counsel of California. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ Davis, Mary (1994). Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 205.  ^ "Not Tongva". Kizh Nation. Gabrieliño Tribal Council, San Gabriel Band of Mission Indians. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ "Gabrielino-Tongva Tribe - A California Indian Tribe historically known as San Gabriel Band of Mission Indians". Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "Gabrieliño/Tongva Nation Tribal Council". Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "Gabrieleño Indians". Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "Gabrieleño/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel". Archived from the original on 23 September 2001. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "Battle over a casino plan divides Gabrielino Indians" Los Angeles Times (November 26, 2006) ^ Hale, Horatio. 1846, Ethnology and Philology. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 under the command of Charles Wilkes, USN. Open Library ^ a b Yarrow, H.C. 1875. "Report on the operations of a special party for making ethnological researches in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, Cal., with an historical account of the region explored." Appendix H 13. p. 556 in Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers to the Secretary of War for the Year 1876. ^ p. 556 ^ Buschmann, Johann Karl Eduard. 1855. Die Sprachen Kizh und Netela von Neu-Californien. Berlin: Kŏnigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Abhandlungen: 501-531. ^ Hoffman, W.J. 1885. "Notes on Hugo Ried's Account of the Indians of Los Angeles, California," in Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Vol 17, p 26. ^ McCawley, William. 1996. The First Angelinos. Malki Museum Press. page 96 ^ ^ "The name Tongva is what we've chosen to use in the present," which means "people of the Earth," Alvitre said in her office one day, early last fall semester. "There was no one tribe called 'Tongva.'" date=November 2012 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ "Prehistoric milling site found in California". USA Today. March 3, 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2016.  ^ Frazier, Sara. "Protohistoric burial practices of the Gabrieleno as evidenced by the comparison of funerary objects from three Southern California sites" (PDF). Solstice Archaeological Consulting: 169–176. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ "Will Huntington Beach homes sit on ancient burial ground?", Orange County Register ^ Jane H. Hill, "Proto-Uto-Aztecan", American Anthropologist, 2001. ^ Victor Golla, California Indian Languages, University of California Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-520-26667-4, p. 178f. ^ estimate by Kroeber (1925), p.883 ^ Oropeza. "SB 1134 Senate Bill - INTRODUCED". Retrieved 2017-01-25.  ^ "Native Americans of San Fernando Rey | California Missions Resource Center". Retrieved 2017-01-25.  ^ Christine Pelisek, "Casino Nation - Indians and tribal war over a club in Compton", LA Weekly, 8 April 2004. ^ "Capitol Weekly". Archived from the original on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "Capitol Weekly". Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ News: "Lawyer drives casino plan", Orange County Register ^ News: "Garden Grove City Council votes down casino proposal", Orange County Register ^ Schwarzberg, Robert; "Displacement of the Gabrielino-Tongva Indians" Archived 2011-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Williams, Jennifer L., "Grave Disturbances: Been Digging Lately" ^ Kroeber (1925) pp. 623-626 has fragments of myths, with comparisons. McCawley (1996) includes previously unpublished narratives collected in 1914-1933 by John Peabody Harrington, pp. 174-178. Heizer (1968) notes that Hugo Reid's letter of 1852 contains what he describes as a kind of Orpheus legend.[clarification needed] ^ a b Lakdawalla, Emily. "Two new names in the solar system: Herse and Weywot", The Planetary Society. 12 Nov 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2012. ^ Williams (2003), pp. 30-33. ^ "several existing trails were renamed to make a 'new' 28.5 mile trail in 1970" ( ^ Carol Chambers, "One Man's Crusade to Take a Peak Into History", Los Angeles Times, 13 August 2001. In September of 2002, Mr. Toyon was successful in lobbying congress in Washington, D.C., and in Sacramento, to persuade the U.S. Geological Survey to officially name a prominent peak in the Verdugo Mountains, Tongva Peak, in honor of the first people of the Los Angeles basin. Later that year, the peak was dedicated and the plaque that names the mountain sits imbedded in a boulder on the summit of Tongva Peak in perpetuity. TERA (The Eagle Rock Association)[1], January 2006 ^ "". Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Davis, Ken. "Reginald Rodriguez, LCPL, Marine Corps, Montebello CA, 17Feb69 32W052 - The Virtual Wall®". Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Montebello, California#cite note-42 ^ Bibliography Bean, Lowell John and Charles R. Smith. 1978. "Gabrielino" in Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8 (California), pp. 538–549. William C. Sturtevant, and Robert F. Heizer, eds. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004578-9/0160045754. Heizer, Robert F., ed. 1968. The Indians of Los Angeles County: Hugo Reid's Letters of 1852. Southwest Museum Papers Number 21. Highland Park, Los Angeles. Reid, Hugo. (1852), The Indians of Los Angeles County, full text available online at Library of Congress Johnson, J. R. Ethnohistory of West S.F. Valley, CA State Parks, 2006 Johnston, Bernice Eastman. 1962. California's Gabrielino Indians. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles. Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C. McCawley, William. 1996. The First Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles. Malki Museum Press, Banning, California. ISBN 0-9651016-1-4 Williams, Jack S., The Tongva of California, Library of Native Americans of California, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 978-0-8239-6429-1.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tongva. Tribal council websites Gabrieliño/Tongva Nation Tribal Council Gabrieleño/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel Other Tongva (Gabrieliños) archives at UCLA. Antelope Valley Indian Museum; online collections database; use 'search' to see many Tongva artifacts. Tongva Exhibit, Heritage Park, Santa Fe Springs, California Gabrieleño-Tongva Mission Indians, KCET v t e Indigenous peoples of California Achomawi Atsugewi Bay Miwok (Saklan) Cahuilla Chemehuevi Chimariko Chumash Coast Miwok Cupeño Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki) Esselen Halchidhoma Hupa (Chilula, Whilkut) Juaneño (Acjachemen) Karuk Cahto Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Kucadikadi Kumeyaay (Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai) Lake Miwok Luiseño Maidu Mattole (Bear River) Modoc (Klamath) Mohave Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute) Nomlaki Northern Paiute Ohlone (Costanoan) Patwin Pomo Quechan (Yuma) Salinan Serrano Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu) Tataviam (Fernandeño) Timbisha Tolowa Tongva (Gabrieliño) Tübatulabal Plains and Sierra Miwok Wappo Washoe Wintu Wiyot Yana Yokut Yuki Yurok v t e History of California Before 1900 Native Californian Precontact First explorations Later explorations Spanish colonization Mexican rule California Trail Mexican–American War Californio California Republic United States rule Gold Rush Civil War Since 1900 Labor Engineering Water wars Industrial growth Postwar culture Development Legal revolution Tech boom Present day By topic Highways Maritime Missions Ranchos Slavery Railroads Etymology By region San Fernando Valley By county Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba By city Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim Santa Ana Riverside Stockton Chula Vista Fremont Irvine San Bernardino Modesto Oxnard Fontana Moreno Valley Glendale Huntington Beach Santa Clarita Garden Grove Santa Rosa Oceanside Rancho Cucamonga Ontario Lancaster Elk Grove Palmdale Corona Salinas Pomona Torrance Hayward Escondido Sunnyvale Pasadena Fullerton Orange Thousand Oaks Visalia Simi Valley Concord Roseville Santa Clara Vallejo Victorville El Monte Berkeley Downey Costa Mesa Inglewood Ventura Fairfield Santa Maria Redding Santa Monica Santa Barbara Chico Merced Napa Redwood City Yuba City Madera Santa Cruz San Rafael Woodland Hanford San Luis Obispo El Centro Lompoc Martinez Hollister Eureka Susanville Ukiah Oroville Red Bluff Auburn Marysville Piedmont Placerville Yreka Crescent City Willows Colusa Sonora Lakeport Jackson Nevada City Alturas Retrieved from "" Categories: TongvaCalifornia Mission IndiansNative American tribes in CaliforniaHistory of Los AngelesHistory of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaHistory of Orange County, CaliforniaNon-recognized Native American tribesSan Gabriel, CaliforniaHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksWikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2011Pages using deprecated image syntaxArticles using infobox ethnic group with image parametersAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2011Articles with unsourced statements from December 2013Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012Articles containing Spanish-language textArticles with unsourced statements from October 2011Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages العربيةBoarischBrezhonegCatalàČeštinaDeutschEspañolFrançaisHrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaItalianoNederlandsPortuguêsРусскийSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Edit links This page was last edited on 18 December 2017, at 07:03. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.748","walltime":"0.900","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6388,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":149870,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":16062,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":7,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":37961,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 789.110 1 -total"," 28.71% 226.536 2 Template:Reflist"," 17.10% 134.931 2 Template:Lang-es"," 14.73% 116.267 12 Template:Citation_needed"," 12.92% 101.953 12 Template:Fix"," 7.64% 60.310 13 Template:Delink"," 7.45% 58.814 13 Template:Cite_web"," 7.04% 55.577 1 Template:Infobox_ethnic_group"," 6.94% 54.753 1 Template:California_history"," 6.55% 51.677 1 Template:California_topic"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.397","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":15880936,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1320","timestamp":"20180314134256","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":82,"wgHostname":"mw1247"});});

Tongva_people - Photos and All Basic Informations

Tongva_people More Links

Tongva (disambiguation)Tongva LanguageC. Hart MerriamEndonymUnited StatesCaliforniaCaliforniaEnglish LanguageSpanish LanguageTongva LanguageHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:Pronunciation Respelling KeyIndigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaLos Angeles BasinChannel Islands Of CaliforniaSpanish Missions In CaliforniaMission San Gabriel ArcángelMission San Fernando Rey De EspañaChumash PeopleSouthern CaliforniaUto-Aztecan LanguagesNevadaHokan LanguagesHunter-gathererTongva LanguageTakic LanguagesPopulation TransferOld WorldPopulation Of Native CaliforniaToypurinaMexican War Of IndependenceRanchos Of CaliforniaMexican CessionIndian ReservationEndonymC. Hart MerriamNative American Gambling EnterprisesNative American Recognition In The United StatesHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:Pronunciation Respelling KeyTakic LanguagesUto-AztecanIndigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaPopulation Of Native CaliforniaArchaic SouthwestSan Gabriel MountainsAzusa, CaliforniaChowigna, CaliforniaPalos Verdes, CaliforniaHuntington Beach, CaliforniaAcjachememUto-AztecanProto-Uto-AztecanSonoran DesertTakic LanguagesLuiseño-JuaneñoSerrano LanguageRomance LanguagesSerrano PeopleSpanish Missions In CaliforniaMission IndiansSerrano PeopleEnlargeAliso Creek (Orange County)JuaneñoJuan Rodríguez CabrilloSan Pedro Bay (California)San Pedro, CaliforniaWikipedia:Citation NeededMission San Gabriel ArcángelFranciscanMissionariesWikipedia:Citation NeededChumash PeopleCanoeWikipedia:Citation NeededPitch (resin)La Brea Tar PitsAsphaltWikipedia:Citation NeededChannel Islands Of CaliforniaWikipedia:Citation NeededLoyola Marymount UniversitySpanish LanguageSpanish LanguageNative American Gambling EnterprisesPlaya Vista, Los Angeles, CaliforniaCompton, CaliforniaRichard PolancoGarden Grove, CaliforniaDisneylandCity CouncilArcheologistsPlaya Vista, Los Angeles, CaliforniaBallona WetlandsEstuaryBallona CreekWikipedia:Citation NeededSerra Springs (California)University High School (Los Angeles, California)West Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CaliforniaWikipedia:Citation NeededPuvungaChinigchinixCalifornia State University, Long BeachNational Register Of Historic PlacesStrip MallWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeTraditional Narratives (Native California)Spanish Missions In CaliforniaLuiseño PeopleCahuillaChinigchinixQuaoar (mythology)Lawgiver (disambiguation)Kuiper Belt50000 QuaoarWeywot (moon)Pacoima, Los Angeles, CaliforniaTujunga, Los Angeles, CaliforniaTopanga, CaliforniaRancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaAzusa, CaliforniaCahuenga PassGabrielino TrailAngeles National ForestVerdugo MountainsGlendale, CaliforniaTongva ParkSanta Monica, CaliforniaHeritage AwardWikipedia:Citation NeededL. FrankWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededWikipedia:Citation NeededChinigchinixMission IndiansCategory:Tongva Populated PlacesSan Fernando ValleyTataviam PeopleTataviam LanguageMichael E. HarkinInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780803224063Ed CastilloJenny OropezaJack Scott (California Politician)Leland YeeMike Davis (politician)Betty KarnetteLos Angeles TimesUSA TodayInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-26667-4LA WeeklyWayback MachineJohn Peabody HarringtonOrpheusWikipedia:Please ClarifyMontebello, CaliforniaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-16-004578-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9651016-1-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8239-6429-1Santa Fe Springs, CaliforniaTemplate:Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaTemplate Talk:Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaCaliforniaIndigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaCaliforniaAchomawiAtsugewiBay MiwokSaklan TribeCahuillaChemehueviChimariko PeopleChumash PeopleCoast MiwokCupeñoEel River Athapaskan PeoplesEsselenHalchidhomaHupaChilulaWhilkutJuaneñoKarukCahtoKawaiisuKitanemukKucadikadiKumeyaayLake MiwokLuiseñoMaiduMattoleModoc PeopleMohave PeopleMono PeopleNomlakiPaiute PeopleOhlonePatwin PeoplePomoQuechanSalinanSerrano PeopleShasta PeopleTataviamTimbishaTolowaTübatulabalPlains And Sierra MiwokWappoWashoe PeopleWintuWiyotYana PeopleYokutYuki PeopleYurokTemplate:California HistoryTemplate Talk:California HistoryHistory Of CaliforniaHistory Of California Before 1900Indigenous Peoples Of CaliforniaHistory Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900History Of California Before 1900California TrailMexican–American WarCalifornioCalifornia RepublicHistory Of California Before 1900California Gold RushCalifornia In The American Civil WarHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentCalifornia Water WarsHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentHistory Of California 1900 To PresentCategory:History Of CaliforniaHistory Of California's State Highway SystemMaritime History Of CaliforniaSpanish Missions In CaliforniaRanchos Of CaliforniaHistory Of Slavery In CaliforniaHistory Of Rail Transportation In CaliforniaEtymology Of CaliforniaHistory Of The San Fernando ValleyList Of Counties In CaliforniaHistory Of Alameda County, CaliforniaHistory Of Alpine County, CaliforniaHistory Of Amador County, CaliforniaHistory Of Calaveras County, CaliforniaHistory Of Colusa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Contra Costa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Del Norte County, CaliforniaHistory Of El Dorado County, CaliforniaHistory Of Fresno County, CaliforniaHistory Of Glenn County, CaliforniaHistory Of Humboldt County, CaliforniaHistory Of Imperial County, CaliforniaHistory Of Inyo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Kern County, CaliforniaHistory Of Kings County, CaliforniaHistory Of Lake County, CaliforniaHistory Of Lassen County, CaliforniaHistory Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaHistory Of Madera County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mariposa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mendocino County, CaliforniaHistory Of Merced County, CaliforniaHistory Of Modoc County, CaliforniaHistory Of Mono County, CaliforniaHistory Of Monterey County, CaliforniaHistory Of Napa County, CaliforniaHistory Of Nevada County, CaliforniaHistory Of Orange County, CaliforniaHistory Of Placer County, CaliforniaHistory Of Plumas County, CaliforniaHistory Of Riverside County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sacramento County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Benito County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Bernardino County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Diego County, CaliforniaHistory Of San FranciscoHistory Of San Joaquin County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Luis Obispo County, CaliforniaHistory Of San Mateo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Barbara County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clara County, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Cruz County, CaliforniaHistory Of Shasta County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sierra County, CaliforniaHistory Of Siskiyou County, CaliforniaHistory Of Solano County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sonoma County, CaliforniaHistory Of Sutter County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tehama County, CaliforniaHistory Of Trinity County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tulare County, CaliforniaHistory Of Tuolumne County, CaliforniaHistory Of Ventura County, CaliforniaHistory Of Yolo County, CaliforniaHistory Of Yuba County, CaliforniaList Of Cities And Towns In CaliforniaHistory Of Los AngelesHistory Of San DiegoHistory Of San Jose, CaliforniaHistory Of San FranciscoHistory Of Fresno, CaliforniaHistory Of Sacramento, CaliforniaHistory Of Long Beach, CaliforniaHistory Of Oakland, CaliforniaHistory Of Bakersfield, CaliforniaHistory Of Anaheim, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Ana, CaliforniaHistory Of Riverside, CaliforniaHistory Of Stockton, CaliforniaHistory Of Chula Vista, CaliforniaHistory Of Fremont, CaliforniaHistory Of Irvine, CaliforniaHistory Of San Bernardino, CaliforniaHistory Of Modesto, CaliforniaHistory Of Oxnard, CaliforniaHistory Of Fontana, CaliforniaHistory Of Moreno Valley, CaliforniaHistory Of Glendale, CaliforniaHistory Of Huntington Beach, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clarita, CaliforniaHistory Of Garden Grove, CaliforniaHistory Of Oceanside, CaliforniaHistory Of Rancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaHistory Of Ontario, CaliforniaHistory Of Lancaster, CaliforniaHistory Of Elk Grove, CaliforniaHistory Of Palmdale, CaliforniaHistory Of Corona, CaliforniaHistory Of Salinas, CaliforniaHistory Of Pomona, CaliforniaHistory Of Torrance, CaliforniaHistory Of Hayward, CaliforniaHistory Of Escondido, CaliforniaHistory Of Sunnyvale, CaliforniaHistory Of Pasadena, CaliforniaHistory Of Fullerton, CaliforniaHistory Of Orange, CaliforniaHistory Of Thousand Oaks, CaliforniaHistory Of Visalia, CaliforniaHistory Of Simi Valley, CaliforniaHistory Of Concord, CaliforniaHistory Of Roseville, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Clara, CaliforniaHistory Of Vallejo, CaliforniaHistory Of Victorville, CaliforniaHistory Of El Monte, CaliforniaHistory Of Berkeley, CaliforniaHistory Of Downey, CaliforniaHistory Of Costa Mesa, CaliforniaHistory Of Inglewood, CaliforniaHistory Of Ventura, CaliforniaHistory Of Fairfield, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Maria, CaliforniaHistory Of Redding, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Monica, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Barbara, CaliforniaHistory Of Chico, CaliforniaHistory Of Merced, CaliforniaHistory Of Napa, CaliforniaHistory Of Yuba City, CaliforniaHistory Of Madera, CaliforniaHistory Of Santa Cruz, CaliforniaHistory Of San Rafael, CaliforniaHistory Of Woodland, CaliforniaHistory Of Hanford, CaliforniaHistory Of San Luis Obispo, CaliforniaHistory Of El Centro, CaliforniaHistory Of Lompoc, CaliforniaHistory Of Martinez, CaliforniaHistory Of Hollister, CaliforniaHistory Of Eureka, CaliforniaHistory Of Susanville, CaliforniaHistory Of Ukiah, CaliforniaHistory Of Oroville, CaliforniaHistory Of Red Bluff, CaliforniaHistory Of Auburn, CaliforniaHistory Of Marysville, CaliforniaHistory Of Piedmont, CaliforniaHistory Of Placerville, CaliforniaHistory Of Yreka, CaliforniaHistory Of Crescent City, CaliforniaHistory Of Willows, CaliforniaHistory Of Colusa, CaliforniaHistory Of Sonora, CaliforniaHistory Of Lakeport, CaliforniaHistory Of Jackson, CaliforniaHistory Of Nevada City, CaliforniaHistory Of Alturas, CaliforniaHelp:CategoryCategory:TongvaCategory:California Mission IndiansCategory:Native American Tribes In CaliforniaCategory:History Of Los AngelesCategory:History Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:History Of Orange County, CaliforniaCategory:Non-recognized Native American TribesCategory:San Gabriel, CaliforniaCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From December 2011Category:Pages Using Deprecated Image SyntaxCategory:Articles Using Infobox Ethnic Group With Image ParametersCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2011Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2013Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From August 2012Category:Articles Containing Spanish-language TextCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2011Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2014Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link