Contents 1 Language revitalization 2 Phonology 2.1 Consonants 2.2 Vowels 3 Morphology 4 Vocabulary 4.1 The Lord's Prayer[7] 4.2 Collected by C. Hart Merriam (1903)[8] 4.3 Collected by Alexander Taylor (1860)[8] 4.4 Collected by Dr. Oscar Loew (1875)[8] 4.5 Collected by Charles Wilkes, USN (1838-1842)[8] 4.6 Other sources 4.7 Toponymy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Language revitalization[edit] As of 2012, members of the contemporary Tongva (Gabrieleño) tribal council are attempting to revive the language, by making use of written vocabularies, by comparison to better attested members of the Takic group to which Tongva belonged,[3] and by offering classes.[4][5] The Gabrielino-Tongva Language Committee has created Tongva grammar lessons and songs, and a Tongva Facebook page "introduces an audio of a new word, phrase or song daily."[6]

Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] The following is a list of the consonants and vowels of the Tongva language as used by the Tongva Language Committee, based on linguist Pamela Munro's interpretation of the fieldnotes of J. P. Harrington.[7] In parentheses is the spelling of the specific sound. Note that there are multiple orthographies for the Tongva language. Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labio -velar Glottal Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/ Stop voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /ɡ/ voiceless p /p/ t /t/ ch /tʃ/ k /k/ kw /kʷ/ ʼ /ʔ/ Fricative f /f/ s /s/ sh /ʃ/ x /x/ h /h/ Approximant v /v/ l /l/ y /j/ w /w/ Tap r /ɾ/ Consonants /b d f ɡ/ are used in loanwords.[7] Vowels[edit] Front Back short long short long Close i /i/ ii /iː/ u /u/ uu /uː/ Mid e /e/ ee /eː/ o /o/ oo /oː/ Open a /a/ aa /aː/

Morphology[edit] Tongva is an agglutinative language, where words use suffixes and multiple morphemes for a variety of purposes.

Vocabulary[edit] The Lord's Prayer[7][edit] The Lord's Prayer is called 'Eyoonak in Tongva. The following text was derived from old Mission records. 'Eyoonak 'Eyoonak, 'eyooken tokuupanga'e xaa; hoyuuykoy motwaanyan; moxariin mokiimen tokuupra; maay mo'wiishme meyii 'ooxor 'eyaa tokuupar. Hamaare, 'eyoone' maxaare' 'wee taamet, koy 'oovonre' 'eyoomamaayntar momoohaysh, miyii 'eyaare 'oovonax 'eyoohiino 'eyooyha'; koy xaare' maayn 'iitam momoohaysh, koy xaa mohuu'esh. 'Wee menee' xaa'e. Collected by C. Hart Merriam (1903)[8][edit] (Merriam refers to them as the Tongvā) Numbers Po-koo Wěh-hā Pah-hā Wah-chah Mah-har Pah-vah-hā Wah-chah-kav-e-ah Wa-ha's-wah-chah Mah-ha'hr-kav-e-ah Wa-hās-mah-hah'r Wa-hā's-mah-hah'r-koi-po-koo Wa-hā's-mah-hah'r-koi-wěh-hā grizzly bear hoó-nahr hoon-nah (subject) hoon-rah (object) black bear pí-yah-hó-naht Collected by Alexander Taylor (1860)[8][edit] Numbers po-koo wa-hay pa-hey wat-sa mahar pawahe wat-sa-kabiya wa-hish-watchsa mahar-cabearka wa-hish-mar Taylor claims "they do not count farther than ten" Collected by Dr. Oscar Loew (1875)[8][edit] Numbers pu-gu' ve-he' pa'-hi va-tcha' maha'r pa-va'he vatcha'-kabya' vehesh-vatcha' mahar-kabya' vehes-mahar puku-hurura vehe-hurura bear unar Collected by Charles Wilkes, USN (1838-1842)[8][edit] Numbers pukū wehē pāhe watsā bear hundr Other sources[edit] desert fox: erow[9] Pacoima = from the root word Pako enter, meaning the entrance[citation needed] Tujunga = from the root word old woman tux'uu[citation needed] Tujunga means Mountains of Health according to long-time residents. Azusa = from the word -shuuk 'Ashuuksanga = his grandmother[citation needed] Toponymy[edit] The table below gives the names of various missions in the Tongva language.[10] English Tongva Los Angeles Yaa San Bernardino Wa'aach San Gabriel Shevaa San Pedro Chaaw Santa Ana Hotuuk Santa Monica Kecheek Santa Catalina Pemu

See also[edit] Indigenous peoples of North America portal

References[edit] ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tongva". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Byrd, Deborah (19 February 2013). "Quaoar, a rocky world orbiting beyond Neptune". EarthSky. Retrieved 31 August 2014.  ^ The Limu Project (active language revitalization) ^ Keepers of Indigenous Ways: Tongva Language History & classes ^ R. Plesset (2012-06-01). "San Pedro: Science Center Endangered/Tongva Village Site Revitalization". Indymedia Los Angeles. Retrieved 2012-08-26.  ^ Marquez, Letisia (2014-07-01). "Social media used to revive extinct language". Retrieved 2014-07-03.  ^ a b c Munro, Pamela; working with the Gabrielino/Tongva Language Committee (Forthcoming). "Lesson One: Pronouncing and Writing the Tongva Language". Hyaare Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a: Now We Are Speaking Our Language (An Introduction to the Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño Language).  Check date values in: |date= (help) ^ a b c d McCawley, William. The First Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles. Malki Museum Press, 1996 ^ Native Languages of the Americas[year needed] ^ Munro, Pamela, et al. Yaara' Shiraaw'ax 'Eyooshiraaw'a. Now You're Speaking Our Language: Gabrielino/Tongva/Fernandeño. 2008.

External links[edit] Gabrieliño (Tongva) Language Gabrielino language — overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages. The Limu Project — active in Native California languages revitalization. 2002 Tongva speech spoken at Cal Poly Pomona during the opening of a Tongva ethnobotanic garden; speech begins at 35:10. Keepers of Indigenous Ways: Tongva Language History & classes v t e Languages of California Indigenous Algic Wiyot Yurok Athabaskan Tolowa Hupa Mattole Cahto Wailaki Chumashan Obispeño Island Chumash Purisimeño Ineseño Barbareño Ventureño Ohlone Karkin Chochenyo Ramaytush Tamyen Awaswas Mutsun Rumsen Chalon Hokan Chimariko Karuk Achomawi Atsugewi Northeastern Pomo Eastern Pomo Southeastern Pomo Northern Pomo Central Pomo Southern Pomo Kashaya Washo Mojave Kumeyaay Yana Yahi Penutian Klamath-Mudoc Yokuts Wintu Bay Miwok Coast Miwok Lake Miwok Plains Miwok Central Sierra Miwok Northern Sierra Miwok Southern Sierra Miwok Valley Maidu Northeast Maidu Northwest Maidu Nisenan Shastan Konomihu New River Shasta Okwanuchu Shasta Uto Aztecan Cahuilla Cupeño Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Luiseño-Juaneño Mono Northern Paiute Panamint Serrano Tataviam Tongva Ute Wintuan Nomlaki Patwin Southern Patwin Wintu Yokutsan Buena Vista Yokuts, Chukchansi, Gashowu Yokuts, Kings River Yokuts, Palewyami, Tule-Kaweah Yokuts, Valley Yokuts Yukian Yuki, Wappo Language isolates and Unclassified Esselen, Chimariko, Karuk, Salinan, Takelma Plains Sign Talk Non-Indigenous Indo-European American English California English Chicano English Spanish Armenian Punjabi Russian Asian Chinese Korean Tagalog Vietnamese Francosign American Sign Language Italics indicate extinct languages v t e Uto-Aztecan languages Northern Numic Colorado River (Chemehuevi, Southern Paiute, Ute) Comanche Kawaiisu Mono Northern Paiute (including Bannock) Shoshoni (including Gosiute) Timbisha Takic Cahuilla Cupeño Kitanemuk Luiseño-Juaneño Serrano Tongva Other Hopi Tübatulabal Southern Tepiman Northern Tepehuan O'odham Pima Bajo Southern Tepehuan Tepecano Tarahumaran Downriver Guarijio Tarahumara Tubar Upriver Guarijio Opatan Eudeve Opata Cahita Yaqui Mayo Corachol Cora Huichol Aztecan Nahuatl Pipil Pochutec Italics indicate extinct languages Retrieved from "" Categories: TongvaIndigenous languages of CaliforniaExtinct languages of North AmericaLanguages extinct in the 20th centuryAgglutinative languagesTakic languagesHistory of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaHistory of Orange County, CaliforniaHistory of San Bernardino County, CaliforniaHistory of the San Fernando ValleyNative American language revitalizationHidden categories: CS1 errors: datesArticles needing the year an event occurred from December 2011Language articles with unreferenced extinction dateWikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2012All articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2011

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