Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 2.1 Entering politics 2.2 City Council 2.3 Campaign for mayor 2.4 Mayor of Los Angeles 2.5 Gubernatorial campaigns 3 Death 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Early life and education[edit] Bradley, the grandson of a slave, was born on December 29, 1917, to Lee Thomas and Crenner Bradley, poor sharecroppers who lived in a small log cabin outside Calvert, Texas. He had four siblings — Lawrence, Willa Mae, Ellis (who had cerebral palsy) and Howard. The family moved to Arizona to pick cotton and then in 1924 to the Temple-Alvarado area of Los Angeles, where Lee was a Santa Fe Railroad porter and Crenner was a maid.[2][3] Bradley attended Rosemont Elementary School, Lafayette Junior High School and Polytechnic High School, where he was the first black student to be elected president of the Boys League and the first to be inducted into the Ephebians national honor society. He was captain of the track team and all-city tackle for the high school football team. He went to UCLA in 1937 on an athletic scholarship and joined Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. Among the jobs he had while at college was as a photographer for comedian Jimmy Durante.[2][4][5]


Career[edit] Bradley left his studies to join the Los Angeles Police Department in 1940. He became one of the "just 400 blacks" among the department's 4,000 officers. He recalled "the downtown department store that refused him credit, although he was a police officer, and the restaurants that would not serve blacks."[6] He told a Times reporter: When I came on the department, there were literally two assignments for black officers. You either worked Newton Street Division, which has a predominantly black community, or you worked traffic downtown. You could not work with a white officer, and that continued until 1964.[6] Bradley and Ethel Arnold met at the New Hope Baptist Church and were married May 4, 1941. They had three daughters, Lorraine, Phyllis and a baby who died on the day she was born. He and his wife "needed a white intermediary to buy their first house in Leimert Park, then a virtually all-white section of the city's Crenshaw district."[2][6] Bradley was attending Southwestern University Law School while a police officer and began his practice as a lawyer when he retired from the police department.[2][7] Upon his leaving the office of mayor in 1993, he joined the law offices of Brobeck, Phleger & Harrison, specializing in international trade issues.[8] Entering politics[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) His entry into politics came when he decided to become the president of the United Club. The club was part of the California Democratic Council, a liberal, reformist group organized in the 1950s by young Democrats energized by Adlai E. Stevenson's presidential campaigns. It was predominantly white and had many Jewish members, thus marking the beginnings of the coalition, which along with Latinos, that would carry him to electoral victory so many times. His choice of a Democratic circle also put him at odds with another political force in the African American community, representatives of poor, all-black areas who were associated with the political organization of Jesse M. Unruh, then an up-and-coming state assemblyman. The early stage of Bradley's political career was marked by clashes with African American leaders like onetime California Lieutenant Governor and former U.S. Representative Mervyn Dymally, an Unruh ally. City Council[edit] Bradley applied for the 10th District seat in June 1961, when he was still a police lieutenant living at 3397 Welland Avenue; the post had been vacated by Charles Navarro when he was elected city controller.[9] The City Council, which had the power to fill a vacancy, instead appointed Joe E. Hollingsworth.[10] He ran against Hollingsworth in April 1963. There were only two candidates, Hollingsworth and Bradley, and also two elections — one for the unexpired term left by Controller Navarro, ending June 30, and one for a full four-year term starting July 1. Bradley won by 17,760 votes to 10,540 in the first election and by 17,552 votes to 10,400 in the second.[11] By then he had retired from the police force, and he was sworn in as a councilman at the age of 45 on April 15, 1963, "the first Negro ever elected to the council."[12] One of the first votes he made on a controversial subject was his opposition to a proposed study by City Attorney Roger Arnebergh and Police Chief William H. Parker of the Dictionary of American Slang,[13] ordered in an 11-4 vote by the council. Councilman Tom Shepard's motion said the book was "saturated not only with phrases of sexual filth, but wordage defamatory of minority ethnic groups and definitions insulting religions and races."[14] Bradley told Los Angeles Times reporter Richard Bergholz the next month that he "has been asked why he doesn't participate in public demonstrations. His answer: His power as a councilman can best be used in trying to bring groups together, and that's where his time and energy should be spent." He said he would work to establish a human relations commission in the city.[15] Campaign for mayor[edit] Tom Bradley speaking at AIDS Walk LA at the Paramount Studios lot in 1988. In 1969, Bradley first challenged incumbent Mayor Sam Yorty, a conservative Democrat (later Republican) though the election was nonpartisan. Armed with key endorsements (including the Los Angeles Times), Bradley held a substantial lead over Yorty in the primary, but was a few percentage points shy of winning the race outright. However, in the runoff, to the dismay of supporters such as Abigail Folger and Los Angeles area Congressman Alphonzo Bell, Yorty pulled an amazing come from behind victory to win reelection primarily because he played racial politics. Yorty questioned Bradley's credibility in fighting crime and painted a picture of Bradley, his fellow Democrat, as a threat to Los Angeles because he would supposedly open up the city to feared Black Nationalists. Bradley did not use his record as a police officer in the election. With the racial factor, even many liberal white voters became hesitant to support Bradley. It would be another four years, in 1973, before Bradley would unseat Yorty.[citation needed] Mayor of Los Angeles[edit] Powerful downtown business interests at first opposed him. But with passage of the 1974 redevelopment plan and the inclusion of business leaders on influential committees, corporate chiefs moved comfortably in behind him. A significant feature of this plan was the development and building of numerous skyscrapers in the Bunker Hill financial district.[citation needed] During Bradley's tenure as mayor, Los Angeles saw the end of Edward M. Davis's career as Los Angeles Police Department's controversial, outspoken police chief and, after Assistant Chief Robert F. Rock's brief interim term, the rise of Daryl Gates as their longer-lasting-and also controversial-successor in 1978, Bradley's signing of the city's first homosexual rights bill in 1979, the city's bicentennial and the discovery of symptoms of what would later be called AIDS in 1981, the hosting of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, Los Angeles surpassing Chicago as the second most populous city in the country, Bradley's signing of the city's and maybe U.S.'s first anti-AIDS-discrimination bill in 1985, increased homelessness, crack cocaine and related gangs during the later 1980s, and welcoming of Pope John Paul II in 1987. The Rodney King videotaped incident in 1991 and 1992 Los Angeles riots — in which some critics said Bradley might have "actually made the already tense situation that much worse"[16] — and the formation of the Christopher Commission also occurred on his watch. Bradley helped contribute to the financial success of the city by helping develop the satellite business hubs at Century City and Warner Center. Bradley was a driving force behind the construction of Los Angeles' light rail network. He also pushed for expansion of Los Angeles International Airport and development of the terminals which are in use today. The Tom Bradley International Terminal is named in his honor. Bust at Los Angeles International Airport Bradley served for twenty years as mayor of Los Angeles, surpassing Fletcher Bowron with the longest tenure in that office. Bradley was offered a cabinet-level position in the administration of President Jimmy Carter, which he turned down. In 1984, Democratic presidential candidate Walter Mondale considered Bradley as a finalist for the vice presidential nomination, which eventually went to U.S. Representative Geraldine Ferraro of Queens, New York.[17] Although Bradley was a political liberal, he believed that business prosperity was good for the entire city and would generate jobs, an outlook not unlike that of his successor, Riordan. For most of Bradley's long administration, the city appeared to agree with him. But in his fourth term, with traffic congestion, air pollution and the condition of Santa Monica Bay worsening, and with residential neighborhoods threatened by commercial development, the tide began to turn. In 1989, he was elected to a fifth term, but the ability of opponent Nate Holden to attract one-third of the vote,[18] despite being a neophyte to the Los Angeles City Council and a very late entrant to the mayoral race, signaled that Bradley's era was drawing to a close. Other factors in the waning of his political strength were his decision to reverse himself and support a controversial oil drilling project near the Pacific Palisades and his reluctance to condemn Louis Farrakhan, the Black Muslim minister who made speeches in Los Angeles and elsewhere that many considered anti-Semitic. Further, some key Bradley supporters lost their City Council reelection bids, among them veteran Westside Councilwoman Pat Russell. Bradley chose to leave office, rather than seek election to a sixth term in 1993. Gubernatorial campaigns[edit] Bradley ran for Governor of California twice, in 1982 and 1986, but lost both times to Republican George Deukmejian. He was the first African American to head a gubernatorial ticket in California.[citation needed] In 1982, the election was extremely close. Bradley led in the polls going into Election Day, and in the initial hours after the polls closed, some news organizations projected him as the winner.[19] Ultimately, Bradley lost the election by about 100,000 votes, about 1.2% of the 7.5 million votes cast.[20] These circumstances gave rise to the term the "Bradley effect" which refers to a tendency of voters to tell interviewers or pollsters that they are undecided or likely to vote for a black candidate, but then actually vote for his white opponent. In 1986, Bradley lost the governorship to Deukmejian by a margin of 61-37 percent.[21]


Death[edit] Bradley was stricken with a heart attack while driving his car in March 1996 and endured a triple bypass operation. Later, he suffered a stroke "that left him unable to speak clearly." He died on September 29, 1998, aged 80, and his body lay at the Los Angeles Convention Center for public viewing. He was buried in Inglewood Park Cemetery.[2][22][23] Bradley was a Prince Hall Freemason.[24][25]


See also[edit] Los Angeles portal African American portal History of the African-Americans in Los Angeles List of African Americans Mayors Membership discrimination in California social clubs, for his signing a bill banning the practice


References[edit] ^ NAACP Spingarn Medal Archived 2014-05-05 at WebCite ^ a b c d e Jane Fritsch, "Tom Bradley, Mayor in Era of Los Angeles Growth, Dies," New York Times, September 30, 1998 ^ Jean Merl and Bill Boyarsky, "Mayor Who Reshaped L.A. Dies," Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 5 ^ Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 6 ^ "May 1972 - Tom Bradley Elected L.A. Mayor; 1st Black Mayor of a Major U.S. City," KCET, undated ^ a b c Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 7 ^ Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 8 ^ Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 10 ^ "12 Apply for Navarro City Council seat," Los Angeles Times, June 6, 1961, page 21 Library card required ^ "New Councilman," Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1961, page 13 Library card required ^ "Complete Returns," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 1963, page 2 Library card required ^ "First Negro Elected to City Council Sworn In," Los Angeles Times, April 16, 1963, page A-2 Library card required ^ Library of Congress reference ^ "Council Asks Dictionary of Slang Study," Los Angeles Times, June 21, 1963, page A-1 Library card required ^ Richard Bergholz, "Tough Job Confronts Negro Councilman," Los Angeles Times, July 15, 1963, page A-4 Library card required ^ "TOM BRADLEY - The L.A. Riots: 15 Years After Rodney King". TIME. 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2017-04-29.  ^ Trying to Win the Peace ^ Rick Orlov, "L.A.'S `GENTLE GIANT' REMEMBERED." Daily News, found at The Free Library website. Accessed September 15, 2009. ^ Fighting the Last War - TIME ^ "11-02-1982 Election". JoinCalifornia. 1982-11-02. Retrieved 2017-04-29.  ^ "11-04-1986 Election". JoinCalifornia. 1986-11-04. Retrieved 2017-04-29.  ^ Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998, screen 11 ^ Findagrave.com ^ Gray, David (2012). The History of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM 1971 – 2011: The Fabric of Freemasonry. Columbus, Ohio: Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio F&AM. p. 414. ISBN 978-0615632957.  ^ Blume, Howard, "The Mayor Who Made L.A. Big", LA Weekly, Dec. 11, 2003


External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tom Bradley (politician). Tribute to Bradley by Dianne Feinstein, with biographical information Tom Bradley on IMDb The Bradley Effect by Raphael Sonenshein Bridging the Divide: Tom Bradley and the Politics of Race documentary Political offices Preceded by Joe E. Hollingsworth Los Angeles City Council 10th District 1963–73 Succeeded by David S. Cunningham, Jr. Preceded by Sam Yorty Mayor of Los Angeles 1973-1993 Succeeded by Richard Riordan Party political offices Preceded by Jerry Brown Democratic Party nominee for Governor of California 1982, 1986 Succeeded by Dianne Feinstein v t e Mayors of Los Angeles S. Foster1 Hodges Wilson Nichols Coronel S. Foster T. Foster S. Foster Requena2 Nichols Marchesseault Mellus Woodworth2 Marchesseault Mascarel Aguilar Turner Aguilar Toberman Beaudry MacDougall Cohn Toberman Thom Spence Workman Bryson Hazard Bonsall2 Rowan Rader Snyder Eaton Snyder McAleer Harper Stephens Alexander Rose Sebastian Woodman Snyder Cryer Porter Shaw Bowron Poulson Yorty Bradley Riordan Hahn Villaraigosa Garcetti 1 Prior to city incorporation 2 City Council president serving as acting mayor v t e Theodore Roosevelt Award winners 1967: Eisenhower 1968: Saltonstall 1969: White 1970: Hovde 1971: Kraft Jr. 1972: Holland 1973: Bradley 1974: Owens 1975: Ford 1976: Hamilton 1977: Bradley 1978: Zornow 1979: Chandler 1980: Cooley 1981: Linkletter 1982: Cosby 1983: Palmer 1984: Lawrence 1985: Fleming 1986: Bush 1987: Zable 1988: Not presented 1989: Ebert 1990: Reagan 1991: Gibson 1992: Kemp 1993: Alexander 1994: Johnson 1995: Mathias 1996: Wooden 1997: Payne 1998: Dole 1999: Richardson 2000: Staubach 2001: Cohen 2002: Shriver 2003: de Varona 2004: Page 2005: Ride 2006: Kraft 2007: Tagliabue 2008: Glenn 2009: Albright 2010: Mitchell 2011: Dunwoody 2012: Allen 2013: Dungy 2014: Mills 2015: Jackson 2016: Ueberroth 2017: Brooke-Marciniak v t e California Democratic Party Chairpersons John McEnery Roosevelt Pelosi Brown Angelides Press Torres Burton Gub./Lt. Gub. Nominees Maguire/Hutchinson (1898) Lane/Dockweiler (1902) Bell/Toland (1906) Bell/Spellacy (1910) Curtin/Snyder (1914) None/Snyder (1918) Woolwine/Shearer (1922) Wardell/Dunbar (1926) Young/Welsh (1930) Sinclair/Downey (1934) Olson/Patterson (1938, 1942) Roosevelt/Shelley (1946) Roosevelt/None (1950) Graves/Roybal (1954) P. Brown/Anderson (1958, 1962, 1966) Unruh/Alquist (1970) J. Brown/Dymally (1974, 1978) Bradley/McCarthy (1982, 1986) Feinstein/McCarthy (1990) K. Brown/Davis (1994) Davis/Bustamante (1998, 2002, 2003) Angelides/Garamendi (2006) J. Brown/Newsom (2010, 2014) Presidential primaries 2000 2004 2008 2016 Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 104646228 LCCN: n86024244 ISNI: 0000 0001 2032 1387 GND: 1012740935 NLA: 35021182 IATH: w63b7d35 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tom_Bradley_(American_politician)&oldid=816770372" Categories: Mayors of Los AngelesAfrican-American mayors1917 births1998 deathsSpingarn Medal winnersAfrican-American lawyersAfrican-American people in California politicsAfrican-American police officersAmerican police officersLos Angeles Police Department officersAmerican lawyersCalifornia DemocratsCandidates in United States elections, 1982Candidates in United States elections, 1986Southwestern Law School alumniPeople from Robertson County, TexasPeople from South Los AngelesUniversity of California, Los Angeles alumniBurials at Inglewood Park Cemetery20th-century African-American people20th-century American politiciansHidden categories: Webarchive template webcite linksArticles needing additional references from May 2011All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2016Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with NLA identifiersWikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers


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