Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Pre-1869 (Edo Period) 2.2 1869–1943 2.3 1943–present 3 Geography 3.1 Special wards 3.2 Tama Area (Western Tokyo) 3.2.1 Cities 3.2.2 Nishi-Tama District 3.3 Islands 3.4 National parks 3.5 Seismicity 3.5.1 Common seismicity 3.5.2 Infrequent powerful quakes 3.6 Climate 4 Cityscape 5 Environment 6 Demographics 7 Economy 8 Transportation 9 Education 10 Culture 11 Sports 12 In popular culture 13 International relations 13.1 Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 Further reading 17.1 Guides 17.2 Contemporary 18 External links

Etymology[edit] Tokyo was originally known as Edo (江戸), which means "estuary".[20] Its name was changed to Tokyo (東京, Tōkyō, 東 tō "east", and 京 kyō "capital") when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868,[21] in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital (京) in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto-京都, Beijing-北京 and Nanjing-南京).[20] During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";[22] however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.[23] The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku (ja) (Secret Plan of Commingling), written by Satō Nobuhiro.[citation needed] When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi (織田完之),[vague] he got the idea from that book.

History[edit] Main articles: History of Tokyo and Timeline of Tokyo Pre-1869 (Edo Period)[edit] A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew Perry expedition and his first arrival to Japan in 1853 Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo,[9] in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province.[24] Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo his base. When he became shogun in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.[25] Edo became the de facto capital of Japan,[26] even while the Emperor lived in Kyoto, the imperial capital. During this time, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.[27] The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry negotiated the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.[28] Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.[29] Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, in 1867.[30] After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end. Kidai Shōran (熈代勝覧), 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo. 1869–1943[edit] Main articles: Tokyo City and Tokyo Prefecture Ginza area in 1933 In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji moved to Edo, and in accordance the city was renamed Tokyo (meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center,[31] and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889. Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed. Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.[32] 1943–present[edit] Tokyo burning in 1945 In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.[33] The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid;[34] as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.[35][36] Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".[37] The Tokyo Tower, built in 1958 2011 Tōhoku earthquake did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower. After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial[38] airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area). Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world[39] as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",[40] from which it is now slowly recovering. Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills. Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed[41] for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial[42] within Japan and have yet to be realized. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,[43] although activity in the city was largely halted.[44] The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.[45][46] On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.[47]

Geography[edit] Main articles: Tokyo Metropolitan Government and List of mergers in Tokyo Satellite photo of Tokyo's 23 Special wards taken by NASA's Landsat 7 Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft).[48] Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards. Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo. Under Japanese law, Tokyo is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis.[49] Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別区 -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city. In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which administers the whole metropolis, is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are located in Shinjuku Ward. Special wards[edit] A map of Tokyo's 23 special wards The special wards (特別区, tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu) forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city. While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City). The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.[50] The special wards of Tokyo are: Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Kōtō Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Taitō Toshima The "three central wards" of Tokyo – Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population.[51] Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies, and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country.[52] Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda. Tama Area (Western Tokyo)[edit] A map of cities in western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan. While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo. Cities[edit] Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo: Akiruno Akishima Chōfu Fuchū Fussa Hachiōji Hamura Higashikurume Higashimurayama Higashiyamato Hino Inagi Kiyose Kodaira Koganei Kokubunji Komae Kunitachi Machida Mitaka Musashimurayama Musashino Nishitōkyō Ōme Tachikawa Tama The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area,[53] as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo. Nishi-Tama District[edit] Map of Nishi-Tama District in green The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takasu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake (929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara). Tama Hachioji Musashino Islands[edit] Map of the Izu Islands in black labels Map of the Ogasawara Islands in black labels Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them. The Izu Islands are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village. The Ogasawara Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan. Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima is contested by China and South Korea as they regard Okinotorishima as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima and Haha-jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo. Subprefecture Municipality Type Hachijō Hachijō Town Aogashima Village Miyake Miyake Village Mikurajima Village Ōshima Ōshima Town Toshima Village Niijima Village Kōzushima Village Ogasawara Ogasawara Village National parks[edit] Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage site As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.[54] A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms. Seismicity[edit] A bilingual sign with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake (Shibuya) Common seismicity[edit] Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat; ironically, epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's 2000 km long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It's not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these such minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only to foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.[55] Infrequent powerful quakes[edit] Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011;[56][57] the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of km away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area. Climate[edit] The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[58] with warm humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876 while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004.[59] Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.[60] Tokyo also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004 with 780 millimetres (30 in) of rain,[61] including 270.5 millimetres (10.6 in) on the ninth of that month.[62] Climate data for Kitanomaru Park,[63] Chiyoda ward, Tokyo (1981–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 24.9 (76.8) 25.3 (77.5) 29.2 (84.6) 32.2 (90) 36.2 (97.2) 39.5 (103.1) 39.1 (102.4) 38.1 (100.6) 32.6 (90.7) 27.3 (81.1) 24.8 (76.6) 39.5 (103.1) Average high °C (°F) 9.6 (49.3) 10.4 (50.7) 13.6 (56.5) 19.0 (66.2) 22.9 (73.2) 25.5 (77.9) 29.2 (84.6) 30.8 (87.4) 26.9 (80.4) 21.5 (70.7) 16.3 (61.3) 11.9 (53.4) 19.8 (67.6) Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 5.7 (42.3) 8.7 (47.7) 13.9 (57) 18.2 (64.8) 21.4 (70.5) 25.0 (77) 26.4 (79.5) 22.8 (73) 17.5 (63.5) 12.1 (53.8) 7.6 (45.7) 15.4 (59.7) Average low °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 1.7 (35.1) 4.4 (39.9) 9.4 (48.9) 14.0 (57.2) 18.0 (64.4) 21.8 (71.2) 23.0 (73.4) 19.7 (67.5) 14.2 (57.6) 8.3 (46.9) 3.5 (38.3) 11.6 (52.9) Record low °C (°F) −9.2 (15.4) −7.9 (17.8) −5.6 (21.9) −3.1 (26.4) 2.2 (36) 8.5 (47.3) 13.0 (55.4) 15.4 (59.7) 10.5 (50.9) −0.5 (31.1) −3.1 (26.4) −6.8 (19.8) −9.2 (15.4) Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.3 (2.059) 56.1 (2.209) 117.5 (4.626) 124.5 (4.902) 137.8 (5.425) 167.7 (6.602) 153.5 (6.043) 168.2 (6.622) 209.9 (8.264) 197.8 (7.787) 92.5 (3.642) 51.0 (2.008) 1,528.8 (60.189) Average snowfall cm (inches) 5 (2) 5 (2) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 11 (4.3) Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 5.3 6.2 11.0 11.0 11.4 12.7 11.8 9.0 12.2 10.8 7.6 4.9 114.0 Average snowy days 2.8 3.7 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 9.7 Average relative humidity (%) 52 53 56 62 69 75 77 73 75 68 65 56 65 Mean monthly sunshine hours 184.5 165.8 163.1 176.9 167.8 125.4 146.4 169.0 120.9 131.0 147.9 178.0 1,876.7 Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (records 1872–present)[64][65][59] The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). Climate data for Ogouchi, Okutama town, Tokyo (1981–2010) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.1 (44.8) 10.3 (50.5) 16.3 (61.3) 20.5 (68.9) 23.0 (73.4) 26.8 (80.2) 28.2 (82.8) 23.9 (75) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 9.3 (48.7) 17.1 (62.8) Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 1.8 (35.2) 5.0 (41) 10.6 (51.1) 15.1 (59.2) 18.5 (65.3) 22.0 (71.6) 23.2 (73.8) 19.5 (67.1) 13.8 (56.8) 8.5 (47.3) 3.8 (38.8) 11.9 (53.4) Average low °C (°F) −2.7 (27.1) −2.3 (27.9) 0.6 (33.1) 5.6 (42.1) 10.5 (50.9) 14.8 (58.6) 18.7 (65.7) 19.7 (67.5) 16.3 (61.3) 10.3 (50.5) 4.6 (40.3) −0.1 (31.8) 8.1 (46.6) Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.1 (1.736) 50.0 (1.969) 92.5 (3.642) 109.6 (4.315) 120.3 (4.736) 155.7 (6.13) 195.4 (7.693) 280.6 (11.047) 271.3 (10.681) 172.4 (6.787) 76.7 (3.02) 39.9 (1.571) 1,623.5 (63.917) Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.1 127.7 132.2 161.8 154.9 109.8 127.6 148.3 99.1 94.5 122.1 145.6 1,570.7 Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[66] Tokyo's offshore territories' climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichi-jima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000 km south of the Greater Tokyo Area resulting in different climatic conditions. Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.[67]

Cityscape[edit] Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II.[68] Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.[68] Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower, and the new Tokyo Skytree, which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[69] Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands. Panoramic view of Tokyo from Tokyo Skytree

Environment[edit] Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.[70] Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.[71][72] According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government,[73] the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."[74] In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill.[75] From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.[76]

Demographics[edit] As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.[77] During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.[78] In 1889, the Ministry of Home Affairs recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu.[79] In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was British (209 residents), followed by United States nationals (182) and nationals of the Qing dynasty (137).[80] Tokyo historical population since 1920 Registered foreign nationals[81] Nationality Population (2012)  China 161,169  South Korea 99,880  Philippines 27,929  United States 15,901    Nepal 8,669  India 8,313  Thailand 6,906  United Kingdom 5,522  Myanmar 4,781  France 4,635 This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010. Increase   10.0% and over   7.5 – 9.9%   5.0 – 7.4%   2.5 – 4.9%   0.0 – 2.4% Decrease   0.0 – 2.4%   2.5 – 4.9%   5.0 – 7.4%   7.5 – 9.9%   10.0% and over Population of Tokyo[78] By area1 Tokyo Special wards Tama Area Islands 12.79 million 8.653 million 4.109 million 28,000 By age2 Juveniles (age 0–14) Working (age 15–64) Retired (age 65+) 1.461 million (11.8%) 8.546 million (69.3%) 2.332 million (18.9%) By hours3 Day Night 14.978 million 12.416 million By nationality Foreign residents 364,6534 (2.9% of total) 1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007. 2 as of January 1, 2007. 3 as of 2005[update] National Census. 4 as of January 1, 2006.

Economy[edit] Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world Tokyo Stock Exchange Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo as one of the most luxurious[vague] shopping districts in the world. Bank of Japan headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo Tokyo Tower at night Shibuya attracts many tourists. Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Tokyo urban area of 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list. 51 of the companies listed on the Fortune Global 500 are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris).[82] Tokyo is a major international finance center;[83] it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralised growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there. Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.[84] Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London.[85] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore and Hong Kong).[86] The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.[87] Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.[88] Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,[89] according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market. With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products. Tourism in Tokyo is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighbourhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly for school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233). The Tsukiji Fish Market in Tokyo is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world, and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihombashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.[90]

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Greater Tokyo Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo. Haneda Airport Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo. Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient[91] trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.[92] Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport offers domestic and international flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in Chiba Prefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines all have a hub at this airport. Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports. Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organisations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku. Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads.[93] Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Tokyo Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo in Bunkyō Okuma Auditorium at Waseda University in Shinjuku Hibiya High School in Chiyoda Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo University of Science, and Keio University.[94] Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are: Hitotsubashi University National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Ochanomizu University Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo Institute of Technology Tokyo Medical and Dental University Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology Tokyo University of the Arts University of Electro-Communications University of Tokyo There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include: Globis University Graduate School of Management International Christian University Sophia University Waseda University Tokyo is also the headquarters of the United Nations University. For an extensive list, see List of universities in Tokyo. Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and Primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public Secondary schools in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school: Aoba-Japan International School The British School in Tokyo Jingumae International Exchange School K. International School Tokyo Tokyo International School Canadian International School Tokyo West International School St. Mary's International School New International School

Culture[edit] The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan" Takeshita Street in Harajuku Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace. Tokyo has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for kabuki.[95] Symphony orchestras and other musical organisations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known arenas such as the Nippon Budokan. The Sanja Festival in Asakusa Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms. Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion[96] and cosplay. Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.[97]

Sports[edit] Main articles: Sports in Tokyo and Football in Tokyo Tokyo Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo and Tokyo Excellence. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami.[98] Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013.

In popular culture[edit] Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga and games. Fuji TV headquarters As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera. Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, and Inception. Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the cities crowded streets and public spaces.[99][100][101][102][103]

International relations[edit] Tokyo is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan As of 2016[update], Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:[104] New York City, United States (since February 1960) Beijing, China (since March 1979) Paris, France ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1982)[105] New South Wales, Australia (since May 1984) Seoul, South Korea (since September 1988) Jakarta, Indonesia (since October 1989) São Paulo State, Brazil (since June 1990) Cairo, Egypt (since October 1990) Moscow, Russia (since July 1991) Berlin, Germany (since May 1994) Rome, Italy ("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1996) London, United Kingdom (since October 2015)

See also[edit] Tokyo portal Japan portal Geography portal Largest cities in Asia List of cities proper by population List of cities with the most skyscrapers List of tallest structures in Tokyo List of development projects in Tokyo List of metropolitan areas in Asia List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees List of urban areas by population Megacity Tokyo dialect World's largest cities Yamanote and Shitamachi

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Bibliography[edit] Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo and Tokyo. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780700714094; OCLC 51527561 McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). Edo and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801429873; OCLC 30157716 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128 Sorensen, Andre. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty First Century. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780415226516; OCLC 48517502

Further reading[edit] Guides[edit] Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo (City Travel Guide) (2010) Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo (2013) Waley, Paul. Tokyo Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo Encounter (2012) Contemporary[edit] Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp. Bestor, Theodore. Neighbourhood Tokyo (1989). online edition Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) ISBN 0-8014-8570-3. Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp. Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp. Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 55#3 (1996) pp 38+. Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp. Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000) Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. ISSN 0042-0980 Fulltext: Ebsco

External links[edit] Find more aboutTokyoat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Tokyo Metropolis Official Website (in Japanese) Tokyo Metropolis Official Website (in English) Articles related to Tokyo Preceded by Heian-kyō Capital of Japan 1868–present Most recent v t e Tokyo Metropolis Tokyo—Shinjuku (capital) Architecture Education Festivals History Neighborhoods Politics Sports Tourism Transportation Special Wards of Tokyo Adachi Arakawa Bunkyō Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Kōtō Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Taitō Toshima Western (Tama area) Core city Hachiōji Cities Akiruno Akishima Chōfu Fuchū Fussa Hamura Higashikurume Higashimurayama Higashiyamato Hino Inagi Kiyose Kodaira Koganei Kokubunji Komae Kunitachi Machida Mitaka Musashimurayama Musashino Nishitōkyō Ōme Tachikawa Tama Nishitama District Hinode Mizuho Okutama Hinohara Izu Islands Ōshima Subprefecture Ōshima To-shima Niijima Kōzushima Miyake Subprefecture Miyake Mikurajima Hachijō Subprefecture Hachijō Aogashima Ogasawara Islands Ogasawara Subprefecture Ogasawara List of mergers in Tokyo Metropolis Portal Category v t e Regions and administrative divisions of Japan Regions Hokkaido Tōhoku Kantō Nanpō Islands Chūbu Hokuriku Kōshin'etsu Shin'etsu Tōkai Kansai Chūgoku San'in San'yō Shikoku Kyushu Northern Southern Okinawa 47 Prefectures Hokkaido Hokkaido Tōhoku Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima Kantō Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa Chūbu Niigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi Kansai Mie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyōgo Nara Wakayama Chūgoku Tottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi Shikoku Tokushima Kagawa Ehime Kōchi Kyushu Fukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Ōita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa v t e Metropolitan cities of Japan Tokyo Metropolis Special wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō) Designated cities Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※ Core cities Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka Special cities Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi Prefectural capitals Fukushima Tsu Tokushima Yamaguchi Note: ※ also a prefectural capital v t e Capitals of Asia Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan East Asia Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China) Macau, Macau (China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan (ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island (Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia) Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia* *Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem. v t e Summer Olympic Games host cities 1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles [c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II v t e Summer Paralympic Games host cities 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto 1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City / Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona / Madrid 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles v t e Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics 1983: Helsinki 1987: Rome 1991: Tokyo 1993: Stuttgart 1995: Gothenburg 1997: Athens 1999: Seville 2001: Edmonton 2003: Saint-Denis 2005: Helsinki 2007: Osaka 2009: Berlin 2011: Daegu 2013: Moscow 2015: Beijing 2017: London 2019: Doha 2021: Eugene v t e Host cities of Asian Games Summer 1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou Winter 1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo v t e World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas     1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon   6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico City 11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York 16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka v t e World's fifty most-populous urban areas Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin) Jakarta (Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila (Metro Manila) Seoul–Incheon (Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou–Foshan (Guangfo) São Paulo Mexico City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima Chengdu Greater London Nagoya (Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley) Quanzhou v t e Mass transit in the Greater Tokyo Area JR East lines passing through Central Tokyo Yamanote Keihin-Tōhoku - Negishi Chūō-Sōbu Local Chuo Rapid Yokosuka - Sōbu Rapid Utsunomiya & Takasaki - Tokaido Ueno-Tokyo Saikyo Shonan-Shinjuku Joban Rapid Joban Local Keiyo Tokyo Metro lines Chiyoda Fukutoshin Ginza Hibiya Marunouchi Namboku Tōzai Yūrakuchō Hanzōmon Toei subway lines Asakusa Ōedo Mita Shinjuku Yokohama Municipal Blue Green JR East lines in satellite cities or suburbs Musashino Yokohama Nambu Tsurumi ■ Sagami ■ Hachiko - ■ Kawagoe ■ Ryōmō Tohoku Direction ■ Karasuyama ■ Nikkō Chuo Direction ■ Chūō Main ■ Itsukaichi ■ Ōme Sobu Direction ■ Sōbu Main ■ Sotobō ■ Uchibō ■ Kururi ■ Tōgane Joban Direction ■ Mito ■ Narita Tokaido Direction ■ Itō ■ Gotemba (JR Central) Keikyu Keikyu Main Airport Daishi Kurihama Zushi Keio Keio Keio New Dōbutsuen Keibajō Sagamihara Takao Inokashira Keisei Keisei Main Chiba Chihara Higashi-Narita Kanamachi Oshiage Narita Sky Access Odakyu Odawara Enoshima Tama Seibu Ikebukuro Sayama Seibu Chichibu Seibu Yūrakuchō Toshima Seibu Shinjuku Haijima Kokubunji Seibu-en Tamagawa Tamako Sotetsu Sotetsu Main Izumino Tobu Skytree Kameido Daishi Isesaki Sano Koizumi Kiryū Nikkō Kinugawa Utsunomiya Urban Park Tōjō Ogose Tokyu Den-en-toshi Ikegami Meguro Oimachi Tokyu Tamagawa Toyoko Kodomonokuni Other commuter rail lines Hokusō Kantō Jōsō Ryūgasaki Nagareyama Rinkai Saitama Rapid Shibayama Shin-Keisei Tōyō Rapid Tsukuba Express Minatomirai 21 Monorails and light transit Monorails Chiba Monorail Disney Resort Shōnan Monorail Tama Monorail Tokyo Monorail People movers New Shuttle Kanazawa Seaside Nippori-Toneri Seibu Yamaguchi Yūkarigaoka Yurikamome Trams Enoden Setagaya Arakawa Hinterland Chichibu Main Line Fujikyuko Line Cable cars and aerial tramways Ōyama Cable Car Hodosan Ropeway (Takao Tozan Railway Mitake Tozan Cable Car ) (Nokogiriyama Ropeway Mount Tsukuba Cable Car Mount Tsukuba Ropeway) Akechidaira Ropeway Ikaho Ropeway Bus Shinjuku Expressway Bus Terminal Tokyo City Air Terminal (& Bus) Willer Express List of bus operating companies in Japan (east) Public ferries Tokyo-Wan Ferry Tokyo Cruise Ship Tokyo Mizube Line Keihin Ferry Boat The Port Service (Yokohama) Major terminals Rail Akihabara Chiba Hachiōji Ikebukuro Kita-Senju Mito Odawara Ōmiya Ōtemachi Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Tachikawa Tokyo Ueno Yokohama Airports Haneda Narita Chofu Ibaraki Ports Yokohama Tokyo Heliports Tokyo Heliport Camp Zama Miscellaneous Shinkansen Smart cards Pasmo Suica Transportation in Greater Tokyo Rail transport in Japan List of named passenger trains of Japan List of through trains in Japan Tokyo subway rolling stock List of Toei Subway stations List of Tokyo Metro stations Construction projects Sōtetsu JR Link Line Japan transit: Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Fukuoka Hakone Fuji Izu Hokkaido Sendai Niigata Toyama Nagano Okayama Hiroshima Shikoku Metro systems Shinkansen trams (list) aerial lifts (list) Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140713831 LCCN: n79034998 ISNI: 0000 0004 1757 6305 GND: 4078337-6 NDL: 00280764 Retrieved from "" Categories: TokyoCapitals in AsiaKantō regionPopulated coastal places in Japan1457 establishments in AsiaPopulated places established in the 1450sPort settlements in Japan15th-century establishments in JapanHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages using web citations with no URLAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksArticles with Japanese-language external linksCS1 maint: Extra text: authors listCS1 uses Japanese-language script (ja)CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja)Pages using citations with accessdate and no URLCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listWikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesUse mdy dates from January 2018Articles containing Japanese-language textCoordinates on WikidataArticles with hAudio microformatsInterlanguage link template link numberAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2014All Wikipedia articles needing clarificationWikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2014Pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2005All articles containing potentially dated statementsWikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2017Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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