Contents 1 Early history 2 The 19th century 2.1 Pre-war theater 2.2 Post-war theater 3 The 20th century 3.1 Post World War II theater 3.2 Drama 4 American theater today 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links


Early history[edit] This article is part of a series on the Culture of the United States of America Society History Language People Race and ethnicity Religion Arts and literature Architecture Art Dance Fashion Literature Comics Poetry Music Sculpture Theater Other Cuisine Festivals Folklore Media Newspapers Radio Cinema TV Mythology Sport Symbols Flag Great Seal Monuments Motto Anthem Bird World Heritage Sites United States portal v t e Edwin Forrest, a popular early American actor Before the first English colony was established in 1607, there were Spanish dramas and Native American tribes that performed theatrical events.[1] Although a theater was built in Williamsburg, Virginia in 1716, and the original Dock Street Theatre opened in Charleston, South Carolina in 1736, the birth of professional theater in America may have begun when Lewis Hallam arrived with his theatrical company in Williamsburg in 1752.[2] Lewis and his brother William, who arrived in 1754, were the first to organize a complete company of actors in Europe and bring them to the colonies. They brought a repertoire of plays popular in London at the time, including Hamlet, Othello, The Recruiting Officer, and Richard III. The Merchant of Venice was their first performance, shown initially on September 15, 1752.[3] Encountering opposition from religious organizations, Hallam and his company left for Jamaica in 1754 or 1755.[citation needed] Soon after, Lewis Hallam, Jr., founded the American Company, opened a theater in New York, and presented the first professionally mounted American play—The Prince of Parthia, by Thomas Godfrey—in 1767.[4] In the 18th century, laws forbidding the performance of plays were passed in Massachusetts in 1750, in Pennsylvania in 1759, and in Rhode Island in 1761, and plays were banned in most states during the American Revolutionary War at the urging of the Continental Congress.[3] In 1794, president of Yale College, Timothy Dwight IV, in his "Essay on the Stage", declared that "to indulge a taste for playgoing means nothing more or less than the loss of that most valuable treasure: the immortal soul."[citation needed] In spite of such laws, however, a few writers tried their hand at playwriting. Most likely, the first plays written in America were by European-born authors—we know of original plays being written by Spaniards, Frenchmen and Englishmen dating back as early as 1567—although no plays were printed in America until Robert Hunter's Androboros in 1714. Still, in the early years, most of the plays produced came from Europe; only with Godfrey's The Prince of Parthia in 1767 do we get a professionally produced play written by an American, although it was a last-minute substitute for Thomas Forrest's comic opera The Disappointment; or, The Force of Credulity, and although the first play to treat American themes seriously, Ponteach; or, the Savages of America by Robert Rogers, had been published in London a year earlier.[5] 'Cato', a play about revolution, was performed for George Washington and his troops at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777–1778. The Revolutionary period was a boost for dramatists, for whom the political debates were fertile ground for both satire, as seen in the works of Mercy Otis Warren and Colonel Robert Munford, and for plays about heroism, as in the works of Hugh Henry Brackenridge. The post-war period saw the birth of American social comedy in Royall Tyler's The Contrast, which established a much-imitated version of the "Yankee" character, here named "Jonathan". But there were no professional dramatists until William Dunlap, whose work as playwright, translator, manager and theater historian has earned him the title of "Father of American Drama"; in addition to translating the plays of August von Kotzebue and French melodramas, Dunlap wrote plays in a variety of styles, of which André and The Father; or, American Shandyism are his best.[5]


The 19th century[edit] Pre-war theater[edit] At 825 Walnut Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is the Walnut Street Theatre, or, "The Walnut." Founded in 1809 by the Circus of Pepin and Breschard, "The Walnut" is the oldest theater in America. The Walnut's first theatrical production, The Rivals, was staged in 1812. In attendance were President Thomas Jefferson and the Marquis de Lafayette.[6] Provincial theaters frequently lacked heat and minimal theatrical property ("props") and scenery. Apace with the country's westward expansion, some entrepreneurs operated floating theaters on barges or riverboats that would travel from town to town. A large town could afford a long "run"—or period of time during which a touring company would stage consecutive multiple performances—of a production, and in 1841, a single play was shown in New York City for an unprecedented three weeks.[citation needed] John Drew, a famous American actor, playing the part of Petruchio from The Taming of the Shrew. William Shakespeare's works were commonly performed. American plays of the period were mostly melodramas, a famous example of which was Uncle Tom's Cabin, adapted by George Aiken, from the novel of the same name by Harriet Beecher Stowe. In 1821, William Henry Brown established the African Grove Theatre in New York City. It was the third attempt to have an African-American theater, but this was the most successful of them all. The company put on not only Shakespeare, but also staged the first play written by an African-American, The Drama of King Shotaway. The theater was shut down in 1823.[7] African-American theater was relatively dormant, except for the 1858 play The Escape; or, A Leap for Freedom by William Wells Brown, who was an ex-slave. African-American works would not be regarded again until the 1920s Harlem Renaissance.[7] A popular form of theater during this time was the minstrel show, which featured white (and sometimes, especially after the Civil War, black) actors dressed in "blackface (painting one's face, etc. with dark makeup to imitate the coloring of an African or African American)." The players entertained the audience using comic skits, parodies of popular plays and musicals, and general buffoonery and slapstick comedy, all with heavy utilization of racial stereotyping and racist themes.[citation needed] Throughout the 19th century, theater culture was associated with hedonism and even violence, and actors (especially women), were looked upon as little better than prostitutes. Jessie Bond wrote that by the middle of the 19th century, "The stage was at a low ebb, Elizabethan glories and Georgian artificialities had alike faded into the past, stilted tragedy and vulgar farce were all the would-be playgoer had to choose from, and the theatre had become a place of evil repute".[8] On April 15, 1865, less than a week after the end of the United States Civil War, Abraham Lincoln, while watching a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., was assassinated by a nationally popular stage-actor of the period, John Wilkes Booth. Victorian burlesque, a form of bawdy comic theater mocking high art and culture, was imported from England about 1860 and in America became a form of farce in which females in male roles mocked the politics and culture of the day. Criticized for its sexuality and outspokenness, this form of entertainment was hounded off the "legitimate stage" and found itself relegated to saloons and barrooms.[citation needed] The female producers, such as Lydia Thompson were replaced by their male counterparts, who toned down the politics and played up the sexuality, until the burlesque shows eventually became little more than pretty girls in skimpy clothing singing songs, while male comedians told raunchy jokes. The drama of the pre-war period tended to be a derivative in form, imitating European melodramas and romantic tragedies, but native in content, appealing to popular nationalism by dramatizing current events and portraying American heroism. But playwrights were limited by a set of factors, including the need for plays to be profitable, the middle-brow tastes of American theater-goers, and the lack of copyright protection and compensation for playwrights. During this time, the best strategy for a dramatist was to become an actor and/or a manager, after the model of John Howard Payne, Dion Boucicault and John Brougham. This period saw the popularity of certain native character types, especially the "Yankee", the "Negro" and the "Indian", exemplified by the characters of Jonathan, Sambo and Metamora. Meanwhile, increased immigration brought a number of plays about the Irish and Germans, which often dovetailed with concerns over temperance and Roman Catholic. This period also saw plays about American expansion to the West (including plays about Mormonism) and about women's rights. Among the best plays of the period are James Nelson Barker's Superstition; or, the Fanatic Father, Anna Cora Mowatt's Fashion; or, Life in New York, Nathaniel Bannister's Putnam, the Iron Son of '76, Dion Boucicault's The Octoroon; or, Life in Louisiana, and Cornelius Mathews's Witchcraft; or, the Martyrs of Salem. At the same time, America had created new dramatic forms in the Tom Shows, the showboat theater and the minstrel show.[5] Post-war theater[edit] In the postbellum North, theater flourished as a post-war boom allowed longer and more-frequent productions. The advent of American rail transport allowed production companies, its actors, and large, elaborate sets to travel easily between towns, which made permanent theaters in small towns feasible. The invention and practical application of electric lighting also led to changes to and improvements of scenery styles and the designing of theater interiors and seating areas. Minstrel show performers Rollin Howard (in female costume) and George Griffin, c. 1855. In 1896, Charles Frohman, Al Hayman, Abe Erlanger, Mark Klaw, Samuel F. Flenderson, and J. Fred Zimmerman, Sr. formed the Theatrical Syndicate, which established systemized booking networks throughout the United States, and created a management monopoly that controlled every aspect of contracts and bookings until the turn of the 20th century, when the Shubert brothers founded rival agency, The Shubert Organization. For playwrights, the period after the War brought more financial reward and aesthetic respect (including professional criticism) than was available earlier. In terms of form, spectacles, melodramas and farces remained popular, but poetic drama and romanticism almost died out completely due to the new emphasis upon realism, which was adopted by serious drama, melodrama and comedy alike. This realism was not quite the European realism of Ibsen's Ghosts, but a combination of scenic realism (e.g., the "Belasco Method") with a less romantic view of life that accompanied the cultural turmoil of the period. The most ambitious effort towards realism during this period came from James Herne, who was influenced by the ideas of Ibsen, Hardy and Zola regarding realism, truth, and literary quality; his most important achievement, Margaret Fleming, enacts the principles he expounded in his essay "Art for Truth's Sake in the Drama". Although Fleming did not appeal to audiences—critics and audiences felt it dwelt too much on unseemly topics and included improper scenes, such as Margaret nursing her husband's bastard child onstage—other forms of dramatic realism were becoming more popular in melodrama (e.g., Augustin Daly's Under the Gaslight) and in local color plays (Bronson Howard's Shenandoah). Other key dramatists during this period are David Belasco, Steele MacKaye, William Dean Howells, Dion Boucicault, and Clyde Fitch.[5]


The 20th century[edit] Vaudeville was common in the late 19th and early 20th century, and is notable for heavily influencing early film, radio, and television productions in the country. (This was born from an earlier American practice of having singers and novelty acts perform between acts in a standard play.) George Burns was a very long-lived American comedian who started out in the vaudeville community, but went on to enjoy a career running until the 1990s. Some vaudeville theaters built between about 1900 and 1920 managed to survive as well, though many went through periods of alternate use, most often as movie theaters until the second half of the century saw many urban populations decline and multiplexes built in the suburbs. Since that time, a number have been restored to original or nearly-original condition and attract new audiences nearly one hundred years later. By the beginning of the 20th century, legitimate 1752 (non-vaudeville) theater had become decidedly more sophisticated in the United States, as it had in Europe. The stars of this era, such as Ethel Barrymore and John Barrymore, were often seen as even more important than the show itself. The advance of motion pictures also led to many changes in theater. The popularity of musicals may have been due in part to the fact the early films had no sound, and could thus not compete, until The Jazz Singer of 1927, which combined both talking and music in a moving picture. More complex and sophisticated dramas bloomed in this time period, and acting styles became more subdued. Even by 1915, actors were being lured away from theater and to the silver screen, and vaudeville was beginning to face stiff competition. While revues consisting of mostly unconnected songs, sketches, comedy routines, and dancing girls (Ziegfeld girls) dominated for the first 20 years of the 20th century, musical theater would eventually develop beyond this. One of the first major steps was Show Boat, with music by Jerome Kern and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein. It featured songs and non-musical scenes which were integrated to develop the show's plot. The next great step forward was Oklahoma!, with lyrics by Hammerstein and music by Richard Rodgers. Its "dream ballets" used dance to carry forward the plot and develop the characters. Amateur performing groups have always had a place alongside professional acting companies. The Amateur Comedy Club, Inc. was founded in New York City on April 18, 1884. It was organized by seven gentlemen who broke away from the Madison Square Dramatic Organization, a socially prominent company presided over by Mrs. James Brown Potter and David Belasco. The ACC staged its first performance on February 13, 1885. It has performed continuously ever since, making it the oldest, continuously performing theatrical society in the United States. Prominent New Yorkers who have been members of the ACC include Theodore, Frederick and John Steinway of the piano manufacturing family; Gordon Grant, the marine artist; Christopher La Farge, the architect; Van H. Cartmell, the publisher; Albert Sterner, the painter; and Edward Fales Coward, the theater critic and playwright. Elsie De Wolfe, Lady Mendl, later famous as the world's first professional interior decorator, acted in Club productions in the early years of the 20th Century, as did Hope Williams, and Julie Harris in the 1940s. Early 20th century theater was dominated by the Barrymores—Ethel Barrymore, John Barrymore, and Lionel Barrymore. Other greats included Laurette Taylor, Jeanne Eagels, and Eva Le Gallienne. The massive social change that went on during the Great Depression also had an effect on theater in the United States. Plays took on social roles, identifying with immigrants and the unemployed. The Federal Theatre Project, a New Deal program set up by Franklin D. Roosevelt, helped to promote theater and provide jobs for actors. The program staged many elaborate and controversial plays such as It Can't Happen Here by Sinclair Lewis and The Cradle Will Rock by Marc Blitzstein. By contrast, the legendary producer Brock Pemberton (founder of the Tony Awards) was among those who felt that it was more than ever a time for comic entertainment, in order to provide an escape from the prevailing harsh social conditions: typical of his productions was Lawrence Riley's comedy Personal Appearance (1934), whose success on Broadway (501 performances) vindicated Pemberton. The years between the World Wars were years of extremes. Eugene O'Neill's plays were the high point for serious dramatic plays leading up to the outbreak of war in Europe. Beyond the Horizon (1920), for which he won his first Pulitzer Prize; he later won Pulitzers for Anna Christie (1922) and Strange Interlude (1928) as well as the Nobel Prize in Literature. Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne remained a popular acting couple in the 1930s. 1940 proved to be a pivotal year for African-American theater. Frederick O'Neal and Abram Hill founded ANT, or the American Negro Theater, the most renowned African-American theater group of the 1940s. Their stage was small and located in the basement of a library in Harlem, and most of the shows were attended and written by African-Americans. Some shows include Theodore Browne's Natural Man (1941), Abram Hill's Walk Hard (1944), and Owen Dodson's Garden of Time (1945). Many famous actors received their training at ANT, including Harry Belafonte, Sidney Poitier, Alice and Alvin Childress, Osceola Archer, Ruby Dee, Earle Hyman, Hilda Simms, among many others.[9] Mid-20th century theater saw a wealth of Great Leading Ladies, including Helen Hayes, Katherine Cornell, Tallulah Bankhead, Judith Anderson, and Ruth Gordon. Musical theater saw stars such as Ethel Merman, Beatrice Lillie, Mary Martin, and Gertrude Lawrence. Post World War II theater[edit] After World War II, American theater came into its own. Several American playwrights, such as Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams, became world-renowned. In the 1950s and 1960s, experimentation in the Arts spread into theater as well, with plays such as Hair including nudity and drug culture references. Musicals remained popular as well, and musicals such as West Side Story and A Chorus Line broke previous records. At the same time, shows like Stephen Sondheim's Company began to deconstruct the musical form as it has been practiced through the mid-century, moving away from traditional plot and realistic external settings to explore the central character's inner state; his Follies relied on pastiches of the Ziegfeld Follies-styled revue; his Pacific Overtures used Japanese kabuki theatrical practices; and Merrily We Roll Along told its story backwards. Similarly, Bob Fosse's production of Chicago returned the musical to its vaudeville origins. Facts and figures of the post-war theater The post-war American theater audiences and box offices constantly diminished, due to the undeclared "offensive" of television and radio upon the classical, legitimate theater. According to James F. Reilly, executive director of the League of New York Theatres, between 1930 and 1951 the number of legitimate theaters in New York City dwindled from 68 to 30. Besides of that, the admissions tax, has been a burden on the theater since 1918. It was never relaxed ever since, and was doubled in 1943.[10] Total seating capacity of thirty most renown legitimate theaters amounted 35,697 seats in 1951. Since 1937 in New York City alone, 14 former legitimate theaters with a normal seating capacity of 16,955, have been taken over for either radio broadcasts or television performances.[11] In the late 1990s and 2000s, American theater began to borrow from cinema and operas. For instance, Julie Taymor, director of The Lion King directed Die Zauberflöte at the Metropolitan Opera. Also, Broadway musicals were developed around Disney's Mary Poppins, Tarzan, The Little Mermaid, and the one that started it all, Beauty and the Beast, which may have contributed to Times Square's revitalization in the 1990s. Also, Mel Brooks's The Producers and Young Frankenstein are based on his hit films. Drama[edit] This section needs expansion with: coverage of the late 1990s and more information about the mid-century periods. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010) The early years of the 20th century, before World War I, continued to see realism as the main development in drama. But starting around 1900, there was a revival of poetic drama in the States, corresponding to a similar revival in Europe (e.g. Yeats, Maeterlinck and Hauptmann). The most notable example of this trend was the "Biblical trilogy" of William Vaughn Moody, which also illustrate the rise of religious-themed drama during the same years, as seen in the 1899 production of Ben-Hur and two 1901 adaptations of Quo Vadis. Moody, however, is best known for two prose plays, The Great Divide (1906, later adapted into three film versions) and The Faith Healer (1909), which together point the way to modern American drama in their emphasis on the emotional conflicts that lie at the heart of contemporary social conflicts. Other key playwrights from this period (in addition to continued work by Howells and Fitch) include Edward Sheldon, Charles Rann Kennedy and one of the most successful women playwrights in American drama, Rachel Crothers, whose interest in women's issues can be seen in such plays as He and She (1911).[5] During the period between the World Wars, American drama came to maturity, thanks in large part to the works of Eugene O'Neill and of the Provincetown Players. O'Neill's experiments with theatrical form and his combination of Naturalist and Expressionist techniques inspired other playwrights to use greater freedom in their works, whether expanding the techniques of Realism, as in Susan Glaspell's Trifles, or borrowing more heavily from German Expressionism (e.g., Elmer Rice's The Adding Machine), Other distinct movements during this period include folk-drama/regionalism (Paul Green's Pulitzer-winning In Abraham's Bosom), "pageant" drama (Green's The Lost Colony, about the mysterious Roanoke Colony), and even a return to poetic drama (Maxwell Anderson's Winterset). At the same time, the economic crisis of the Great Depression led to the growth of protest drama, as seen in the Federal Theatre Project's Living Newspaper productions and in the works of Clifford Odets (e.g., Waiting for Lefty) and of moralist drama, as in Lillian Hellman's The Little Foxes and The Children's Hour. Other key figures of this era include George S. Kaufman, George Kelly, Langston Hughes, S. N. Behrman, Sidney Howard, Robert E. Sherwood, and a set of playwrights who followed O'Neill's path of philosophical searching, Philip Barry, Thornton Wilder (Our Town) and William Saroyan (The Time of Your Life). Theater criticism kept pace with the drama, such as in the work of George Jean Nathan and in the numerous books and journals on American theater that were published during this time.[5] The stature that American drama had achieved between the Wars was cemented during the post-World War II generation, with the final works of O'Neill and his generation being joined by such towering figures as Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller, as well as by the maturation of the musical theatre form. Other key dramatists include William Inge, Arthur Laurents and Paddy Chayefsky in the 1950s, the avant garde movement of Jack Richardson, Arthur Kopit, Jack Gelber and Edward Albee the 1960s, and the maturation of black drama through Lorraine Hansberry, James Baldwin and Amiri Baraka. In the musical theater, important figures include Rodgers and Hammerstein, Lerner and Loewe, Betty Comden and Adolph Green, Richard Adler and Jerry Ross, Frank Loesser, Jule Styne, Jerry Bock, Meredith Willson and Stephen Sondheim.[5] The period beginning in the mid-1960s, with the passing of Civil Rights legislation and its repercussions, came the rise of an "agenda" theater comparable to that of the 1930s. Many of the major playwrights from the mid-century continued to produce new works, but were joined by names like Sam Shepard, Neil Simon, Romulus Linney, David Rabe, Lanford Wilson, David Mamet, and John Guare. Many important dramatists were women, including Beth Henley, Marsha Norman, Wendy Wasserstein, Megan Terry, Paula Vogel and María Irene Fornés. The growth of ethnic pride movements led to more success by dramatists from racial minorities, such as black playwrights Douglas Turner Ward, Adrienne Kennedy, Ed Bullins, Charles Fuller, Suzan-Lori Parks, Ntozake Shange, George C. Wolfe and August Wilson, who created a dramatic history of United States with his cycle of plays, The Pittsburgh Cycle, one for each decade of the 20th century. Asian-American theater is represented in the early 1970s by Frank Chin and achieved international success with David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly. Latino theater grew from the local activist performances of Luis Valdez's Chicano-focused Teatro Campesino to his more formal plays, such as Zoot Suit, and later to the award-winning work of Cuban Americans Fornés (multiple Obies) and her student Nilo Cruz (Pulitzer), to Puerto Rican playwrights José Rivera and Miguel Piñero, and to the Tony Award-winning musical about Dominicans in New York City, In the Heights. Finally, the rise of the gay rights movement and of the AIDS crisis led to a number of important gay and lesbian dramatists, including Christopher Durang, Holly Hughes, Karen Malpede, Terrence McNally, Larry Kramer, Tony Kushner, whose Angels in America won the Tony Award two years in a row, and composer-playwright Jonathan Larson, whose musical Rent ran for over twelve years.[5]


American theater today[edit] Earlier styles of theater such as minstrel shows and Vaudeville acts have disappeared from the landscape, but theater remains a popular American art form. Broadway productions still entertain millions of theater-goers as productions have become more elaborate and expensive. At the same time, theater has also served as a platform for expression, and a venue for identity exploration for under-represented, minority communities, who have formed their own companies and created their own genres of works, notably East West Players, founded in 1965 as the first Asian-American theatre group. Notable contemporary American playwrights include Edward Albee, August Wilson, Tony Kushner, David Henry Hwang, John Guare, and Wendy Wasserstein. Smaller urban theaters have stayed a source of innovation, and regional theaters remain an important part of theater life. Drama is also taught in high schools and colleges, which was not done in previous eras, and many become interested in theater through this. The Faster Times, an online newspaper that ran from 2009 to 2013, featured a weekly column that discussed issues and trends in American theater.[12] HowlRound, an online "commons", features opinions and essays by artists and academics in American Theater today.[13]


See also[edit] List of playwrights from the United States List of American plays Dance in the United States


References[edit] ^ Rubin, Don; Solórzano, Carlos, eds. (2000). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Americas. New York City: Routledge. p. 394. ISBN 0-415-05929-1.  ^ Arthur Hornblow (1919). "The Coming of the Hallams". Theatrehistory.com. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. pp. 66–87. Retrieved December 15, 2016. A History of the Theatre in America, Vol. 1  ^ a b "The First American Theatre". Theatrehistory.com. Retrieved October 4, 2017.  ^ The Prince of Parthia: A Tragedy By Thomas Godfrey, reprinted 1917 by Little, Brown. ^ a b c d e f g h Meserve, Walter J. An Outline History of American Drama, New York: Feedback/Prospero, 1994. ^ "Walnut Street Theatre – Philadelphia, PA – Official Website". Walnutstreettheatre.org. Retrieved October 4, 2017.  ^ a b World Encyclopedia, p. 402 ^ "The Life and Reminiscences of Jessie Bond – Introduction". math.boisestate.edu. Retrieved October 4, 2017.  ^ World Encyclopedia, p. 403 ^ Statement of James F. Reilly, executive director of the League of New York Theatres, New York, N.Y.. Revenue Revision of 1951, hearings, 82nd Congress, p. 2362. ^ Seating capacity of present/former legitimate theaters. Revenue Revision of 1951, hearings, 82nd Congress, p. 2363. ^ [1][dead link] ^ "About". Howlround.com. Retrieved October 4, 2017. 


Further reading[edit] Burke, Sally. American Feminist Playwrights (1996) Krasner, David. American Drama 1945 – 2000: An Introduction (2006) Miller, Jordan Yale and Winifred L. Frazer. American Drama between the Wars (1991) Richardson, Gary A. American Drama through World War I (1997) Roudane, Matthew Charles. American Drama Since 1960: A Critical History (1996) Shiach, Don. American Drama 1900–1990 (2000) Watt, Stephen, and Gary A. Richardson. American Drama: Colonial to Contemporary (1994) Weales, Gerald Clifford. American drama since World War II (1962)


External links[edit] 538 photographs of American theater people, buildings, and scenes; these are pre-1923 and out of copyright. v t e United States articles History By event Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier America's Critical Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present) By topic Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrial Geography Territory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky National Park Service National Parks Regions East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western Rivers Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon Time Water supply and sanitation Politics Federal Executive Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy Legislative House of Representatives current members Speaker Senate current members President pro tempore Vice President Judicial Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court Law Bill of Rights civil liberties Code of Federal Regulations Constitution federalism preemption separation of powers Federal Reporter United States Code United States Reports Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence Uniformed Armed Forces Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps 51st state political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement Elections Electoral College Foreign relations Foreign policy Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism Local government Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Red states and blue states Purple America Scandals State government governor state legislature state court Uncle Sam Economy By sector Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation Companies by state Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street Society Culture Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages American English Indigenous languages ASL Black American Sign Language HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish Literature Media Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art Social class Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth Issues Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state Outline Index Book Category Portal Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theater_in_the_United_States&oldid=826166719" Categories: Theatre in the United StatesAmerican playsHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2017Use mdy dates from December 2017Articles needing additional references from July 2007All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from September 2008Articles to be expanded from July 2010All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxes


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages Français한국어PolskiPortuguêsРусскийSvenska Edit links This page was last edited on 17 February 2018, at 16:27. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.352","walltime":"0.464","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2525,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":220215,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":48854,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":13,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":26,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 329.299 1 -total"," 30.29% 99.729 1 Template:Reflist"," 29.40% 96.800 9 Template:Navbox"," 25.30% 83.316 1 Template:United_States_topics"," 24.36% 80.223 1 Template:Country_topics"," 14.82% 48.792 5 Template:Citation_needed"," 14.22% 46.821 6 Template:Fix"," 13.68% 45.057 1 Template:Cite_book"," 9.06% 29.834 1 Template:Refimprove"," 8.83% 29.076 2 Template:Ambox"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.132","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4843213,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1320","timestamp":"20180223124258","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":96,"wgHostname":"mw1325"});});


Theater_of_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Theater_of_the_United_States More Links

Cinema Of The United StatesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalList Of Theaters In CaliforniaList Of Theaters In ColoradoList Of Theaters In Washington, D.C.List Of Theaters In IllinoisList Of Theaters In KentuckyList Of Theaters In LouisianaList Of Theaters In MarylandList Of Theaters In MichiganList Of Theaters In MinnesotaList Of Theaters In North CarolinaList Of Theaters In New York (state)List Of Theaters In OhioTheatre Of Ancient GreeceTheatre Of The United KingdomNew York CityBroadway TheatreOff-BroadwayOff-Off-BroadwayRegional Theater In The United StatesCommunity TheatreCategory:United StatesCulture Of The United StatesHistory Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmericansRace And Ethnicity In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesArchitecture Of The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureAmerican Comic BookAmerican PoetryMusic Of The United StatesSculpture Of The United StatesTheater Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesPublic Holidays In The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesMedia Of The United StatesNewspapers In The United StatesRadio In The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMythologies Of The Indigenous Peoples Of The AmericasSports In The United StatesNational Symbols Of The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesGreat Seal Of The United StatesNational Monument (United States)In God We TrustThe Star-Spangled BannerBald EagleList Of World Heritage Sites In The United StatesPortal:United StatesTemplate:Culture Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:Culture Of The United StatesEnlargeEdwin ForrestWilliamsburg, VirginiaDock Street TheatreCharleston, South CarolinaLewis HallamWilliam Hallam (theatre Manager)Thirteen ColoniesHamletOthelloThe Recruiting OfficerRichard III (play)The Merchant Of VeniceJamaicaWikipedia:Citation NeededLewis Hallam, Jr.The Prince Of ParthiaThomas Godfrey (writer)MassachusettsPennsylvaniaRhode IslandAmerican Revolutionary WarContinental CongressYale CollegeTimothy Dwight IVWikipedia:Citation NeededRobert Hunter (governor)AndroborosThe DisappointmentRobert Rogers (soldier)American RevolutionMercy Otis WarrenHugh Henry BrackenridgeRoyall TylerThe Contrast (play)William DunlapAugust Von KotzebueAndré (play)The Father (Dunlap Play)PhiladelphiaWalnut Street TheatreCircus Of Pepin And BreschardThomas JeffersonMarquis De LafayetteTheatrical PropertyTheatrical SceneryWestward ExpansionBargeRiverboatWikipedia:Citation NeededEnlargeJohn Drew, Jr.The Taming Of The ShrewWilliam ShakespeareMelodramaUncle Tom's CabinGeorge AikenHarriet Beecher StoweAfrican GroveThe Drama Of King ShotawayWilliam Wells BrownHarlem RenaissanceMinstrel ShowBlack PeopleBlackfaceEthnic Groups Of AfricaRacial StereotypeRacismWikipedia:Citation NeededHedonismJessie BondUnited States Civil WarAbraham LincolnOur American CousinFord's TheaterAbraham LincolnJohn Wilkes BoothVictorian BurlesqueFarceBar (establishment)Wikipedia:Citation NeededLydia ThompsonAmerican BurlesqueJohn Howard PayneDion BoucicaultJohn BroughamBrother JonathanSambo (racial Term)Metamora; Or, The Last Of The WampanoagsJames Nelson BarkerAnna Cora MowattNathaniel BannisterPutnam, The Iron Son Of '76Dion BoucicaultThe OctoroonCornelius MathewsTom ShowsShowboatMinstrel ShowReconstruction Era Of The United StatesElectric LightEnlargeCharles FrohmanAl HaymanAbe ErlangerMarcus KlawJ. Fred Zimmerman, Sr.Theatrical SyndicateTalent AgentShubert BrothersThe Shubert OrganizationHenrik IbsenGhosts (play)David BelascoJames HerneThomas HardyÉmile ZolaMargaret FlemingAugustin DalyUnder The GaslightAmerican Literary RegionalismBronson HowardDavid BelascoSteele MacKayeWilliam Dean HowellsDion BoucicaultClyde FitchVaudevilleGeorge BurnsMovie TheaterEthel BarrymoreJohn BarrymoreSilent FilmThe Jazz SingerSilver ScreenRevueZiegfeld GirlShow BoatJerome KernOscar Hammerstein IIOklahoma!Richard RodgersDavid BelascoAlbert SternerElsie De WolfeHope WilliamsEthel BarrymoreJohn BarrymoreLionel BarrymoreLaurette TaylorJeanne EagelsEva Le GallienneGreat DepressionFederal Theatre ProjectNew DealFranklin D. RooseveltIt Can't Happen HereSinclair LewisThe Cradle Will RockMarc BlitzsteinBrock PembertonTony AwardsLawrence RileyPersonal AppearanceEugene O'NeillBeyond The Horizon (play)Anna ChristieStrange InterludeNobel Prize In LiteratureAlfred LuntLynn FontanneFrederick O'NealAmerican Negro TheaterOwen DodsonHarry BelafonteSidney PoitierAlice ChildressAlvin ChildressRuby DeeEarle HymanHilda SimmsHelen HayesKatherine CornellTallulah BankheadJudith AndersonRuth GordonEthel MermanBeatrice LillieMary MartinGertrude LawrenceArthur MillerTennessee WilliamsHair (musical)NudityWest Side Story (musical)A Chorus LineStephen SondheimCompany (musical)FolliesZiegfeld FolliesPacific OverturesKabukiMerrily We Roll Along (musical)Bob FosseChicago (musical)Legitimate TheaterLeague Of New York TheatresRadio BroadcastsLive TelevisionJulie TaymorThe Lion King (musical)Die ZauberflöteMetropolitan OperaMary Poppins (musical)Tarzan (musical)The Little Mermaid (musical)Beauty And The Beast (musical)Times SquareMel BrooksThe Producers (musical)Young Frankenstein (musical)William Butler YeatsMaurice MaeterlinckGerhart HauptmannWilliam Vaughn MoodyBen-Hur (play)Quo Vadis (novel)The Great Divide (1925 Film)Edward SheldonCharles Rann Kennedy (playwright)Rachel CrothersEugene O'NeillProvincetown PlayersNaturalism (theatre)Expressionism (theatre)Realism (arts)Susan GlaspellTriflesElmer RiceThe Adding MachinePaul Green (playwright)In Abraham's BosomLost Colony (play)Roanoke ColonyMaxwell AndersonWinterset (play)Great DepressionFederal Theatre ProjectLiving NewspaperClifford OdetsWaiting For LeftyLillian HellmanThe Little FoxesThe Children's Hour (play)George S. KaufmanGeorge Kelly (playwright)Langston HughesS. N. BehrmanSidney HowardRobert E. SherwoodPhilip BarryThornton WilderOur TownWilliam SaroyanThe Time Of Your LifeGeorge Jean NathanTennessee WilliamsArthur MillerWilliam IngeArthur LaurentsPaddy ChayefskyArthur KopitJack GelberEdward AlbeeLorraine HansberryJames Baldwin (writer)Amiri BarakaRodgers And HammersteinLerner And LoeweBetty ComdenAdolph GreenRichard AdlerJerry Ross (composer)Frank LoesserJule StyneJerry BockMeredith WillsonStephen SondheimSam ShepardNeil SimonRomulus Linney (playwright)David RabeLanford WilsonDavid MametJohn GuareBeth HenleyMarsha NormanWendy WassersteinMegan TerryPaula VogelMaría Irene FornésDouglas Turner WardAdrienne KennedyEd BullinsCharles FullerSuzan-Lori ParksNtozake ShangeGeorge C. WolfeAugust WilsonFrank ChinDavid Henry HwangM. ButterflyLuis ValdezTeatro CampesinoZoot Suit (play)Nilo CruzJosé Rivera (playwright)Miguel PiñeroIn The HeightsChristopher DurangHolly Hughes (performance Artist)Karen MalpedeTerrence McNallyLarry KramerTony KushnerAngels In AmericaJonathan LarsonRent (musical)Minstrel ShowVaudevilleEast West PlayersAsian-American TheatreEdward AlbeeAugust WilsonTony KushnerDavid Henry HwangJohn GuareWendy WassersteinThe Faster TimesHowlRoundList Of Playwrights From The United StatesList Of American PlaysDance In The United StatesCarlos SolórzanoInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-415-05929-1Wikipedia:Link RotTemplate:United States TopicsTemplate Talk:United States TopicsUnited StatesHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesThirteen ColoniesColonial American Military HistoryContinental CongressAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican FrontierAmerica's Critical PeriodTimeline Of Drafting And Ratification Of The United States ConstitutionFederalist EraWar Of 1812United States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesMexican–American WarAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraAmerican Indian WarsGilded AgeProgressive EraAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968)Spanish–American WarAmerican ImperialismHistory Of The United States (1865–1918)Roaring TwentiesGreat DepressionMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIUnited States Home Front During World War IIGerman American BundAmerican CenturyCold WarKorean WarSpace RaceSecond-wave FeminismVietnam WarHistory Of The United States (1991–2008)War On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarHistory Of The United States (2008–present)Outline Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States DiscoveriesEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of United States Debt CeilingTimeline Of United States InventionsTimeline Of United States Inventions (before 1890)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1890–1945)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1946–91)Timeline Of United States Inventions (after 1991)Military History Of The United StatesPostage Stamps And Postal History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesUnited States TerritoryCounty (United States)Washington, D.C.Federal EnclaveIndian ReservationTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsLists Of Populated Places In The United StatesU.S. StateList Of Earthquakes In The United StatesList Of Extreme Points Of The United StatesList Of Islands Of The United StatesList Of Mountains Of The United StatesList Of Mountain Peaks Of The United StatesList Of Mountain RangesAppalachian MountainsRocky MountainsNational Park ServiceList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemList Of Regions Of The United StatesEast Coast Of The United StatesWest Coast Of The United StatesGreat PlainsGulf Coast Of The United StatesMid-Atlantic (United States)Midwestern United StatesNew EnglandPacific StatesCentral United StatesEastern United StatesNorthern United StatesNortheastern United StatesNorthwestern United StatesSouthern United StatesSoutheastern United StatesSouthwestern United StatesWestern United StatesList Of Rivers Of The United StatesColorado RiverColumbia RiverMississippi RiverMissouri RiverOhio RiverRio GrandeYukon RiverTime In The United StatesDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesPolitics Of The United StatesFederal Government Of The United StatesCabinet Of The United StatesUnited States Federal Civil ServiceUnited States Federal Executive DepartmentsExecutive Office Of The President Of The United StatesIndependent Agencies Of The United States GovernmentFederal Law Enforcement In The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesPublic Policy Of The United StatesUnited States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesCurrent Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateCurrent Members Of The United States SenatePresident Pro Tempore Of The United States SenateVice President Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesUnited States Courts Of AppealsUnited States District CourtSupreme Court Of The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsCivil Liberties In The United StatesCode Of Federal RegulationsUnited States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesFederal PreemptionSeparation Of Powers Under The United States ConstitutionFederal ReporterUnited States CodeUnited States ReportsUnited States Intelligence CommunityCentral Intelligence AgencyDefense Intelligence AgencyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationNational Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyNational Reconnaissance OfficeNational Security AgencyDirector Of National IntelligenceUniformed Services Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardNational Guard Of The United StatesNOAA Commissioned Officer CorpsUnited States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps51st StatePolitical Status Of Puerto RicoDistrict Of Columbia Statehood MovementElections In The United StatesElectoral College (United States)Foreign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesHawaiian Sovereignty MovementPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesAnti-AmericanismAmerican ExceptionalismAmerican NationalismLocal Government In The United StatesPolitical Parties In The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Republican Party (United States)Third Party (United States)Red States And Blue StatesPurple AmericaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesGovernor (United States)State Legislature (United States)State Court (United States)Uncle SamEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of The United States By SectorAgriculture In The United StatesBanking In The United StatesCommunications In The United StatesEnergy In The United StatesInsurance In The United StatesManufacturing In The United StatesMining In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesForeign Trade Of The United StatesTransportation In The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United States By StateUnited States DollarList Of Exports Of The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetFederal Reserve SystemFinancial Position Of The United StatesLabor Unions In The United StatesNational Debt Of The United StatesSocial Programs In The United StatesTaxation In The United StatesUnemployment In The United StatesWall StreetSociety Of The United StatesCulture Of The United StatesAmericanaArchitecture Of The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesEducation In The United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmerican EnglishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguagePlains Indian Sign LanguageArabic Language In The United StatesChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesSpanish Language In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureMedia Of The United StatesHistory Of American JournalismInternet In The United StatesHistory Of American NewspapersRadio In The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMusic Of The United StatesNaming In The United StatesAmericansAmerican PhilosophyPublic Holidays In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesSexuality In The United StatesSports In The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesAmerican DreamEducational Attainment In The United StatesHomelessness In The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesProfessional And Working Class Conflict In The United StatesStandard Of Living In The United StatesWealth In The United StatesSocial Issues In The United StatesAges Of Consent In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCriticism Of The United States GovernmentDiscrimination In The United StatesAffirmative Action In The United StatesAntisemitism In The United StatesIntersex Rights In The United StatesIslamophobia In The United StatesLGBT Rights In The United StatesRacism In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnvironmental Movement In The United StatesGun Politics In The United StatesHealth Care In The United StatesAbortion In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesObesity In The United StatesTobacco In The United StatesHuman Rights In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesInternational Rankings Of The United StatesNational Security Of The United StatesMass Surveillance In The United StatesTerrorism In The United StatesSeparation Of Church And State In The United StatesOutline Of The United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesBook:United StatesCategory:United StatesPortal:United StatesHelp:CategoryCategory:Theatre In The United StatesCategory:American PlaysCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From October 2017Category:Use Mdy Dates From December 2017Category:Articles Needing Additional References From July 2007Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2008Category:Articles To Be Expanded From July 2010Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles Using Small Message BoxesDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link