Contents 1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Watterson era 1.3 Bingham ownership 1.4 Gannett ownership 2 Awards 2.1 Pulitzer Prize 3 Other notable staff 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] The Courier-Journal was created from the merger of several newspapers introduced in Kentucky in the 19th century. Pioneer paper The Focus of Politics, Commerce and Literature, was founded in 1826 in Louisville when the city was an early settlement of less than 7,000 individuals. In 1830 a new newspaper, The Louisville Daily Journal, began distribution in the city and, in 1832, absorbed The Focus of Politics, Commerce and Literature. The Journal was an organ of the Whig Party, founded and edited by George D. Prentice, a New Englander who initially came to Kentucky to write a biography of Henry Clay. Prentice would edit the Journal for more than 40 years. In 1844, another newspaper, the Louisville Morning Courier was founded in Louisville by Walter Newman Haldeman. The Louisville Daily Journal and the Louisville Morning Courier were the news leaders in Louisville and were politically opposed throughout the Civil War; The Journal was against slavery while the Courier was pro-Confederacy. The Courier was suppressed by the Union and had to move to Nashville, but returned to Louisville after the war. In 1868, an ailing Prentice persuaded the 28-year-old Henry Watterson to come edit for the Journal. During secret negotiations in 1868, The Journal and the Courier merged and the first edition of The Courier-Journal was delivered to Louisvillians on Sunday morning, November 8, 1868. Watterson era[edit] Editorial staff of The Courier-Journal, 1868. Henry Watterson, the son of a Tennessee congressman, had written for Harper's Magazine and the New York Times before enlisting in the Confederate Army. He became nationally known for his work as The Courier-Journal emerged as the region's leading paper. He supported the Democratic Party and pushed for the industrialization of Kentucky and the South in general, notably through urging the Southern Exposition be held in Louisville. He attracted controversy for attempting to prove that Christopher Marlowe had actually written the works of Shakespeare. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1917 for editorials demanding the United States enter World War I.[3] The Courier-Journal founded a companion afternoon edition of the paper, The Louisville Times, in May 1884. In 1896, Watterson and Haldeman opposed Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan over his support of "Free Silver" coinage. This unpopular decision upset readers and advertisers, many of whom pulled their support for The Courier-Journal. Kentucky voted for the Republican candidate in 1896, the first time in state history, and local political leaders blamed the Courier. Only the popularity of The Louisville Times, which had no strong editorial reputation, saved the newspaper company from bankruptcy. The Courier supported Bryan in future elections.[3] Haldeman had owned the papers until his death in 1902, and by 1917 they were owned by his son, William, and Henry Watterson. Bingham ownership[edit] Courier-Journal offices in downtown Louisville, built during the Bingham era On August 8, 1918, Robert Worth Bingham purchased two-thirds interest in the newspapers and acquired the remaining stock in 1920. The liberal Bingham clashed with longtime editor Watterson, who remained on board, but was in the twilight of his career. Watterson's editorials opposing the League of Nations appeared alongside Bingham's favoring it, and Watterson finally retired on April 2, 1919.[3] I have always regarded the newspapers owned by me as a public trust and have endeavored so to conduct them as to render the greatest public service. — Robert Worth Bingham As publisher, Bingham set the tone for his editorial pages, and pushed for improved public education, support of African Americans and the poor of Appalachia. In 1933, the newspapers passed to his son, Barry Bingham, Sr. Barry Bingham would continue in his father's footsteps, guiding the editorial page and modernizing the paper by setting up several news bureaus throughout the state, expanding the news staff. During Barry Bingham, Sr.'s tenure, the paper was considered Kentucky's "Newspaper of Record" and consistently ranked among the 10 best in the nation.[3] In 1971, Barry Bingham, Jr. succeeded his father as the newspapers' editor and publisher. The Binghams were well-liked owners popularly credited with being more concerned with publishing quality journalism than making heavy profits. They also owned the leading local radio and television stations -- WHAS-TV, WHAS-AM, and WAMZ-FM—and Standard Gravure, a rotogravure printing company that printed The Courier-Journal's Sunday Magazine as well as similar magazines for other newspapers. Barry Bingham Jr. sought to free the papers from conflicts of interests, and through The Louisville Times, experimented with new ideas such as signed editorials. Bingham Jr. also parted with tradition by endorsing several Republican candidates for office.[3] In 1974, Carol Sutton became managing editor of The Courier-Journal, the first woman appointed to such a post at a major US daily newspaper. Under the leadership of C. Thomas Hardin, director of photography, the combined photography staff of The Courier-Journal and Louisville Times was awarded the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography for its coverage of school desegregation in Louisville. Barry Bingham, Jr. served as editor and publisher until he resigned in 1986, shortly after his father announced that the newspaper company was for sale, in large measure because of disagreements between Bingham Jr. and his sister Sallie. Gannett ownership[edit] This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2017) In July 1986, Gannett Company, Inc. purchased the newspaper company for $300 million and appointed George N. Gill President and Publisher. Gill had been with the newspaper and the Binghams for over two decades, working his way up from reporter to Chief Executive Officer of the Bingham Companies. In 1993, Gill retired and Edward E. Manassah became President and Publisher. February 1987 saw the last publication of The Louisville Times, which like most afternoon papers had experienced declining readership; the news operations of the two papers had previously been consolidated under Gannett. In 1989, the paper's news staff won the Pulitzer Prize for general local reporting for what the Pulitzer board called "exemplary initial coverage" of a collision that was the nation's worst drunk-driving crash and school-bus accident. In 2005, cartoonist Nick Anderson won the paper's 10th Pulitzer, but when he left for the Houston Chronicle, the paper did not replace him, instead relying largely on submissions from local cartoonists. One, lawyer Marc Murphy, has become a near-regular and gained respect for his work. On December 3, 2008, it was announced that The Courier-Journal would lay off 51 employees, including 17 who voluntarily took buyout offers, as part of a larger cutback by Gannett due to financial losses.[4] Seven months later, the paper announced another 44 layoffs, reducing the workforce to 575 employees. The newspaper resumed polling on elections, and began videostreaming its editorial-board conferences with major candidates, under Publisher Arnold "Arnie" Garson, who came from the Argus Leader, Gannett's paper in Sioux Falls, S.D., in late 2008. Garson is an outspoken promoter of the future of printed newspapers in the digital age. Under him, the paper began keeping occasional major stories or sports columns off its website and promoting them as print exclusives. Most of these have run on Sundays; in July 2009, Garson announced that the paper's Sunday home-delivery circulation was up 0.5 percent over the previous year.

Awards[edit] Pulitzer Prize[edit] Year Category Recipient For 1918 Editorial Writing Henry Watterson For his two World War I editorials "War Has Its Compensation" (April 10, 1918), and "Vae Victis" (May 17, 1918). 1926 Reporting William Burke "Skeets" Miller For his coverage of the attempts to rescue Floyd Collins trapped in Sand Cave, now part of Mammoth Cave National Park (February 1925). 1956 Editorial Cartooning Robert York For his cartoon "Achilles" showing a bulging figure of American prosperity tapering to a weak heel labeled "farm prices". Appeared in The Louisville Times, (September 16, 1955). 1967 Public Service The Courier-Journal For its "meritorious public service" during 1966 in its fight against the ravages of Kentucky strip mining. 1969 Local General or Spot News Reporting John Fetterman For coverage of the funeral for a Vietnam casualty from Kentucky, "PFC Gibson comes home" (July 28, 1968). 1976 Feature Photography The Courier-Journal and The Louisville Times For photo coverage of court-ordered busing in Jefferson County in 1975. 1978 Local General or Spot News Reporting Rich Whitt For his coverage and three months of investigation of the disastrous May 28, 1977 fire at the Beverly Hills Supper Club, Southgate, Kentucky in Campbell County. 1980 International Reporting Joel Brinkley and Jay Mather For international reporting in a series of articles, "Living the Cambodian Nightmare," their vivid account of refugees in Southeast Asia (December 1979). 1989 General Reporting The Courier-Journal For its exemplary initial coverage of a bus crash in Carroll County, Kentucky that claimed 27 lives and its subsequent thorough and effective examination of the causes and implications of the tragedy (1988). 2005 Editorial Cartoon Nick Anderson For his portfolio of twenty editorial cartoons.[5]

Other notable staff[edit] Herbert Agar, Courier-Journal editor Adele Brandeis, Courier-Journal writer and arts administrator Samuel C. Brightman, Courier-Journal reporter and Washington correspondent Grady Clay, Courier-Journal urban affairs editor Byron Crawford, Courier-Journal columnist Joe Creason, Courier-Journal columnist, known for "Joe Creason's Kentucky" column Howard Fineman, Courier-Journal reporter and Washington correspondent Pat Forde, Courier-Journal sports columnist Michael Gartner, Courier-Journal editor Kate Harrington, Louisville Journal reporter Hugh Haynie, Courier-Journal political cartoonist Paul Janensch, Courier-Journal executive editor Mike King, Courier-Journal reporter, editor, Washington correspondent, and medical writer Alan Levy, Courier-Journal reporter Ronni Lundy, Courier-Journal and Louisville Times pop music editor Priscilla Robertson, Courier-Journal literary editor Harvey Magee Watterson, Courier-Journal editorial staff, father of the paper's founder

See also[edit] Louisville portal Kentucky portal Journalism portal Branzburg v. Hayes – landmark Supreme Court case involving a Courier-Journal reporter Lexington Herald-Leader – second largest newspaper in Kentucky Louisville Eccentric Observer (aka LEO Weekly or LEO) – free urban alternative weekly newspaper News and Tribune – six-day daily newspaper serving Clark and Floyd Counties in Southern Indiana Scripps National Spelling Bee – formerly the National Spelling Bee, organized by The Courier-Journal in 1925 Velocity (2003–2011) – free weekly magazine published by The Courier-Journal List of newspapers in Kentucky

References[edit] ^ Yetter, Deborah (November 17, 2016). "CJ names new executive editor". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved December 19, 2016.  ^ "AAM Total Circ for US Newspapers". Alliance for Audited Media. March 31, 2013. Archived from the original on March 6, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.  ^ a b c d e Towles, Donald B. (1994). The Press of Kentucky: 1787-1994. Kentucky Press Association. ASIN B0006P81OQ.  ^ C-J lays off 51 as part of broader Gannett cutback The Courier-Journal. Retrieved on December 3, 2008. ^ "Nick Anderson- Pulitzer Prize Winner 2005". Archived from the original on November 29, 2005. Retrieved July 30, 2010. 

Further reading[edit] Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 192–95 Donald B. Towles (1994). The Press of Kentucky: 1787-1994. Kentucky Press Association. ASIN B0006P81OQ.  John Ed Pearce (1997). Memoirs: 50 Years at the Courier-Journal and other places. Sulgrave Press. ISBN 1-891138-01-4.  Susan E. Tifft and Alex S. Jones (1991). The Patriarch: The Rise and Fall of the Bingham Dynasty. Summit Books. ISBN 9780671631673. 

External links[edit] Official website The Courier-Journal mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of The Courier-Journal v t e Gannett Company Directors: Full list of directors National assets USA Today The Big Lead USA Today Sports Weekly v t e Gannett Company regional daily newspapers in the United States Abilene Reporter-News The Advocate Anderson Independent-Mail Alamogordo Daily News Argus Leader The Arizona Republic Asbury Park Press Asheville Citizen-Times Battle Creek Enquirer The Baxter Bulletin The Burlington Free Press Carlsbad Current-Argus Chillicothe Gazette The Cincinnati Enquirer The Clarion-Ledger Commercial Appeal Corpus Christi Caller-Times Coshocton Tribune The Courier-Journal Courier News Courier-Post The Daily Advertiser The Daily Journal The Daily News Journal Daily Record The Daily Times (Farmington) The Daily Times (Salisbury) Daily World Deming Headlight Democrat and Chronicle The Des Moines Register The Desert Sun Detroit Free Press El Paso Times Evansville Courier & Press The Evening Sun Florida Today Fort Collins Coloradoan Fort Myers News-Press Great Falls Tribune Green Bay Press-Gazette The Greenville News Hattiesburg American Henderson Gleaner Herald Times Reporter Home News Tribune The Indianapolis Star Iowa City Press-Citizen The Ithaca Journal The Jackson Sun Journal & Courier The Journal News Kitsap Sun Knoxville News Sentinel Lancaster Eagle-Gazette Lansing State Journal Las Cruces Sun-News The Leaf-Chronicle Lebanon Daily News Mansfield News Journal The Marion Star Marshfield News-Herald Milwaukee Journal Sentinel CNI Community Newspapers Montgomery Advertiser Naples Daily News News Herald The News Leader The News Journal The News-Messenger The News-Star Oshkosh Northwestern Pacific Daily News Palladium-Item Pensacola News Journal Port Huron Times Herald The Post-Crescent Poughkeepsie Journal Press & Sun-Bulletin Public Opinion Redding Record Searchlight Reno Gazette-Journal The Reporter St. Cloud Times The Salinas Californian San Angelo Standard-Times The Sheboygan Press Silver City Sun News The Spectrum Springfield News-Leader Star-Gazette The Star Press Statesman Journal Stevens Point Journal Stuart News Telegraph-Forum The Tennessean The Times Times Herald Times Record News Times Recorder The Town Talk Treasure Coast Newspapers Tulare Advance-Register Ventura County Star Vero Beach Press Journal Visalia Times-Delta Wausau Daily Herald Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune York Daily Record v t e Newsquest daily newspapers in the United Kingdom The Argus, Brighton The Bolton News Telegraph & Argus, Bradford Evening Gazette, Colchester Bournemouth Daily Echo Dorset Echo Echo, Basildon, Essex Evening Times Greenock Telegraph The Herald, Glasgow News Shopper, South East London & North West Kent Lancashire Telegraph Oxford Mail The National, Scotland The Northern Echo The Press, York Southern Daily Echo, Southampton South Wales Argus Swindon Advertiser Worcester News v t e Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting (1985–2000) Thomas Turcol (1985) Edna Buchanan (1986) Akron Beacon Journal (1987) Alabama Journal/Lawrence Eagle-Tribune (1988) Louisville Courier-Journal (1989) San Jose Mercury News (1990) Miami Herald (1991) Newsday (1992) Los Angeles Times (1993) New York Times (1994) Los Angeles Times (1995) Robert D. McFadden (1996) Newsday (1997) Los Angeles Times (1998) Hartford Courant (1999) Denver Post (2000) Complete list (1985–2000) (2001–2025) * From 1985 to 1990: Pulitzer Prize for General News Reporting; From 1991 to 1997: Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting; From 1998 to present: Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting Retrieved from "" Categories: The Courier-JournalPublications established in 1868Pulitzer Prize-winning newspapers1868 establishments in KentuckyHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from December 2016All articles needing additional referencesUse mdy dates from February 2016Pages using deprecated image syntaxPages using infobox newspaper with unknown parametersWikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2017All Wikipedia articles in need of updating

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages FrançaisSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Edit links This page was last edited on 19 February 2018, at 03:52. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.280","walltime":"0.391","ppvisitednodes":{"value":1500,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":84475,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":1918,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":13,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":4,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 307.332 1 -total"," 20.86% 64.106 1 Template:Reflist"," 16.67% 51.228 1 Template:Infobox_Newspaper"," 13.15% 40.426 1 Template:Infobox"," 11.73% 36.040 1 Template:Cite_news"," 11.71% 35.990 4 Template:Navbox"," 10.53% 32.347 2 Template:Ambox"," 10.34% 31.783 1 Template:Refimprove"," 9.77% 30.037 1 Template:GCI"," 7.98% 24.510 1 Template:Redirect"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.129","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":4230452,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1245","timestamp":"20180223124822","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":87,"wgHostname":"mw1242"});});

The_Courier-Journal - Photos and All Basic Informations

The_Courier-Journal More Links

Oxford JournalJournal & CourierJournal-CourierWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalCourier-Journal LogoGannett CompanyLouisville, KentuckyKentuckyUnited StatesNewspaper CirculationLouisville, KentuckyKentuckyWhig Party (United States)George D. PrenticeHenry ClayWalter Newman HaldemanLouisville, KentuckyAmerican Civil WarAbolitionismConfederate States Of AmericaHenry WattersonEnlargeHarper's MagazineNew York TimesConfederate States Of AmericaSouthern ExpositionChristopher MarloweShakespeareWorld War IThe Louisville TimesWilliam Jennings BryanFree SilverEnlargeRobert Worth BinghamLeague Of NationsRobert Worth BinghamAppalachiaBarry Bingham, Sr.Barry Bingham, Jr.WHAS-TVWHAS-AMWAMZStandard GravureRotogravureCarol SuttonPulitzer Prize For Feature PhotographyBarry Bingham, Jr.Sallie BinghamEnlargeGannettThe Louisville TimesCarrollton, Kentucky Bus CollisionNick Anderson (cartoonist)Houston ChronicleHenry WattersonWorld War IWilliam Burke MillerFloyd CollinsMammoth Cave National ParkKentuckyStrip MiningJohn Fetterman (reporter)Vietnam WarKentuckyPulitzer Prize For Feature PhotographyDesegregation BusingJefferson County, KentuckyBeverly Hills Supper ClubSouthgate, KentuckyCampbell County, KentuckyJoel BrinkleyCarrollton, Kentucky Bus CollisionCarroll County, KentuckyNick Anderson (cartoonist)Herbert AgarAdele BrandeisSamuel C. BrightmanGrady ClayByron CrawfordJoe CreasonHoward FinemanPat FordeMichael GartnerKate Harrington (poet)Hugh HayniePaul JanenschMike King (journalist)Alan LevyRonni LundyPriscilla RobertsonHarvey Magee WattersonPortal:LouisvillePortal:KentuckyPortal:JournalismBranzburg V. HayesLexington Herald-LeaderLouisville Eccentric ObserverNews And TribuneScripps National Spelling BeeVelocity (newspaper)List Of Newspapers In KentuckyAmazon Standard Identification NumberAmazon Standard Identification NumberInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-891138-01-4Alex Jones (journalist)Summit BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780671631673Template:GannettTemplate Talk:GannettGannett CompanyGannett CompanyUSA TodayThe Big LeadMMAjunkie.comUSA Today Sports WeeklyTemplate:GannettnewsTemplate Talk:GannettnewsGannett CompanyList Of Gannett Company AssetsAbilene Reporter-NewsThe Advocate (Newark)The Anderson Independent-MailAlamogordo Daily NewsArgus LeaderThe Arizona RepublicAsbury Park PressAsheville Citizen-TimesBattle Creek EnquirerThe Baxter BulletinThe Burlington Free PressCarlsbad Current-ArgusChillicothe GazetteThe Cincinnati EnquirerThe Clarion-LedgerThe Commercial AppealCorpus Christi Caller-TimesCoshocton TribuneCourier News (New Jersey)Courier-PostThe Daily Advertiser (Lafayette)The Daily Journal (New Jersey)The Daily News JournalDaily Record (Morristown)The Daily Times (Salisbury)Daily World (Opelousas)Deming HeadlightDemocrat And ChronicleThe Des Moines RegisterThe Desert SunDetroit Free PressEl Paso TimesEvansville Courier & PressFlorida TodayFort Collins ColoradoanFort Myers News-PressGreat Falls TribuneGreen Bay Press-GazetteThe Greenville NewsHattiesburg AmericanHenderson GleanerHerald Times ReporterHome News TribuneThe Indianapolis StarIowa City Press-CitizenThe Ithaca JournalThe Jackson SunJournal & CourierThe Journal NewsKitsap SunKnoxville News SentinelLancaster Eagle-GazetteLansing State JournalLas Cruces Sun-NewsThe Leaf-ChronicleLebanon Daily NewsMansfield News JournalThe Marion StarMilwaukee Journal SentinelCommunity Newspapers (Wisconsin)Montgomery AdvertiserNaples Daily NewsThe News Herald (Ohio)The News LeaderThe News JournalThe News-StarOshkosh NorthwesternPacific Daily NewsPalladium-ItemPensacola News JournalThe Post-CrescentPoughkeepsie JournalPress & Sun-BulletinPublic Opinion (Chambersburg)Redding Record SearchlightReno Gazette-JournalThe Reporter (Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin)St. Cloud TimesThe Salinas CalifornianSan Angelo Standard-TimesThe Sheboygan PressSpringfield News-LeaderStar-Gazette (Elmira)The Star PressStatesman JournalStuart NewsThe TennesseanThe Times (Shreveport)Times Record NewsThe Town TalkTreasure Coast NewspapersVentura County StarVero Beach Press JournalWausau Daily HeraldWisconsin Rapids Daily TribuneYork Daily RecordTemplate:NewsquestTemplate Talk:NewsquestNewsquestDaily NewspaperThe Argus (Brighton)The Bolton NewsTelegraph & ArgusBournemouth Daily EchoDorset EchoEvening TimesGreenock TelegraphThe Herald (Glasgow)News ShopperLancashire TelegraphOxford MailThe National (Scotland)The Northern EchoThe Press (York)Southern Daily EchoSouth Wales ArgusSwindon AdvertiserWorcester NewsTemplate:PulitzerPrize BreakingNews 1985–2000Template Talk:PulitzerPrize BreakingNews 1985–2000Pulitzer Prize For Breaking News ReportingEdna BuchananAkron Beacon JournalMontgomery AdvertiserThe Eagle-TribuneSan Jose Mercury NewsMiami HeraldNewsdayLos Angeles TimesThe New York TimesLos Angeles TimesRobert D. McFaddenNewsdayLos Angeles TimesHartford CourantThe Denver PostTemplate:PulitzerPrize BreakingNewsTemplate:PulitzerPrize BreakingNews 1985–2000Template:PulitzerPrize BreakingNews 2001–2025Help:CategoryCategory:The Courier-JournalCategory:Publications Established In 1868Category:Pulitzer Prize-winning NewspapersCategory:1868 Establishments In KentuckyCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From December 2016Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Use Mdy Dates From February 2016Category:Pages Using Deprecated Image SyntaxCategory:Pages Using Infobox Newspaper With Unknown ParametersCategory:Wikipedia Articles In Need Of Updating From March 2017Category:All Wikipedia Articles In Need Of UpdatingDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link