Contents 1 Setting 2 Formation 3 Conservation 4 Ecology 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Setting[edit] The Texas blackland prairies ecoregion covers an area of 50,300 km2 (19,400 sq mi), consisting of a main belt of 43,000 km2 (17,000 sq mi) and two islands of tallgrass prairie grasslands southeast of the main blackland prairie belt; both the main belt and the islands extend northeast/southwest. The main belt consists of oaklands and savannas and runs from just south of the Red River on the Texas-Oklahoma border through the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area and into southwestern Texas. The Central forest-grasslands transition lies to the north and northwest, and the Edwards Plateau savanna and the Tamaulipan mezquital to the southwest. The larger of the two islands is the Fayette Prairie, encompassing 17,000 km2 (6,600 sq mi), and the smaller is the San Antonio Prairie with an area of 7,000 km2 (2,700 sq mi). The two islands are separated from the main belt by the oak woodlands of the East Central Texas forests, which surround the islands on all sides but the northeast, where the Fayette Prairie meets the East Texas Piney Woods.

Formation[edit] This area was shaped by frequent wildfires and Plains bison. Large fires ignited by lightning would frequently sweep the area, clearing shrubs and stimulating forbs and grasses. Large herds of bison also grazed on the grasses, and they would trample and fertilize the soil stimulating the growth of the tallgrass ecosystem. [4] Hunter-gatherers contributed to the formation and expansion of the prairie through controlled burns to make more land suitable for hunting bison and other game. Hunter-gatherers continually inhabited the prairie since Pre-Clovis times over 15,000 years ago. In historic times, they included the Wichita, Waco, Tonkawa, and Comanche, each of whom were gradually replaced by settled agrarian society. The advent of large-scale irrigated farming and ranching in the area ended the expansionary period in the prairie's formation and quickly led to widespread habitat loss.

Conservation[edit] Because of the soil and climate, this ecoregion is ideally suited to crop agriculture. This has led to most of the Blackland Prairie ecosystem being converted to crop production, leaving less than one percent remaining (and some groups estimate less than 0.5% to less than 0.1% remaining) and making the tallgrass the most-endangered large ecosystem in North America. Small remnants are conserved at sites such as The Nature Conservancy's 800-acre Clymer Meadow Preserve near Celeste, TX.

Ecology[edit] The fauna of the blackland prairies includes fox, frogs, lizards, rattlesnakes, opossoms, coyotes, white-tailed deer, and striped skunks. The blackland prairie was formerly home to animals such as buffalo, wolves, and jaguars before overhunting and the destruction of most tallgrass ecosystems. The soil of the blackland prairies, from which the "blackland" get its name, contains black or deep dark-gray alkaline clay which is further blackened by char from wildfires and controlled burns. "Black Gumbo" and "Black Velvet" are local names for this soil. In dry weather deep cracks form in the clay which can cause serious damage to buildings and infrastructure. Soil management problems also include water erosion, cotton root rot, soil tilth, and brush control.[5]

See also[edit] List of ecoregions in the United States (WWF)

References[edit] ^ a b c d Hoekstra, J. M.; Molnar, J. L.; Jennings, M.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D.; Boucher, T. M.; Robertson, J. C.; Heibel, T. J.; Ellison, K. (2010). Molnar, J. L., ed. The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26256-0.  ^ a b c "Ecoregions of Texas" (PDF). U.S. EPA. Retrieved 2016-02-06.  ^ "Blackland Prairies". Invasives 101. Texas Invasives. Retrieved 2017-02-06.  ^ "Post Oak Savannah and Blackland Prairie Wildlife Management: Historical Perspective". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2008-08-15.  ^ "Soils of Texas". Texas Almanac. Texas Historical Society. Retrieved 2017-02-26.  Ricketts, Taylor H., Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Loucks, et al. (1999). Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press, Washington DC.

External links[edit] Native Prairies Association of Texas (NPAT) NPAT protected prairies The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Texas Parks and Wildlife "Texas blackland prairie". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  Connemara Conservancy Soil Physics at Oklahoma State Weeds of the Blackland Prairie Prairie Time: A Blackland Portrait Texas counties map showing the ecoregion Weeds of the Blackland Prairie v t e  State of Texas Austin (capital) Topics Architecture Climate Cuisine Geography Government Healthcare History Languages Law Literature Media Newspapers Radio TV National Historic Landmarks Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks National Register of Historic Places Sites Sports Symbols Texans Tourist attractions Transportation Seal of Texas Society Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Gambling Politics Regions Ark‑La‑Tex Big Bend Blackland Prairies Brazos Valley Central Texas Coastal Bend Concho Valley Cross Timbers Deep East Texas East Texas Edwards Plateau Golden Triangle Hill Country Llano Estacado Northeast Texas North Texas Osage Plains Panhandle Permian Basin Piney Woods Rio Grande Valley Southeast Texas South Plains South Texas Texoma Trans-Pecos West Texas Metropolitan areas Abilene Amarillo Austin–Round Rock Beaumont–Port Arthur Brownsville–Harlingen College Station–Bryan Corpus Christi Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington El Paso Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land Killeen–Temple Laredo Longview Lubbock McAllen–Edinburg–Mission Midland Odessa San Angelo San Antonio–New Braunfels Sherman–Denison Texarkana Tyler Victoria Waco Wichita Falls Counties See: List of counties in Texas Coordinates: 32°N 96°W / 32°N 96°W / 32; -96 Retrieved from "" Categories: Grasslands of TexasGrasslands of the North American Great PlainsTemperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands in the United StatesEcoregions of the United StatesFlora of the Plains-Midwest (United States)Flora of TexasRegions of TexasNearctic ecoregionsHidden categories: Coordinates on Wikidata

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Biogeographic RealmNearcticBiomeTemperate Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsEast Central Texas ForestsEdwards PlateauCross TimbersUnited StatesTexasTemperate Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsEcoregionTexasRed River Of The SouthNorth TexasSan AntonioTallgrass PrairieGrasslandsSavannasRed River Of The SouthOklahomaDallas–Fort Worth MetroplexCentral Forest-grasslands TransitionEdwards PlateauTamaulipan MezquitalEast Central Texas ForestsPiney WoodsWildfirePlains BisonShrubForbGrassHunter-gatherersControlled BurnPre-ClovisWichita PeopleWacoTonkawaComancheEcosystemNorth AmericaThe Nature ConservancyClymer Meadow PreserveCeleste, TXFrogLizardRattlesnakeOpossomCoyoteWhite-tailed DeerStriped SkunkAmerican BisonWolvesJaguarCharList Of Ecoregions In The United States (WWF)University Of California PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-26256-0Template:TexasTemplate Talk:TexasU.S. StateTexasAustin, TexasIndex Of Texas-related ArticlesArchitecture Of TexasClimate Of TexasTexan CuisineGeography Of TexasGovernment Of TexasHealthcare In TexasHistory Of TexasLanguages Of TexasLaw Of TexasTexas LiteratureCategory:Texas MediaList Of Newspapers In TexasList Of Radio Stations In TexasList Of Television Stations In TexasList Of National Historic Landmarks In TexasList Of Recorded Texas Historic LandmarksNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In TexasSports In TexasList Of Texas State SymbolsList Of People From TexasCategory:Tourist Attractions In TexasTransportation In TexasSeal Of TexasSeal Of TexasCulture Of TexasCrime In TexasDemographics Of TexasEconomy Of TexasEducation In TexasGambling In TexasPolitics Of TexasList Of Regions Of The United StatesArk-La-TexBig Bend (Texas)Brazos ValleyCentral TexasTexas Coastal BendConcho ValleyCross TimbersEast TexasEast TexasEdwards PlateauGolden Triangle (Texas)Texas Hill CountryLlano EstacadoNortheast TexasNorth TexasOsage PlainsTexas PanhandlePermian Basin (North America)Piney WoodsRio Grande ValleySoutheast TexasSouth PlainsSouth TexasTexomaTrans-PecosWest TexasList Of Texas Metropolitan AreasAbilene, TexasAmarillo, TexasAustin, TexasRound Rock, TexasBeaumont, TexasPort Arthur, TexasBrownsville, TexasHarlingen, TexasCollege Station, TexasBryan, TexasCorpus Christi, TexasDallasFort Worth, TexasArlington, TexasEl Paso, TexasHoustonThe Woodlands, TexasSugar Land, TexasKilleen, TexasTemple, TexasLaredo, TexasLongview, TexasLubbock, TexasMcAllen, TexasEdinburg, TexasMission, TexasMidland, TexasOdessa, TexasSan Angelo, TexasSan AntonioNew Braunfels, TexasSherman, TexasDenison, TexasTexarkana, TexasTyler, TexasVictoria, TexasWaco, TexasWichita Falls, TexasList Of Counties In TexasList Of Counties In TexasGeographic Coordinate SystemHelp:CategoryCategory:Grasslands Of TexasCategory:Grasslands Of The North American Great PlainsCategory:Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, And Shrublands In The United StatesCategory:Ecoregions Of The United StatesCategory:Flora Of The Plains-Midwest (United States)Category:Flora Of TexasCategory:Regions Of TexasCategory:Nearctic EcoregionsCategory:Coordinates On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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