Contents 1 History 1.1 Historical changes 1.2 Official status 2 Classification 2.1 Dialects 2.2 Geographic distribution 2.3 Accents 2.4 Code-switching 3 Phonology 3.1 Vowels 3.2 Consonants 3.3 Lexical stress 4 Grammar 5 Writing system 5.1 Baybayin 5.2 Latin alphabet 5.2.1 Abecedario 5.2.2 Abakada 5.2.3 Revised alphabet 5.2.4 ng and mga 5.3 pô/hô and opò/ohò 6 Vocabulary and borrowed words 6.1 Tagalog words of foreign origin 6.2 Cognates with other Philippine languages 7 Austronesian comparison chart 8 Religious literature 9 Examples 9.1 Lord's Prayer 9.2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights 9.3 Numbers 9.4 Months and days 9.5 Time 10 Common phrases 10.1 Proverbs 11 Majority provinces 11.1 Northern Tagalog 11.2 Central Tagalog 11.3 Southern Tagalog 12 See also 13 References 14 External links


History[edit] Main article: Old Tagalog The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-log ("river dweller"), composed of tagá- ("native of" or "from") and ilog ("river"). Linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[7][8] The first written record of Tagalog is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which dates to 900 CE and exhibits fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Old Malay, Javanese and Old Tagalog. The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593. The Doctrina was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog; one in the ancient, then-current Baybayin script and the other in an early Spanish attempt at a Latin orthography for the language. The Tagalog Baybayin script. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule, various grammars and dictionaries were written by Spanish clergymen, including Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Laguna, 1613), the Czech Paul Klein Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (beginning of the 18th century), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835), and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850) in addition to early studies[9] of the language; however, the indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura.[10] Historical changes[edit] Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper), the first bilingual newspaper in the Philippines founded in 1882 written in both Tagalog and Spanish. Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə. In most Bikol and Visayan languages, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot. Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *ŋajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík. Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô. Official status[edit] Main article: Filipino language The first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books. He wrote the first dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez.[11] Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala in Manila in 1754 and then repeatedly[12] reedited, with the last edition being in 2013 in Manila.[13] Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.[14] In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages.[15] After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[16][17] President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[16] In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ (national language).[17] In 1959, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino".[17] The 1973 constitution designated the Tagalog-based "Pilipino", along with English, as an official language and mandated the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.[18] The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language mandating that as it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.[19][20] Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines specifies, in part: Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. — [19] The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. — [19] In 2009, the Department of Education promulgated an order institutionalizing a system of mother-tongue based multilingual education ("MLE"), wherein instruction is conducted primarily in a student's mother tongue (one of the various regional Philippine languages) until at least grade three, with additional languages such as Filipino and English being introduced as separate subjects no earlier than grade two. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction, with the learner's first language taking on an auxiliary role.[21] After pilot tests in selected schools, the MLE program was implemented nationwide from School Year (SY) 2012-2013.[22][23] It is the first language of a quarter of the population of the Philippines and a second language of the majority.[24]


Classification[edit] Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages, such as Malagasy, Javanese, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Tetum (of Timor), and Yami (of Taiwan).[25] It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol Region and the Visayas islands, such as the Bikol group and the Visayan group, including Hiligaynon and Cebuano.[25] Dialects[edit] The Ten Commandments in Tagalog. At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete (Rizal-Laguna), and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog; however, there appear to be four main dialects, of which the aforementioned are a part: Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque. Some example of dialectal differences are: Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonants and before vowels. This has been lost in Standard Tagalog. For example, standard Tagalog ngayón (now, today), sinigáng (broth stew), gabí (night), matamís (sweet), are pronounced and written ngay-on, sinig-ang, gab-i, and matam-is in other dialects. In Teresian-Morong Tagalog, [ɾ] is usually preferred over [d]. For example, bundók, dagat, dingdíng, and isdâ become bunrók, ragat, ringríng, and isrâ, e.g. "sandók sa dingdíng" becoming "sanrók sa ringríng". In many southern dialects, the progressive aspect infix of -um- verbs is na-. For example, standard Tagalog kumakain (eating) is nákáin in Quezon and Batangas Tagalog. This is the butt of some jokes by other Tagalog speakers, for should a Southern Tagalog ask nákáin ka ba ng patíng? ("Do you eat shark?"), he would be understood as saying "Has a shark eaten you?" by speakers of the Manila Dialect. Some dialects have interjections which are considered a regional trademark. For example, the interjection ala e! usually identifies someone from Batangas as does hane?! in Rizal and Quezon provinces. Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque.[26] Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern, with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon. One example is the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive. Manila Tagalog Marinduqueño Tagalog English Susulat siná María at Esperanza kay Juan. Másúlat da María at Esperanza kay Juan. "María and Esperanza will write to Juan." Mag-aaral siya sa Maynilà. Gaaral siya sa Maynilà. "[He/She] will study in Manila." Maglutò ka na. Paglutò. "Cook now." Kainin mo iyán. Kaina yaan. "Eat it." Tinatawag tayo ni Tatay. Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay. "Father is calling us." Tútulungan ba kayó ni Hilario? Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilario? "Is Hilario going to help you?" Northern and central dialects form the basis for the national language. Geographic distribution[edit] No dumping sign along the highway in the Laguna province, Philippines. Welcome sign in Los Baños, Laguna. According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, as of 2014 there were 100 million people living in the Philippines, where almost all of whom will have some basic level of understanding of the language. The Tagalog homeland, Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon—particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, and Zambales. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands, Marinduque, Mindoro, and Palawan. It is spoken by approximately 64 million Filipinos, 96% of the household population;[27] 22 million, or 28% of the total Philippine population,[28] speak it as a native language. Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. In[update] 2010, the US Census bureau reported (based on data collected in 2007) that in the United States it was the fourth most-spoken language at home with almost 1.5 million speakers, behind Spanish or Spanish Creole, French (including Patois, Cajun, Creole), and Chinese. Tagalog ranked as the third most spoken language in metropolitan statistical areas, behind Spanish and Chinese but ahead of French.[29] Accents[edit] The Tagalog language also boasts accentations unique to some parts of Tagalog-speaking regions. For example, in some parts of Manila, a strong pronunciation of i exists and vowel-switching of o and u exists so words like "gising" (to wake) is pronounced as "giseng" with a strong 'e' and the word "tagu-taguan" (hide-and-go-seek) is pronounced as "tago-tagoan" with a mild 'o'. Batangas Tagalog boasts the most distinctive accent in Tagalog compared to the more Hispanized northern accents of the language.[citation needed][30] The Batangas accent has been featured in film and television and Filipino actor Leo Martinez speaks with this accent. Martinez's accent, however, will quickly be recognized by native Batangueños as representative of the accent in western Batangas which is milder compared to that used in the eastern part of the province.[citation needed] Code-switching[edit] Taglish and Englog are names given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs. Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to outright code-switching, where the language changes in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog. Code-mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are "Filipinized" by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use. "Magshoshopping kami sa mall. Sino ba ang magdadrive sa shopping center?" "We will go shopping at the mall. Who will drive to the shopping center?" City-dwellers, the highly educated, and people born around and after World War II are more likely to do this. The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Mart, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.


Phonology[edit] Main article: Tagalog phonology This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Tagalog has 33 phonemes: 19 of them are consonants and 14 are vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple, being maximally consonant-ar-vowel-consonant, where consonant-ar only occurs in borrowed words such as trak "truck" or sombréro "hat".[31] Vowels[edit] Tagalog has ten simple vowels, five long and five short, and four diphthongs.[31] Before appearing in the area north of Pasig river, Tagalog had three vowel qualities: /a/, /i/, and /u/. This was later expanded to five with the introduction of words from Northern Philippine languages like Kapampangan and Ilocano and Spanish words. Table of the five general Tagalog vowel phonemes Front Central Back Close i ⟨i⟩ u ⟨u⟩ Mid ɛ ⟨e⟩ o̞ ⟨o⟩ Open a ⟨a⟩ /a/ an open central unrounded vowel roughly similar to English "father"; in the middle of a word, a near-open central vowel similar to Received Pronunciation "cup"; or an open front unrounded vowel similar to Received Pronunciation or California English "hat" /ɛ/ an open-mid front unrounded vowel similar to General American English "bed" /i/ a close front unrounded vowel similar to English "machine" /o/ a mid back rounded vowel similar to General American English "soul" or Philippine English "forty" /u/ a close back rounded vowel similar to English "flute" Nevertheless, simplification of pairs [o ~ u] and [ɛ ~ i] is likely to take place, especially in some Tagalog as second language, remote location and worker class registers. The four diphthongs are /aj/, /uj/, /aw/, and /iw/. Long vowels are not written apart from pedagogical texts, where an acute accent is used: á é í ó ú.[31] Table of all possible realizations of Tagalog vowels Front Central Back Close i ⟨i⟩ u ⟨u⟩ Near-close ɪ ⟨i⟩ ʊ ⟨u⟩ Mid ɛ̝ ⟨e⟩ o̞ ⟨o⟩ Open-mid ɛ ⟨e⟩ ɔ ⟨o⟩ Near-open ɐ ⟨a⟩ Open a ⟨a⟩ ä ⟨a⟩ The table above shows all the possible realizations for each of the five vowel sounds depending on the speaker's origin or proficiency. The five general vowels are in bold. Consonants[edit] Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word. Loanword variants using these phonemes are italicized inside the angle brackets. Tagalog consonant phonemes[31] Bilabial Alveolar/Dental Post-alveolar/Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ɲ ⟨ny, niy⟩ ŋ ⟨ng⟩ Stop p ⟨p⟩ b ⟨b⟩ t ⟨t⟩ d ⟨d⟩ k ⟨k⟩ g ⟨g⟩ ʔ Affricate (ts ⟨ts⟩) tʃ ⟨ts, tiy, ty, ch⟩ dʒ ⟨diy, dy, j⟩ Fricative s ⟨s⟩ ʃ ⟨siy, sy, sh⟩ h ⟨h, j⟩ Approximant l ⟨l⟩ j ⟨y⟩ w ⟨w⟩ Rhotic ɾ ⟨r⟩ /k/ between vowels has a tendency to become [x] as in loch, German "Bach", whereas in the initial position it has a tendency to become [kx], especially in the Manila dialect. Intervocalic /ɡ/ and /k/ tend to become [ɰ], as in Spanish "agua", especially in the Manila dialect. /ɾ/ and /d/ were once allophones, and they still vary grammatically, with initial /d/ becoming intervocalic /ɾ/ in many words.[31] A glottal stop that occurs in pausa (before a pause) is omitted when it is in the middle of a phrase,[31] especially in the Metro Manila area. The vowel it follows is then lengthened. However, it is preserved in many other dialects. The /ɾ/ phoneme is an alveolar rhotic that has a free variation between a trill, a flap and an approximant ([r~ɾ~ɹ]). The /dʒ/ phoneme may become a consonant cluster [dd͡ʒ] in between vowels such as sadyâ [sadˈd͡ʒäʔ]. Glottal stop is not indicated.[31] Glottal stops are most likely to occur when: the word starts with a vowel, like "aso" (dog) the word includes a dash followed by a vowel, like "mag-aral" (study) the word has two vowels next to each other, like "paano" (how) the word starts with a prefix followed by a verb that starts with a vowel, like "mag-aayos" ([will] fix) Lexical stress[edit] Lexical stress, coupled with glottalization, is a distinctive feature in Tagalog. Primary stress normally occurs on either the final or the penultimate syllable of a word. Long vowel accompany primary or secondary stress unless the stress occurs at the end of a word. Tagalog words are often distinguished from one another by the position of the stress and the presence of the glottal stop. In general, there are four types of phonetic emphases, which, in formal or academic settings, are indicated with a diacritic (tuldík) above the vowel. The penultimate primary stress position (malumay) is the default stress type and so is left unwritten except in dictionaries. The name of each stress type has its corresponding diacritic in the final vowel. Phonetic comparison of Tagalog homographs based on stress and glottalization Lexicon Stressed non-ultimate syllable Stressed ultimate syllable Unstressed ultimate syllable with glottal stop Stressed ultimate syllable with glottal stop baka [ˈbaka] [ˈbaxa] ('cow') [bɐˈka] [bɐˈxa] ('possible') pito [ˈpito] ('whistle') [pɪˈto] ('seven') kaibigan [ˈkaɪbɪɡan] ('lover') / [kɐɪˈbiɡan] ('friend') bayaran [bɐˈjaran] ('pay [imperative]') [bɐjɐˈran] ('for hire') bata [ˈbata] ('bath robe') [bɐˈta] ('persevere') [ˈbataʔ] ('child') sala [ˈsala] ('living room') [ˈsalaʔ] ('sin') [sɐˈlaʔ] ('filtered') baba [ˈbaba] ('father') [baˈba] ('piggy back') [ˈbabaʔ] ('chin') [bɐˈbaʔ] ('descend [imperative]') labi [ˈlabɛʔ]/[ˈlabiʔ] ('lips') [lɐˈbɛʔ]/[lɐˈbiʔ] ('remains')


Grammar[edit] Main articles: Austronesian alignment and Tagalog grammar


Writing system[edit] See also: Filipino orthography This article contains Baybayin script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Baybayin characters. Tagalog, like other Philippines languages today, is written using the Latin alphabet. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1521 and the beginning of their colonization in 1565, Tagalog was written in an abugida–or alphasyllabary—called Baybayin. This system of writing gradually gave way to the use and propagation of the Latin alphabet as introduced by the Spanish. As the Spanish began to record and create grammars and dictionaries for the various languages of the Philippine archipelago, they adopted systems of writing closely following the orthographic customs of the Spanish langauge and were refined over the years. Until the first half of the 20th century, most Philippine languages were widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. In the late 19th century, a number of educated Filipinos began proposing for revising the spelling system used for Tagalog at the time. In 1884, Filipino doctor and student of langauges Trinidad Pardo de Tavera published his study on the ancient Tagalog script Contribucion para el Estudio de los Antiguos Alfabetos Filipinos and in 1887, published his essay El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog which made use of a new writing system developed by him. Meanwhile, Jose Rizal, inspired by Pardo de Tavera's 1884 work, also began developing a new system of orthography (unaware at first of Pardo de Tavera's own orthography).[32] A major noticeable change in these proposed orthographies was the use of the letter ⟨k⟩ rather than ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ to represent the phoneme /k/. In 1889, the new bilingual Spanish-Tagalog La España Oriental newspaper, of which Isabelo de los Reyes was an editor, began publishing using the new orthography stating in a footnote that it would "use the orthography recently introduced by ... learned Orientalis". This new orthography, while having its supporters, was also not initially accepted by several writers. Soon after the first issue of La España, Pascual H. Poblete's Revista Católica de Filipina began a series of articles attacking the new orthography and its proponents. A fellow writer, Pablo Tecson was also critical. Among the attacks was the use of the letters "k" and "w" as they were deemed to be of German origin and thus its proponents were deemed as "unpatriotic". The publishers of these two papers would eventually merge as La Lectura Popular in January 1890 and would eventually make use of both spelling systems in its articles.[33][32] Pedro Laktaw, a schoolteacher, published the first Spanish-Tagalog dictionary using the new orthography in 1890.[33] In April 1890, Jose Rizal authored an article Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagalog in the Madrid-based periodical La Solidaridad. In it, he addressed the criticisms of the new writing system by writers like Pobrete and Tecson and the simplicity, in his opinion, of the new orthography. Rizal described the orthography promoted by Pardo de Tavera as "more perfect" than what he himself had developed.[33] The new orthography was however not broadly adopted initially and was used inconsistently in the bilingual periodicals of Manila until the early 20th century.[33] The revolutionary society Kataás-taasan, Kagalang-galang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan or Katipunan made use of the k-orthography and the letter k featured prominently on many of its flags and insignias.[33] In 1937, Tagalog was selected to serve as basis for the country's national language. In 1940, the Balarílà ng Wikang Pambansâ (English: Grammar of the National Language) of grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced the Abakada alphabet. This alphabet consists of 20 letters and became the standard alphabet of the national langauge.[34] The orthography as used by Tagalog would eventually influence and spread to the systems of writing used by other Philippine languages (which had been using variants of the Spanish-based system of writing). In 1987, the ABAKADA was dropped and in its place is the expanded Filipino alphabet. Baybayin[edit] Main article: Baybayin Tagalog was written in an abugida—or alphasyllabary—called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi. Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule. There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables. A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the consonant without a following vowel was simply left out (for example, bundok being rendered as budo), forcing the reader to use context when reading such words. Example: Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog". a e/i o/u ka ga nga ta da/ra na pa ba ma ya la wa sa ha vowels ᜔ a ᜀ i e ᜁ u o ᜂ b b ᜊ᜔ ba ᜊ bi be ᜊᜒ bu bo ᜊᜓ k k ᜃ᜔ ka ᜃ ki ke ᜃᜒ ku ko ᜃᜓᜓ d/r d/r ᜇ᜔ da/ra ᜇ di/ri de/re ᜇᜒ du/ru do/ro ᜇᜓ g g ᜄ᜔ ga ᜄ gi ge ᜄᜒ gu go ᜄᜓ h h ᜑ᜔ ha ᜑ hi he ᜑᜒ hu ho ᜑᜓ l l ᜎ᜔ la ᜎ li le ᜎᜒ lu lo ᜎᜓ m m ᜋ᜔ ma ᜋ mi me ᜋᜒ mu mo ᜋᜓ n n ᜈ᜔ na ᜈ ni ne ᜈᜒ nu no ᜈᜓ ng ng ᜅ᜔ nga ᜅ ngi nge ᜅᜒ ngu ngo ᜅᜓ p p ᜉ᜔ pa ᜉ pi pe ᜉᜒ pu po ᜉᜓ s s ᜐ᜔ sa ᜐ si se ᜐᜒ su so ᜐᜓ t t ᜆ᜔ ta ᜆ ti te ᜆᜒ tu to ᜆᜓ w w ᜏ᜔ wa ᜏ wi we ᜏᜒ wu wo ᜏᜓ y y ᜌ᜔ ya ᜌ yi ye ᜌᜒ yu yo ᜌᜓ Latin alphabet[edit] Abecedario[edit] Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called 'ABECEDARIO' (Spanish for "alphabet"):[35][36] Majuscule Minuscule Majuscule Minuscule A a Ng ng B b Ñ ñ C c N͠g / Ñg n͠g / ñg Ch ch O o D d P p E e Q q F f R r G g Rr rr H h S s I i T t J j U u K k V v L l W w Ll ll X x M m Y y N n Z z Abakada[edit] Main article: Abakada alphabet When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà:[37][38][39] Majuscule Minuscule Majuscule Minuscule A a N n B b Ng ng K k O o D d P p E e R r G g S s H h T t I i U u L l W w M m Y y Revised alphabet[edit] Main article: Filipino alphabet In 1987, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet[40][41] to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English:[42] Majuscule Minuscule Majuscule Minuscule A a Ñ ñ B b Ng ng C c O o D d P p E e Q q F f R r G g S s H h T t I i U u J j V v K k W w L l X x M m Y y N n Z z ng and mga[edit] See also: ng (digraph) The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga are abbreviations that are pronounced nang [naŋ] and mangá [mɐˈŋa]. Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent (equivalent to the suffix -ly in English adverbs), among other uses. Mga (pronounced as "muh-NGA") denotes plurality as adding an s, es, or ies does in English (ex. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes)). Nang si Hudas ay nadulás.—When Judas slipped. Gumising siya nang maaga.—He woke up early. Gumalíng nang todo si Juan dahil nag-ensayo siya.—Juan greatly improved because he practiced. In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noong (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling na todo/Todong gumaling). The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word: Naghintáy sila nang naghintáy.—They kept on waiting" (a closer calque: "They were waiting and waiting.") pô/hô and opò/ohò[edit] The words pô/hô and opò/ohò are traditionally used as polite iterations of the affirmative "oo" ("yes"). It is generally used when addressing elders or superiors such as bosses or teachers. "Pô" and "opò" are specifically used to denote a high level of respect when addressing older persons of close affinity like parents, relatives, teachers and family friends. "Hô" and "ohò" are generally used to politely address older neighbours, strangers, public officials, bosses and nannies, and may suggest a distance in societal relationship and respect determined by the addressee's social rank and not their age. However, "pô" and "opò" can be used in any case in order to express an elevation of respect. Example: "Pakitapon naman pô/ho yung basura." ("Please throw away the trash.") Used in the affirmative: Ex: "Gutóm ka na ba?" "Opò/Ohò". ("Are you hungry yet?" "Yes.") Pô/Hô may also be used in negation. Ex: "Hindi ko pô/hô alam 'yan." ("I don't know that.")


Vocabulary and borrowed words[edit] See also: Indosphere, Indianisation, and List of India-related topics in the Philippines Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of native Austronesian origin - most of the words that end with the diphthongs -iw, (e.g. saliw) and those words that exhibit reduplication (e.g. halo-halo, patpat, etc.). However it has a significant number of Spanish loanwords. Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loanwords to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish has even surpassed Malay in terms of loanwords borrowed. About 40% of everyday, informal Tagalog conversation is made up of Spanish loanwords.[citation needed] Tagalog also includes many loanwords from English, Indian (Vedic Sanskrit, Sanskrit and Tamil), Chinese (Hokkien, Yue Chinese (Cantonese), Mandarin), Japanese, Arabic, Persian. Due to trade with Mexico via the Manila galleons from the 16th to the 19th centuries, many words from Nahuatl were introduced to Tagalog, but some of them were replaced by Spanish loanwords in the latter part of the Spanish colonization in the islands. The Philippines has long been a melting pot of nations. The islands have been subject to different influences and a meeting point of numerous migrations since the early prehistoric origins of trading activities, especially from the time of the Neolithic Period, Silk Road, Tang Dynasty, Ming Dynasty, Ryukyu Kingdom and Manila Galleon trading periods. This means that the evolution of the language is difficult to reconstruct (although many theories exist). In pre-Hispanic times, Trade Malay was widely known and spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia. English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang-ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.[citation needed] Other examples of Tagalog words used in English Example Definition boondocks meaning "rural" or "back country," was imported by American soldiers stationed in the Philippines following the Spanish–American War as a mispronounced version of the Tagalog bundok, which means "mountain." cogon a type of grass, used for thatching. This word came from the Tagalog word kugon (a species of tall grass). ylang-ylang a tree whose fragrant flowers are used in perfumes. Abaca a type of hemp fiber made from a plant in the banana family, from abaká. Manila hemp a light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper usually made from abaca hemp. Capiz also known as window oyster, is used to make windows. Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from balan͠gay, meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, dalaga etc. Tagalog words of foreign origin[edit] Main article: List of loanwords in Tagalog Cognates with other Philippine languages[edit] Tagalog word meaning language of origin original spelling bakit why Kapampangan obakit akyat climb/step up Kapampangan ukyát/mukyat at and Kapampangan at bundok mountain Kapampangan bunduk huwag don't Pangasinan ag aso dog South Cordilleran or Ilocano (also Ilokano) aso tayo we (inc.) South Cordilleran or Ilocano tayo ito, nito this, its South Cordilleran or Ilocano to ng of Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Kapampangan Pangasinan Ilocano sa sg (pronounced as /sang/) han ning na nga araw sun; day Visayan languages adlaw ang definite article Visayan languages Central Bikol ang an


Austronesian comparison chart[edit] Below is a chart of Tagalog and twenty other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words. English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we (inclusive) what fire Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua (rua) telu epat tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai, kita apa api Central Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam/ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo Cebuano usa/isa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo Aklanon isaea, sambilog, uno daywa, dos tatlo, tres ap-at, kwatro tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool Ilocano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi Yogad tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu iyyog agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu piasau tadau vagu tokou onu tapui Malaysian satu dua tiga empat orang rumah anjing kelapa/ nyior hari baru/ baharu kita apa api Indonesian satu dua tiga empat orang rumah/balai anjing kelapa/nyiur hari baru kita apa/anu api Javanese siji loro telu papat uwong omah asu klapa/kambil hari anyar/enggal kita apa/anu geni Acehnese sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh/balèë asèë u uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apuy Lampungese sai khua telu pak jelema lamban asu nyiwi khani baru kham api apui Buginese sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu kaluku esso baru idi' aga api Bataknese sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang harambiri ari baru hita aha api Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu nuu loron foun ita saida ahi Maori tahi rua toru wha tangata whare kuri kokonati ra hou taua aha ahi Tuvaluan tasi lua tolu fá toko fale kuri moku aso fou tāua ā afi Hawaiian kahi lua kolu hā kanaka hale 'īlio niu ao hou kākou aha ahi Banjarese asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan kǎlapa hǎri hanyar kita apa api Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika voanio andro vaovao isika inona afo Dusun iso duo tolu apat tulun walai tasu piasau tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui Iban satu dua tiga empat orang rumah asu nyur ari baru kitai nama api Melanau satu dua telou empat apah lebok asou nyior lau baew teleu nama apui


Religious literature[edit] Religious literature remains one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. The first Bible in Tagalog, then called Ang Biblia[43] ("the Bible") and now called Ang Dating Biblia[44] ("the Old Bible"), was published in 1905. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into modern Tagalog. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been in circulation. There are at least four circulating Tagalog translations of the Bible the Magandang Balita Biblia (a parallel translation of the Good News Bible), which is the ecumenical version the Bibliya ng Sambayanang Pilipino the 1905 Ang Biblia is a more Protestant version the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan (New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures) When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. The Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982. Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941[45] and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1950s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog.[46] Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.


Examples[edit] Lord's Prayer[edit] In Tagalog, the Lord's Prayer is exclusively known by its incipit, Amá Namin (literally, "Our Father"). Amá namin, sumasalangit Ka Sambahín ang ngalan Mo. Mapasaamin ang kaharián Mo. Sundín ang loób Mo, Dito sa lupà, gaya nang sa langit. Bigyán Mo kamí ngayón ng aming kakanin sa araw-araw, At patawarin Mo kamí sa aming mga salâ, Para nang pagpápatawad namin, Sa nagkakasalà sa amin; At huwág Mo kamíng ipahintulot sa tuksó, At iadyâ Mo kamí sa lahát ng masamâ. [Sapagkát sa Inyó ang kaharián, at ang kapangyarihan, At ang kaluwálhatian, ngayón, at magpakailanman.] Amen Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit] This is Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Pángkalahatáng Pagpapahayag ng Karapatáng Pantao) Bawat tao'y isinilang na may layà at magkakapantáy ang tagláy na dangál at karapatán. Silá'y pinagkalooban ng pangangatwiran at budhî na kailangang gamitin nilá sa pagtuturingan nilá sa diwà ng pagkakapatiran. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[47] Numbers[edit] The numbers (mga bilang) in Tagalog language are of two sets. The first set consists of native Tagalog words and the other set are Spanish loanwords. (This may be compared to other East Asian languages, except with the second set of numbers borrowed from Spanish instead of Chinese.) For example, when a person refers to the number "seven", it can be translated into Tagalog as "pito" or "syete" (Spanish: siete). Number Cardinal Spanish loanword (Original Spanish) Ordinal 0 sero / walâ (lit. "null") / bokyà sero (cero) - 1 isá uno (uno) una 2 dalawá [dalaua] dos (dos) pangalawá / ikalawá (informally, ikadalawá) 3 tatló tres (tres) pangatló / ikatló 4 apat kuwatro (cuatro) pang-apat / ikaapat ("ika" and the number-word are never hyphenated. For numbers, however, they always are.) 5 limá singko (cinco) panlimá / ikalimá 6 anim sais (seis) pang-anim / ikaanim 7 pitó siyete (siete) pampitó / ikapitó 8 waló otso (ocho) pangwaló / ikawaló 9 siyám nuwebe (nueve) pansiyám / ikasiyám 10 sampû [sang puo] diyés (diez) pansampû / ikasampû (or ikapû in some literary compositions) 11 labíng-isá onse (once) panlabíng-isá / pang-onse / ikalabíng-isá 12 labíndalawá dose (doce) panlabíndalawá / pandose / ikalabíndalawá 13 labíntatló trese (trece) panlabíntatló / pantrese / ikalabíntatló 14 labíng-apat katorse (catorce) panlabíng-apat / pangkatorse / ikalabíng-apat 15 labínlimá kinse (quince) panlabínlimá / pangkinse / ikalabínlimá 16 labíng-anim disisaís (dieciséis) panlabíng-anim / pandyes-sais / ikalabíng-anim 17 labímpitó dissisyete (diecisiete) panlabímpitó / pandyes-syete / ikalabímpitó 18 labíngwaló dissiotso (dieciocho) panlabíngwaló / pandyes-otso / ikalabíngwaló 19 labinsiyám disinuwebe (diecinueve) panlabinsiyám / pandyes-nwebe / ikalabinsiyám 20 dalawampû bente / beinte (veinte) pandalawampû / ikadalawampû (rare literary variant: ikalawampû) 21 dalawampú't isá bente'y uno (veintiuno) pang-dalawampú't isá / ikalawamapú't isá 30 tatlumpû trenta / treinta (treinta) pantatlumpû / ikatatlumpû (rare literary variant: ikatlumpû) 40 apatnapû kuwarenta (cuarenta) pang-apatnapû / ikaapatnapû 50 limampû singkuwenta (cincuenta) panlimampû / ikalimampû 60 animnapû sesenta (sesenta) pang-animnapû / ikaanimnapû 70 pitumpû setenta (setenta) pampitumpû / ikapitumpû 80 walumpû otsenta / utsenta (ochenta) pangwalumpû / ikawalumpû 90 siyamnapû nobenta (noventa) pansiyamnapû / ikasiyamnapû 100 sándaán siyento (cien) pan(g)-(i)sándaán / ikasándaán (rare literary variant: ika-isándaan) 200 dalawandaán dos siyentos (doscientos) pandalawándaán / ikadalawandaan (rare literary variant: ikalawándaán) 300 tatlóndaán tres siyentos (trescientos) pantatlóndaán / ikatatlondaan (rare literary variant: ikatlóndaán) 400 apat na raán kuwatro siyentos (cuatrocientos) pang-apat na raán / ikaapat na raán 500 limándaán kinyentos (quinientos) panlimándaán / ikalimándaán 600 anim na raán sais siyentos (seiscientos) pang-anim na raán / ikaanim na raán 700 pitondaán siyete siyentos (sietecientos) pampitóndaán / ikapitóndaán (or ikapitóng raán) 800 walóndaán otso siyentos (ochocientos) pangwalóndaán / ikawalóndaán (or ikawalóng raán) 900 siyám na raán nuwebe siyentos (novecientos) pansiyám na raán / ikasiyám na raán 1,000 sánlibo mil (mil) pan(g)-(i)sánlibo / ikasánlibo 2,000 dalawánlibo dos mil (dos mil) pangalawáng libo / ikalawánlibo 10,000 sánlaksâ / sampúng libo diyes mil (diez mil) pansampúng libo / ikasampúng libo 20,000 dalawanlaksâ / dalawampúng libo bente mil (veinte mil) pangalawampúng libo / ikalawampúng libo 100,000 sangyutá / sandaáng libo siyento mil (cien mil)   200,000 dalawangyutá / dalawandaáng libo dos siyento mil (dos cientos mil)   1,000,000 sang-angaw / sangmilyón milyón (un millón)   2,000,000 dalawang-angaw / dalawang milyón dos milyón (dos millones)   10,000,000 sangkatì / sampung milyón dyes milyón (diez millones)   100,000,000 sampúngkatì / sandaáng milyón syento milyón (cien millones)   1,000,000,000 sang-atos / sambilyón bilyón (un billón)   1,000,000,000,000 sang-ipaw / santrilyón trilyón (un trillón)   Number English Ordinal Spanish Cardinal 1st first primero/a una / ika-isá 2nd second segundo/a ikalawá 3rd third tercero/a ikatló 4th fourth cuarto/a ika-apat 5th fifth quinto/a ikalimá 6th sixth sexto/a ika-anim 7th seventh séptimo/a ikapitó 8th eighth octavo/a ikawaló 9th ninth noveno/a ikasiyám 10th tenth décimo/a ikasampû 1/2 half media kalahatì 1/4 quarter cuarta kapat 3/5 three-fifths tres quintas partes tatlóng-kalimá 2/3 two-thirds dos tercios dalawáng-katló 1 1/2 one half un medio isá't kalahatì 2 2/3 two two-thirds dos de dos tercios dalawá't dalawáng-katló 0.5 zero point five cero punto cinco salapî / limá hinatì sa sampû 0.005 zero point zero zero five cero punto cero cero cinco bagól / limá hinatì sa sanlibo 1.25 one point twenty-five uno punto veinticinco isá't dalawampú't limá hinatì sa sampû 2.025 two point zero twenty-five dos punto cero veinticinco dalawá't dalawampú't limá hinatì sa sanlibo 25% twenty-five percent veinticinco por ciento dalawampú't-limáng bahagdán 50% fifty percent cincuenta por ciento limampúng bahagdán 75% seventy-five percent setenta y cinco por ciento pitumpú't-limáng bahagdán Months and days[edit] Months and days in Tagalog are also localised forms of Spanish months and days. "Month" in Tagalog is buwán (also the word for moon) and "day" is araw (the word also means sun). Unlike Spanish, however, months and days in Tagalog are always capitalised. Month Original Spanish Tagalog (abbreviation) January enero Enero (Ene.) February febrero Pebrero (Peb.) March marzo Marso (Mar.) April abril Abríl (Abr.) May mayo Mayo (Mayo) June junio Hunyo (Hun.) July julio Hulyo (Hul.) August agosto Agosto (Ago.) September septiembre Setyembre (Set.) October octubre Oktubre (Okt.) November noviembre Nobyembre (Nob.) December diciembre Disyembre (Dis.) Day Original Spanish Tagalog Monday lunes Lunes Tuesday martes Martes Wednesday miércoles Miyérkules / Myérkules Thursday jueves Huwebes / Hwebes Friday viernes Biyernes / Byernes Saturday sábado Sábado Sunday domingo Linggó Time[edit] Time expressions in Tagalog are also Tagalized forms of the corresponding Spanish. "Time" in Tagalog is panahon, or more commonly oras. Unlike Spanish and English, times in Tagalog are capitalized whenever they appear in a sentence. Time English Original Spanish Tagalog 1 hour one hour una hora Isang oras 2 min two minutes dos minutos Dalawang sandali/minuto 3 sec three seconds tres segundos Tatlong saglit/segundo morning mañana Umaga afternoon tarde Hapon evening/night noche Gabi noon mediodía Tanghali midnight medianoche Hatinggabi 1:00 am one in the morning una de la mañana Ika-isa ng umaga 7:00 pm seven at night siete de la noche Ikapito ng gabi 1:15 quarter past one quarter after one one-fifteen una y cuarto Kapat makalipas ikaisa Labinlima makalipas ikaisa Apatnapu't-lima bago mag-ikaisa 2:30 half past two two-thirty dos y media Kalahati makalipas ikalawa Tatlumpu makalipas ikalawa 3:45 three-forty-five quarter to/of four tres y cuarenta y cinco Tatlong-kapat makalipas ikatlo Apatnapu't-lima makalipas ikatlo Labinlima bago mag-ikaapat 4:25 four-twenty-five cuatro y veinticinco Dalawampu't-lima makalipas ikaapat Tatlumpu't-lima bago mag-ikaapat 5:35 five-thirty-five twenty-five to/of six cinco y treinta y cinco Tatlumpu't-lima makalipas ikalima Dalawampu't-lima bago mag-ikaanim


Common phrases[edit] English Tagalog (with Pronunciation) Filipino Pilipino [ˌpiːliˈpiːno] English Inglés [ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs] Tagalog Tagalog [tɐˈɡaːloɡ] Spanish "Espanyol/Español" What is your name? Anó ang pangalan ninyo/nila*? (plural or polite) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan nɪnˈjo], Anó ang pangalan mo? (singular) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan mo] How are you? kumustá [kʊmʊsˈta] (modern), Anó po áng lagáy ninyo/nila? (old use) Good morning! Magandáng umaga! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ uˈmaːɡa] Good noontime! (from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.) Magandáng tanghali! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ taŋˈhaːlɛ] Good afternoon! (from 1 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.) Magandáng hapon! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ˈhaːpon] Good evening! Magandáng gabí! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ɡɐˈbɛ] Good-bye paálam [pɐˈʔaːlam] Please Depending on the nature of the verb, either pakí- [pɐˈki] or makí- [mɐˈki] is attached as a prefix to a verb. ngâ [ŋaʔ] is optionally added after the verb to increase politeness. (e.g. Pakipasa ngâ ang tinapay. ("Can you pass the bread, please?")) Thank you Salamat [sɐˈlaːmat] This one ito [ʔiˈtoh], sometimes pronounced [ʔɛˈtoh] (literally—"it", "this") That one iyan [ʔiˈjan], When pointing to something at greater distances: iyun [ʔiˈjʊn] or iyon [ʔiˈjon] Here dito [dɪˈtoh], heto [hɛˈtoh] ("Here it is") There doon [dʒan], hayan [hɑˈjan] ("There it is") How much? Magkano? [mɐɡˈkaːno] Yes oo [ˈoːʔo] opô [ˈʔopoʔ] or ohô [ˈʔohoʔ] (formal/polite form) No hindî [hɪnˈdɛʔ], often shortened to dî [dɛʔ] hindî pô (formal/polite form) I don't know hindî ko álam [hɪnˈdɛʔ ko aːlam] Very informal: ewan [ʔɛˈʊɑn], archaic aywan [ɑjˈʊɑn] (closest English equivalent: colloquial dismissive 'Whatever') Sorry pasensya pô (literally from the word "patience") or paumanhin po [pɐˈsɛːnʃa poʔ] patawad po [pɐtaːwad poʔ] (literally—"asking your forgiveness") Because kasí [kɐˈsɛ] or dahil [dɑˈhɪl] Hurry! dalí! [dɐˈli], bilís! [bɪˈlis] Again mulí [muˈli], ulít [ʊˈlɛt] I don't understand Hindî ko naiintindihan [hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔɪɪnˌtɪndiˈhan] or Hindi ko nauunawaan [hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔʊʊnawaʔˌʔan] What? Anó? [ɐˈno] Where? Saán? [sɐˈʔan], Nasaán? [ˌnaːsɐˈʔan] (literally - "Where at?") Why? Bakít? [bɑˈkɛt] When? Kailan? [kɑjˈlɑn], [kɑˈɪˈlɑn], or [kɛˈlɑn] (literally—"In what order?/"At what count?"") How? Paánó? [pɑˌɐˈno] (literally—"By what?") Where's the bathroom? Nasaán ang banyo? [ˌnaːsɐˈʔan ʔaŋ ˈbaːnjo] Generic toast Mabuhay! [mɐˈbuːhaɪ] (literally—"long live") Do you speak English? Marunong ka bang magsalitâ ng Ingglés? [mɐˈɾuːnoŋ ka baŋ mɐɡsaliˈtaː naŋ ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs] Marunong po ba kayong magsalitâ ng Ingglés? (polite version for elders and strangers) Marunong ka bang mag-Ingglés? (short form) Marunong po ba kayong mag-Ingglés? (short form, polite version for elders and strangers) It is fun to live. Masaya ang mabuhay! [mɐˈsaˈja ʔaŋ mɐˈbuːhaɪ] or Masaya'ng mabuhay (contracted version) *Pronouns such as niyo (2nd person plural) and nila (3rd person plural) are used on a single 2nd person in polite or formal language. See Tagalog grammar. Proverbs[edit] Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinánggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal) One who knows not how to look back from whence he came, will never get to where he is going. Tao ka nang humarap, bilang tao kitang haharapin. (A proverb in Southern Tagalog that made people aware the significance of sincerity in Tagalog communities. It says, "As a human you reach me, I treat you as a human and never act as a traitor.") Hulí man daw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin. (Hulí man raw at magalíng, nakákahabol pa rin.) If one is behind but capable, one will still be able to catch up. Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising. Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never one who has just awakened. Aanhín pa ang damó kung patáy na ang kabayo? What use is the grass if the horse is already dead? Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buóng katawán. The pain in the pinkie is felt by the whole body. (In a group, if one goes down, the rest follow.) Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi. Regret is always in the end. Pagkáhabà-habà man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy. The procession may stretch on and on, but it still ends up at the church. (In romance: refers to how certain people are destined to be married. In general: refers to how some things are inevitable, no matter how long you try and postpone it.) Kung 'dî mádaán sa santóng dasalan, daanin sa santóng paspasan. If it cannot be got through holy prayer, get it through blessed force. (In romance and courting: santóng paspasan literally means 'holy speeding' and is a euphemism for sexual intercourse. It refers to the two styles of courting by Filipino boys: one is the traditional, protracted, restrained manner favoured by older generations, which often featured serenades and manual labour for the girl's parents; the other is upfront seduction, which may lead to a slap on the face or a pregnancy out of wedlock. The second conclusion is known as pikot or what Western cultures would call a 'shotgun marriage'. This proverb is also applied in terms of diplomacy and negotiation.)


Majority provinces[edit] Northern Tagalog[edit] Central Luzon Region Bataan Bulacan Nueva Ecija Zambales Central Tagalog[edit] National Capital Region Metro Manila (commonly, Taglish) (including Rizal) Southern Tagalog[edit] Southern Luzon (mainly) Calabarzon and Mimaropa Batangas Cavite Laguna Marinduque Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Quezon Romblon (including Aurora) (including Palawan)


See also[edit] Philippines portal Language portal Abakada alphabet Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino Filipino alphabet Old Tagalog Filipino orthography Tagalog Wikipedia


References[edit] ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ Filipino at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) ^ Resulta mula sa 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational Characteristics of the Filipinos, National Statistics Office, 18 March 2005, archived from the original on 27 January 2008  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tagalogic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tagalog/Filipino". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ According to the OED and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ^ Zorc, David. 1977. "The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction". Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University ^ Blust, Robert. 1991. "The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129 ^ Spieker-Salazar, Marlies (1992). "A contribution to Asian Historiography : European studies of Philippines languages from the 17th to the 20th century". Archipel. 44 (1): 183–202. doi:10.3406/arch.1992.2861.  ^ Cruz, H. (1906). Kun sino ang kumathâ ng̃ "Florante": kasaysayan ng̃ búhay ni Francisco Baltazar at pag-uulat nang kanyang karunung̃a't kadakilaan. Libr. "Manila Filatélico,". Retrieved January 8, 2017.  ^ Juan José de Noceda, Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, Manila 2013, pg iv, Komision sa Wikang Filipino ^ Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, Manila 1860 at Google Books ^ Juan José de Noceda, Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, Manila 2013, Komision sa Wikang Filipino. ^ 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Article VIII, Filipiniana.net, archived from the original on 2009-02-28, retrieved 2008-01-16  ^ 1935 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20  ^ a b Manuel L. Quezon III, Quezon’s speech proclaiming Tagalog the basis of the National Language (PDF), quezon.ph, retrieved 2010-03-26  ^ a b c Andrew Gonzalez (1998), "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF), Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19 (5, 6): 487–488, doi:10.1080/01434639808666365, retrieved 2007-03-24.  ^ 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Sections 2–3, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20  ^ a b c 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Sections 6–9, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20  ^ Gonzales, A. (1998). Language planning situation in the Philippines. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19(5), 487-525. ^ Order No. 74 (2009). Department of Education. ^ DO 16, s. 2012 ^ Dumlao, Artemio (21 May 2012). [www.philstar.com/headlines/807083/k12-use-12-mother-tongues "K+12 to use 12 mother tongues"] Check |url= value (help). philstar.com.  ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000 ^ a b Lewis, M.P., Simons, G.F., & Fennig, C.D. (2014). Tagalog. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tgl ^ Soberano, R. (1980). The dialects of Marinduque Tagalog. Canberra: Australian National University. (Pacific Linguistics B-69). ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational characteristics of the Filipinos bat man, National Statistics Office, March 18, 2005, archived from the original on January 27, 2008, retrieved 2008-01-21  ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Population expected to reach 100 million Filipinos in 14 years, National Statistics Office, October 16, 2002, retrieved 2008-01-21  ^ "Language Use in the United States: 2007" (PDF). United States. Retrieved 2011-01-02.  ^ "Tagalog Language". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12.  ^ a b c d e f g Tagalog (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.  ^ a b [www.espanito.com/is-k-a-foreign-agent-orthography-and-patriotism-in-the-late-19.html?part=6 "Accusations of Foreign-ness of the Revista Católica de Filipinas - Is 'K' a Foreign Agent? Orthography and Patriotism..."] Check |url= value (help). www.espanito.com.  ^ a b c d e Thomas, Megan C. (8 October 2007). "K is for De-Kolonization: Anti-Colonial Nationalism and Orthographic Reform". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 49 (04): 938–967. doi:10.1017/S0010417507000813.  ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010-06-22.  ^ Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (April 10, 2001). "The evolution of the native Tagalog alphabet". Philippines: Emanila Community (emanila.com). Views & Reviews. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010.  ^ Signey, Richard, Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, The Evolution and Disappearance of the "Ğ" in Tagalog orthography since the 1593 Doctrina Christiana, ISSN 0048-3796, OCLC 1791000, retrieved August 3, 2010.  ^ Linda Trinh Võ; Rick Bonus (2002), Contemporary Asian American communities: intersections and divergences, Temple University Press, pp. 96, 100, ISBN 978-1-56639-938-8  ^ University of the Philippines College of Education (1971), "Philippine Journal of Education", Philippine Journal of Education, Philippine Journal of Education., 50: 556  ^ Perfecto T. Martin (1986), Diksiyunaryong adarna: mga salita at larawan para sa bata, Children's Communication Center, ISBN 978-971-12-1118-9  ^ Trinh & Bonus 2002, pp. 96, 100 ^ Renato Perdon; Periplus Editions (2005), Renato Perdon, ed., Pocket Tagalog Dictionary: Tagalog-English/English-Tagalog, Tuttle Publishing, pp. vi–vii, ISBN 978-0-7946-0345-8  ^ Michael G. Clyne (1997), Undoing and redoing corpus planning, Walter de Gruyter, p. 317, ISBN 978-3-11-015509-9  ^ Worth, Roland H. Biblical Studies On The Internet: A Resource Guide, 2008 (p. 43) ^ "Genesis 1 Tagalog: Ang Dating Biblia (1905)". Adb.scripturetext.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. p. 155.  ^ "Watchtower Online Library (Tagalog)". Watch Tower Society.  ^ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The United Nations.


External links[edit] For a list of words relating to Tagalog language, see the Tagalog language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Tagalog edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Tagalog Tagalog language repository of Wikisource, the free library Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Filipino phrasebook. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tagalog language. Tagalog Dictionary Tagalog verbs with conjugation Filipino Lessons Dictionary Tagalog Translate Kaipuleohone archive of Tagalog Tagalog v t e Languages of the Philippines Official languages Filipino English Regional languages Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan Indigenous languages (by region) Luzon Ilocos Bolinao Cordillera Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali Cagayan Valley Arta Atta Central Cagayan Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad Central Luzon Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget Calabarzon Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget Metro Manila Hokaglish Taglish Mimaropa Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan Bicol Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol Visayas Western Visayas Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod Negros Island Ata Karolanos Magahat Central Visayas Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon Eastern Visayas Abaknon Baybay Kabalian Mindanao Zamboanga Peninsula Subanon Northern Mindanao Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon Caraga Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa Davao Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa Soccsksargen B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray Muslim Mindanao Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama Immigrant languages Arabic Basque Chinese Mandarin Hokkien French German Japanese Korean Malay Indonesian Malaysian Sindhi Spanish History Vietnamese Sign languages American Sign Philippine Sign Historical languages Proto-Philippine Old Tagalog v t e Philippine languages Northern Philippine Batanic (Bashiic) ? Itbayat Ivatan Yami Northern Luzon Ilocano Arta † Dicamay Agta † Cagayan Valley Ibanag Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang South-Central Cordilleran Pangasinan Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Central Luzon Kapampangan Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Northern Mindoro Alangan Iraya Tadyawan Greater Central Philippine ? Southern Mindoro Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid Central Philippine Tagalic Tagalog Kasiguranin Bikol Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Albay Bikol Mount Iriga Agta Rinconada Pandan Bikol Visayan Cebuano Boholano Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Karay-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Baybayanon Kabalian Bantayanon Porohanon Romblomanon Caluyanon Onhan Cuyunon Ratagnon Surigaonon Butuanon Bisakol ? Masbateño Sorsoganon Unclassified Sulod Magahat Karolanos Ata † Mansakan Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka Palawan Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano Mindanao Subanon Danao Maguindanao Maranao Iranun Manobo Agusan Ata Manobo Matigsalug Obo Ilianen Western Bukidnon Binukid Higaonon Kagayanen Kamigin Cotabato Manobo Sarangani Tagabawa Gorontalo-Mongondow Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan Kalamian Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa Bilic Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray Sangiric Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan Minahasan Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea Unclassified Umiray Dumaget Ati Manide-Inagta Inagta Alabat Manide † indicates extinct status ? indicates classification dispute v t e Borneo–Philippine languages Philippine Northern Philippine Batanic (Bashiic) ? Itbayat Ivatan Yami Northern Luzon Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta † Central Luzon Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Northern Mindoro Alangan Iraya Tadyawan Greater Central Philippine ? Southern Mindoro Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid Central Philippine Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon Unclassified Sulod Mansakan Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka Palawan Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano Mindanao Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon Gorontalo-Mongondow Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan Kalamian Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa Bilic Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray Sangiric Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan Minahasan Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea Unclassified Umiray Dumaget Ati Manide-Inagta Inagta Alabat Manide Bornean North Bornean Sabahan Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong Unclassified Dumpas North Sarawakan Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong Unclassified Bintulu Melanau-Kajang Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak † Kayan-Murik Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik Land Dayak Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau Barito Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung Sama-Bajaw ? Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status Authority control GND: 4120352-5 NDL: 00572490 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tagalog_language&oldid=824511273" Categories: Languages attested from the 10th centuryLanguages of the PhilippinesTagalog languageSubject–verb–object languagesVerb–object–subject languagesVerb–subject–object languagesHidden categories: Language articles citing Ethnologue 18Pages with URL errorsLanguages which need ISO 639-3 commentLanguages with ISO 639-2 codeLanguages with ISO 639-1 codeArticles citing NationalencyklopedinArticles containing potentially dated statements from 2010All articles containing potentially dated statementsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from May 2015Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017Articles containing explicitly cited English-language textArticles with unsourced statements from November 2017Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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Help:IPA/TagalogPhilippinesCentral LuzonMetro ManilaSouthern TagalogTagalog PeopleSecond LanguageLanguage FamilyAustronesian LanguagesMalayo-Polynesian LanguagesPhilippine LanguagesCentral Philippine LanguagesProto-Philippine LanguageOld TagalogFilipino LanguageBatangas TagalogWriting SystemLatin ScriptAbakada AlphabetFilipino AlphabetPhilippine BrailleBaybayinPhilippinesFilipino LanguagePhilippinesList Of Language RegulatorsCommission On The Filipino LanguageISO 639-1ISO 639-2ISO 639-3ISO 639 MacrolanguageFilipino LanguageGlottologLinguasphere ObservatoryMarinduqueCamarines NorteCamarines SurBikol LanguagesSecond LanguageInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetReplacement CharacterUnicodeHelp:IPAHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:IPA/TagalogAustronesian LanguagesPhilippinesOfficial LanguageFilipino LanguageNational LanguagePhilippine EnglishPhilippine LanguagesBikol LanguagesIlocano LanguageVisayan LanguagesKapampangan LanguagePangasinan LanguageFormosan LanguagesTaiwanMalay LanguageMalaysian LanguageIndonesian LanguageHawaiian LanguageMāori LanguageMalagasy LanguageOld TagalogEndonymRobert BlustMindanaoVisayasLaguna Copperplate InscriptionSanskrit LanguageOld MalayJavanese LanguageOld TagalogDoctrina ChristianaBaybayinLatin ScriptEnlargeBaybayinPila, LagunaPablo ClainFrancisco BaltazarEpic PoetryFlorante At LauraEnlargeSpanish LanguageCentral Philippine LanguagesProto-Philippine LanguageSchwaBikol LanguagesVisayan LanguagesFilipino LanguageCzech RepublicJesuitPablo ClainVocabulario De La Lengua TagalaConstitution Of The PhilippinesDepartment Of Education (Philippines)PhilippinesCentral Philippine LanguagesAustronesian LanguagesMalayo-Polynesian LanguagesMalagasy LanguageJavanese LanguageMalay LanguageMalaysian LanguageIndonesian LanguageTetum LanguageYami LanguageBicol RegionVisayasBikol LanguagesVisayan LanguagesHiligaynon LanguageCebuano LanguageEnlargeTen CommandmentsDialectologyEthnologueMarinduqueBatangas TagalogBulacanTeresa, RizalMorong, RizalBatangas TagalogFilipino LanguageEnlargeLaguna (province)EnlargeLos Baños, LagunaKatagaluganLuzonAurora (province)BataanBatangasBulacanCaviteLaguna (province)Metro ManilaNueva EcijaQuezonRizalZambalesMarinduqueMindoroPalawanEthnic Groups In The PhilippinesSpanish LanguageSpanish-based Creole LanguagesFrench LanguageChinese LanguageAccent (sociolinguistics)Tagalog PeopleManilaBatangas TagalogWikipedia:Citation NeededBatangasFilipino PeopleLeo MartinezWikipedia:Citation NeededTaglishEnglogCode-switchingWells FargoWal-MartNew AlbertsonsMcDonald'sWestern UnionTagalog PhonologyInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetInternational Phonetic AlphabetSpecials (Unicode Block)UnicodeHelp:IPAPhonemeConsonantVowelKapampangan LanguageIlocano LanguageClose Front Unrounded VowelClose Back Rounded VowelOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelMid Back Rounded VowelOpen Front Unrounded VowelOpen Central Unrounded VowelNear-open Central VowelOpen Front Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelClose Front Unrounded VowelMid Back Rounded VowelClose Back Rounded VowelDiphthongClose Front Unrounded VowelClose Back Rounded VowelNear-close Near-front Unrounded VowelNear-close Near-back Rounded VowelMid Front Unrounded VowelMid Back Rounded VowelOpen-mid Front Unrounded VowelOpen-mid Back Rounded VowelNear-open Central Unrounded VowelOpen Front Unrounded VowelOpen Central Unrounded VowelVelar NasalBilabial ConsonantAlveolar ConsonantDental ConsonantPostalveolar ConsonantPalatal ConsonantVelar ConsonantGlottal ConsonantNasal ConsonantBilabial NasalDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsPalatal NasalVelar NasalStop ConsonantVoiceless Bilabial StopVoiced Bilabial StopVoiceless Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiceless Velar StopVoiced Velar StopGlottal StopAffricate ConsonantVoiceless Alveolar AffricateVoiceless Palato-alveolar AffricateVoiced Palato-alveolar AffricateFricative ConsonantVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Postalveolar FricativeVoiceless Glottal FricativeApproximant ConsonantDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsPalatal ApproximantVoiced Labio-velar ApproximantRhotic ConsonantDental And Alveolar FlapsPausaLexical StressGlottalizationDistinctive FeatureDiacriticAustronesian AlignmentTagalog GrammarFilipino OrthographyBaybayinHelp:Multilingual SupportMojibakeAbugidaAlphasyllabaryBaybayinTrinidad Pardo De TaveraIsabelo De Los ReyesPascual H. 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LanguageKalamian LanguagesAgutaynen LanguageCalamian Tagbanwa LanguageSouth Mindanao LanguagesBagobo LanguageBlaan LanguageTboli LanguageTiruray LanguageSangiric LanguagesSangirese LanguageTalaud LanguageBantik LanguageRatahan LanguageMinahasan LanguagesTonsawang LanguageTontemboan LanguageTombulu LanguageTondano LanguageTonsea LanguageUmiray Dumaget LanguageAti LanguageInagta Alabat LanguageManide LanguageLanguage DeathTemplate:Borneo–Philippine LanguagesTemplate Talk:Borneo–Philippine LanguagesBorneo–Philippine LanguagesPhilippine LanguagesNorthern Philippine LanguagesBatanic LanguagesItbayat LanguageIvatan LanguageYami LanguageNorthern Luzon LanguagesIlocano LanguagePangasinan LanguageIbanag LanguageArta LanguageIsnag LanguageAtta LanguageItawis LanguageYogad LanguageCagayan Aeta LanguageGaddang LanguageGa'dang LanguageNorthern Alta LanguageSouthern Alta LanguageIsinai LanguageItneg LanguageKalinga LanguageIfugao LanguageTuwali LanguageBalangao LanguageBontok LanguageKankanaey LanguageIlongot LanguageIbaloi LanguageIwaak LanguageKallahan LanguageKarao LanguageDicamay Agta LanguageCentral Luzon LanguagesKapampangan LanguageAbellen LanguageAmbala LanguageBolinao LanguageBotolan LanguageMag-antsi LanguageMag-indi LanguageMariveleño LanguageSambal LanguageRemontado Agta LanguageNorthern Mindoro LanguagesAlangan LanguageIraya LanguageTadyawan LanguageGreater Central Philippine LanguagesSouthern Mindoro LanguagesBuhid LanguageHanuno'o LanguageTawbuid LanguageCentral Philippine LanguagesCebuano LanguageHiligaynon LanguageWaray LanguageCentral Bikol LanguageTausug LanguageKinaray-a LanguageSulod LanguageAklanon LanguageCapiznon LanguageMasbatenyo LanguageAlbay Bikol LanguageAsi LanguageBantayanon LanguageBaybayanon LanguageBoholano LanguageButuanon LanguageCaluyanon LanguageCuyunon LanguageSorsoganon LanguageSorsoganon LanguageIsarog Agta LanguageKabalian LanguageMount Iraya Agta LanguageMount Iriga Agta LanguageOnhan LanguagePandan Bikol LanguagePorohanon 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