Contents 1 Background 1.1 Homosexuality in 20th-century United States 1.2 Homophile activism 1.3 Compton's Cafeteria riot 1.4 Greenwich Village 1.5 Stonewall Inn 2 Riots 2.1 Police raid 2.2 Violence breaks out 2.3 Escalation 2.4 A second night of rioting 2.5 Leaflets, press coverage, and more violence 3 Aftermath 3.1 Gay Liberation Front 3.2 Gay Activists Alliance 3.3 Gay Pride 4 Legacy 4.1 Unlikely community 4.2 Rejection of gay subculture 4.3 Lasting impact and recognition 4.4 National monument 5 Media representations 5.1 Film 5.2 Music 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links

Background[edit] Homosexuality in 20th-century United States[edit] Following the social upheaval of World War II, many people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam.[13] Spurred by the national emphasis on anti-communism, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted hearings searching for communists in the U.S. government, the U.S. Army, and other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Anarchists, communists, and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U.S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. In 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is generally believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons",[14] and said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks".[15] Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, and 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals.[16] Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, and friends; the U.S. Post Office kept track of addresses where material pertaining to homosexuality was mailed.[17] State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, and their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks, bars, and beaches of gay people. They outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, and universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual.[18] Thousands of gay men and women were publicly humiliated, physically harassed, fired, jailed, or institutionalized in mental hospitals. Many lived double lives, keeping their private lives secret from their professional ones. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) as a mental disorder. A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships. This view was widely influential in the medical profession.[19] In 1956, however, the psychologist Evelyn Hooker performed a study that compared the happiness and well-adjusted nature of self-identified homosexual men with heterosexual men and found no difference.[20] Her study stunned the medical community and made her a hero to many gay men and lesbians,[21] but homosexuality remained in the DSM until 1973. Homophile activism[edit] In response to this trend, two organizations formed independently of each other to advance the cause of homosexuals and provide social opportunities where gays and lesbians could socialize without fear of being arrested. Los Angeles area homosexuals created the Mattachine Society in 1950, in the home of communist activist Harry Hay.[22] Their objectives were to unify homosexuals, educate them, provide leadership, and assist "sexual deviants" with legal troubles.[23] Facing enormous opposition to its radical approach, in 1953 the Mattachine shifted their focus to assimilation and respectability. They reasoned that they would change more minds about homosexuality by proving that gays and lesbians were normal people, no different from heterosexuals.[24][25] Soon after, several women in San Francisco met in their living rooms to form the Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) for lesbians.[26] Although the eight women who created the DOB initially came together to be able to have a safe place to dance, as the DOB grew they developed similar goals to the Mattachine, and urged their members to assimilate into general society.[27] One of the first challenges to government repression came in 1953. An organization named ONE, Inc. published a magazine called ONE. The U.S. Postal Service refused to mail its August issue, which concerned homosexuals in heterosexual marriages, on the grounds that the material was obscene despite it being covered in brown paper wrapping. The case eventually went to the Supreme Court, which in 1958 ruled that ONE, Inc. could mail its materials through the Postal Service.[28] Homophile organizations—as homosexual groups were called—grew in number and spread to the East Coast. Gradually, members of these organizations grew bolder. Frank Kameny founded the Mattachine of Washington, D.C. He had been fired from the U.S. Army Map Service for being a homosexual, and sued unsuccessfully to be reinstated. Kameny wrote that homosexuals were no different from heterosexuals, often aiming his efforts at mental health professionals, some of whom attended Mattachine and DOB meetings telling members they were abnormal.[29] In 1965, Kameny, inspired by the Civil Rights Movement,[30] organized a picket of the White House and other government buildings to protest employment discrimination. The pickets shocked many gay people, and upset some of the leadership of Mattachine and the DOB.[31][32] At the same time, demonstrations in the Civil Rights Movement and opposition to the Vietnam War all grew in prominence, frequency, and severity throughout the 1960s, as did their confrontations with police forces.[33] Compton's Cafeteria riot[edit] Main article: Compton's Cafeteria riot On the outer fringes of the few small gay communities were people who challenged gender expectations. They were effeminate men and masculine women, or people assigned male at birth who dressed and lived as women and people assigned female at birth who dressed and lived as men, respectively, either part or full-time. Contemporary nomenclature classified them as transvestites, and they were the most visible representatives of sexual minorities. They belied the carefully crafted image portrayed by the Mattachine Society and DOB that asserted homosexuals were respectable, normal people.[34] The Mattachine and DOB considered the trials of being arrested for wearing clothing of the opposite gender as a parallel to the struggles of homophile organizations: similar but distinctly separate. Gay and transgender people staged a small riot at the Cooper Do-nuts cafe in Los Angeles in 1959 in response to police harassment.[35] In a larger event in 1966 in San Francisco, drag queens, hustlers, and transvestites were sitting in Compton's Cafeteria when the police arrived to arrest men dressed as women. A riot ensued, with the patrons of the cafeteria slinging cups, plates, and saucers, and breaking the plexiglass windows in the front of the restaurant, and returning several days later to smash the windows again after they were replaced.[36] Professor Susan Stryker classifies the Compton's Cafeteria riot as an "act of anti-transgender discrimination, rather than an act of discrimination against sexual orientation" and connects the uprising to the issues of gender, race, and class that were being downplayed by homophile organizations.[34] It marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco.[36] Greenwich Village[edit] Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village The Manhattan neighborhoods of Greenwich Village and Harlem were home to a sizable homosexual population after World War I, when men and women who had served in the military took advantage of the opportunity to settle in larger cities. The enclaves of gays and lesbians, described by a newspaper story as "short-haired women and long-haired men", developed a distinct subculture through the following two decades.[37] Prohibition inadvertently benefited gay establishments, as drinking alcohol was pushed underground along with other behaviors considered immoral. New York City passed laws against homosexuality in public and private businesses, but because alcohol was in high demand, speakeasies and impromptu drinking establishments were so numerous and temporary that authorities were unable to police them all.[38] The social repression of the 1950s resulted in a cultural revolution in Greenwich Village. A cohort of poets, later named the Beat poets, wrote about the evils of the social organization at the time, glorifying anarchy, drugs, and hedonistic pleasures over unquestioning social compliance, consumerism, and closed mindedness. Of them, Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs—both Greenwich Village residents—also wrote bluntly and honestly about homosexuality. Their writings attracted sympathetic liberal-minded people, as well as homosexuals looking for a community.[39] By the early 1960s, a campaign to rid New York City of gay bars was in full effect by order of Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., who was concerned about the image of the city in preparation for the 1964 World's Fair. The city revoked the liquor licenses of the bars, and undercover police officers worked to entrap as many homosexual men as possible.[40] Entrapment usually consisted of an undercover officer who found a man in a bar or public park, engaged him in conversation; if the conversation headed toward the possibility that they might leave together—or the officer bought the man a drink—he was arrested for solicitation. One story in the New York Post described an arrest in a gym locker room, where the officer grabbed his crotch, moaning, and a man who asked him if he was all right was arrested.[41] Few lawyers would defend cases as undesirable as these, and some of those lawyers kicked back their fees to the arresting officer.[42] The Mattachine Society succeeded in getting newly elected Mayor John Lindsay to end the campaign of police entrapment in New York City. They had a more difficult time with the New York State Liquor Authority (SLA). While no laws prohibited serving homosexuals, courts allowed the SLA discretion in approving and revoking liquor licenses for businesses that might become "disorderly".[43] Despite the high population of gays and lesbians who called Greenwich Village home, very few places existed, other than bars, where they were able to congregate openly without being harassed or arrested. In 1966 the New York Mattachine held a "sip-in" at a Greenwich Village bar named Julius, which was frequented by gay men, to illustrate the discrimination homosexuals faced.[44] None of the bars frequented by gays and lesbians were owned by gay people. Almost all of them were owned and controlled by organized crime, who treated the regulars poorly, watered down the liquor, and overcharged for drinks. However, they also paid off police to prevent frequent raids.[45] Stonewall Inn[edit] Main article: Stonewall Inn Location of the Stonewall Inn in relation to Greenwich Village The Stonewall Inn, located at 51 and 53 Christopher Street, along with several other establishments in the city, was owned by the Genovese crime family.[8] In 1966, three members of the Mafia invested $3,500 to turn the Stonewall Inn into a gay bar, after it had been a restaurant and a nightclub for heterosexuals. Once a week a police officer would collect envelopes of cash as a payoff; the Stonewall Inn had no liquor license.[46][47] It had no running water behind the bar—used glasses were run through tubs of water and immediately reused.[45] There were no fire exits, and the toilets overran consistently.[48] Though the bar was not used for prostitution, drug sales and other "cash transactions" took place. It was the only bar for gay men in New York City where dancing was allowed;[49] dancing was its main draw since its re-opening as a gay club.[50] Visitors to the Stonewall Inn in 1969 were greeted by a bouncer who inspected them through a peephole in the door. The legal drinking age was 18, and to avoid unwittingly letting in undercover police (who were called "Lily Law", "Alice Blue Gown", or "Betty Badge"[51]), visitors would have to be known by the doorman, or look gay. The entrance fee on weekends was $3, for which the customer received two tickets that could be exchanged for two drinks. Patrons were required to sign their names in a book to prove that the bar was a private "bottle club", but rarely signed their real names. There were two dance floors in the Stonewall; the interior was painted black, making it very dark inside, with pulsing gel lights or black lights. If police were spotted, regular white lights were turned on, signaling that everyone should stop dancing or touching.[51] In the rear of the bar was a smaller room frequented by "queens"; it was one of two bars where effeminate men who wore makeup and teased their hair (though dressed in men's clothing) could go.[52] Only a few transvestites, or men in full drag, were allowed in by the bouncers. The customers were "98 percent male" but a few lesbians sometimes came to the bar. Younger homeless adolescent males, who slept in nearby Christopher Park, would often try to get in so customers would buy them drinks.[53] The age of the clientele ranged between the upper teens and early thirties, and the racial mix was evenly distributed among white, black, and Hispanic patrons.[52][54] Because of its even mix of people, its location, and the attraction of dancing, the Stonewall Inn was known by many as "the gay bar in the city".[55] Police raids on gay bars were frequent—occurring on average once a month for each bar. Many bars kept extra liquor in a secret panel behind the bar, or in a car down the block, to facilitate resuming business as quickly as possible if alcohol was seized.[8] Bar management usually knew about raids beforehand due to police tip-offs, and raids occurred early enough in the evening that business could commence after the police had finished.[56] During a typical raid, the lights were turned on, and customers were lined up and their identification cards checked. Those without identification or dressed in full drag were arrested; others were allowed to leave. Some of the men, including those in drag, used their draft cards as identification. Women were required to wear three pieces of feminine clothing, and would be arrested if found not wearing them. Employees and management of the bars were also typically arrested.[56] The period immediately before June 28, 1969, was marked by frequent raids of local bars—including a raid at the Stonewall Inn on the Tuesday before the riots[57]—and the closing of the Checkerboard, the Tele-Star, and two other clubs in Greenwich Village.[58][59]

Riots[edit] Police raid[edit] Layout of the Stonewall Inn, 1969[60] At 1:20 a.m. on Saturday, June 28, 1969, four plainclothes policemen in dark suits, two patrol officers in uniform, and Detective Charles Smythe and Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine arrived at the Stonewall Inn's double doors and announced "Police! We're taking the place!"[61] Stonewall employees do not recall being tipped off that a raid was to occur that night, as was the custom. According to Duberman (p. 194), there was a rumor that one might happen, but since it was much later than raids generally took place, Stonewall management thought the tip was inaccurate. Days after the raid, one of the bar owners complained that the tipoff had never come, and that the raid was ordered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, who objected that there were no stamps on the liquor bottles, indicating the alcohol was bootlegged. Historian David Carter presents information[62] indicating that the Mafia owners of the Stonewall and the manager were blackmailing wealthier customers, particularly those who worked in the Financial District. They appeared to be making more money from extortion than they were from liquor sales in the bar. Carter deduces that when the police were unable to receive kickbacks from blackmail and the theft of negotiable bonds (facilitated by pressuring gay Wall Street customers), they decided to close the Stonewall Inn permanently. Two undercover policewomen and two undercover policemen had entered the bar earlier that evening to gather visual evidence, as the Public Morals Squad waited outside for the signal. Once inside, they called for backup from the Sixth Precinct using the bar's pay telephone. The music was turned off and the main lights were turned on. Approximately 205 people were in the bar that night. Patrons who had never experienced a police raid were confused. A few who realized what was happening began to run for doors and windows in the bathrooms, but police barred the doors. Michael Fader remembered, Things happened so fast you kind of got caught not knowing. All of a sudden there were police there and we were told to all get in lines and to have our identification ready to be led out of the bar. The raid did not go as planned. Standard procedure was to line up the patrons, check their identification, and have female police officers take customers dressed as women to the bathroom to verify their sex, upon which any men dressed as women would be arrested. Those dressed as women that night refused to go with the officers. Men in line began to refuse to produce their identification. The police decided to take everyone present to the police station, after separating those cross-dressing in a room in the back of the bar. Maria Ritter, then known as male to her family, recalled, "My biggest fear was that I would get arrested. My second biggest fear was that my picture would be in a newspaper or on a television report in my mother's dress!"[63] Both patrons and police recalled that a sense of discomfort spread very quickly, spurred by police who began to assault some of the lesbians by "feeling some of them up inappropriately" while frisking them.[64] When did you ever see a fag fight back?... Now, times were a-changin'. Tuesday night was the last night for bullshit... Predominantly, the theme [w]as, "this shit has got to stop!" —anonymous Stonewall riots participant[1] The police were to transport the bar's alcohol in patrol wagons. Twenty-eight cases of beer and nineteen bottles of hard liquor were seized, but the patrol wagons had not yet arrived, so patrons were required to wait in line for about 15 minutes.[63] Those who were not arrested were released from the front door, but they did not leave quickly as usual. Instead, they stopped outside and a crowd began to grow and watch. Within minutes, between 100 and 150 people had congregated outside, some after they were released from inside the Stonewall, and some after noticing the police cars and the crowd. Although the police forcefully pushed or kicked some patrons out of the bar, some customers released by the police performed for the crowd by posing and saluting the police in an exaggerated fashion. The crowd's applause encouraged them further: "Wrists were limp, hair was primped, and reactions to the applause were classic."[65] When the first patrol wagon arrived, Inspector Pine recalled that the crowd—most of whom were homosexual—had grown to at least ten times the number of people who were arrested, and they all became very quiet.[66] Confusion over radio communication delayed the arrival of a second wagon. The police began escorting Mafia members into the first wagon, to the cheers of the bystanders. Next, regular employees were loaded into the wagon. A bystander shouted, "Gay power!", someone began singing "We Shall Overcome", and the crowd reacted with amusement and general good humor mixed with "growing and intensive hostility".[67] An officer shoved a transvestite, who responded by hitting him on the head with her purse as the crowd began to boo. Author Edmund White, who had been passing by, recalled, "Everyone's restless, angry, and high-spirited. No one has a slogan, no one even has an attitude, but something's brewing."[68] Pennies, then beer bottles, were thrown at the wagon as a rumor spread through the crowd that patrons still inside the bar were being beaten. A scuffle broke out when a woman in handcuffs was escorted from the door of the bar to the waiting police wagon several times. She escaped repeatedly and fought with four of the police, swearing and shouting, for about ten minutes. Described as "a typical New York butch" and "a dyke–stone butch", she had been hit on the head by an officer with a baton for, as one witness claimed, complaining that her handcuffs were too tight.[69] Bystanders recalled that the woman, whose identity remains unknown (Stormé DeLarverie has been identified by some, including herself, as the woman, but accounts vary[70][note 3]), sparked the crowd to fight when she looked at bystanders and shouted, "Why don't you guys do something?" After an officer picked her up and heaved her into the back of the wagon,[71] the crowd became a mob and went "berserk": "It was at that moment that the scene became explosive."[72] [73] Violence breaks out[edit] The police tried to restrain some of the crowd, and knocked a few people down, which incited bystanders even more. Some of those handcuffed in the wagon escaped when police left them unattended (deliberately, according to some witnesses).[note 4][74] As the crowd tried to overturn the police wagon, two police cars and the wagon—with a few slashed tires—left immediately, with Inspector Pine urging them to return as soon as possible. The commotion attracted more people who learned what was happening. Someone in the crowd declared that the bar had been raided because "they didn't pay off the cops", to which someone else yelled "Let's pay them off!"[75] Coins sailed through the air towards the police as the crowd shouted "Pigs!" and "Faggot cops!" Beer cans were thrown and the police lashed out, dispersing some of the crowd who found a construction site nearby with stacks of bricks. The police, outnumbered by between 500 and 600 people, grabbed several people, including folk singer Dave Van Ronk—who had been attracted to the revolt from a bar two doors away from the Stonewall. Though Van Ronk was not gay, he had experienced police violence when he participated in antiwar demonstrations: "As far as I was concerned, anybody who'd stand against the cops was all right with me, and that's why I stayed in... Every time you turned around the cops were pulling some outrage or another."[75] Ten police officers—including two policewomen—barricaded themselves, Van Ronk, Howard Smith (a writer for The Village Voice), and several handcuffed detainees inside the Stonewall Inn for their own safety. Multiple accounts of the riot assert that there was no pre-existing organization or apparent cause for the demonstration; what ensued was spontaneous.[note 5] Michael Fader explained, We all had a collective feeling like we'd had enough of this kind of shit. It wasn't anything tangible anybody said to anyone else, it was just kind of like everything over the years had come to a head on that one particular night in the one particular place, and it was not an organized demonstration... Everyone in the crowd felt that we were never going to go back. It was like the last straw. It was time to reclaim something that had always been taken from us.... All kinds of people, all different reasons, but mostly it was total outrage, anger, sorrow, everything combined, and everything just kind of ran its course. It was the police who were doing most of the destruction. We were really trying to get back in and break free. And we felt that we had freedom at last, or freedom to at least show that we demanded freedom. We weren't going to be walking meekly in the night and letting them shove us around—it's like standing your ground for the first time and in a really strong way, and that's what caught the police by surprise. There was something in the air, freedom a long time overdue, and we're going to fight for it. It took different forms, but the bottom line was, we weren't going to go away. And we didn't.[76] This photograph appeared in the front page of The New York Daily News on Sunday, June 29, 1969, showing the "street kids" who were the first to fight with the police. The only photograph taken during the first night of the riots shows the homeless youth who slept in nearby Christopher Park, scuffling with police.[77] The Mattachine Society newsletter a month later offered its explanation of why the riots occurred: "It catered largely to a group of people who are not welcome in, or cannot afford, other places of homosexual social gathering... The Stonewall became home to these kids. When it was raided, they fought for it. That, and the fact that they had nothing to lose other than the most tolerant and broadminded gay place in town, explains why."[78] Garbage cans, garbage, bottles, rocks, and bricks were hurled at the building, breaking the windows. Witnesses attest that "flame queens", hustlers, and gay "street kids"—the most outcast people in the gay community—were responsible for the first volley of projectiles, as well as the uprooting of a parking meter used as a battering ram on the doors of the Stonewall Inn.[79] Sylvia Rivera, a self-identified street queen[80][81] who had been in the Stonewall during the raid, remembered: You've been treating us like shit all these years? Uh-uh. Now it's our turn!... It was one of the greatest moments in my life.[82] The mob lit garbage on fire and stuffed it through the broken windows as the police grabbed a fire hose. Because it had no water pressure, the hose was ineffective in dispersing the crowd, and seemed only to encourage them.[note 6] When demonstrators broke through the windows—which had been covered by plywood by the bar owners to deter the police from raiding the bar—the police inside unholstered their pistols. The doors flew open and officers pointed their weapons at the angry crowd, threatening to shoot. The Village Voice writer Howard Smith, in the bar with the police, took a wrench from the bar and stuffed it in his pants, unsure if he might have to use it against the mob or the police. He watched someone squirt lighter fluid into the bar; as it was lit and the police took aim, sirens were heard and fire trucks arrived. The onslaught had lasted 45 minutes.[83] Escalation[edit] The Tactical Patrol Force (TPF) of the New York City Police Department arrived to free the police trapped inside the Stonewall. One officer's eye was cut, and a few others were bruised from being struck by flying debris. Bob Kohler, who was walking his dog by the Stonewall that night, saw the TPF arrive: "I had been in enough riots to know the fun was over... The cops were totally humiliated. This never, ever happened. They were angrier than I guess they had ever been, because everybody else had rioted... but the fairies were not supposed to riot... no group had ever forced cops to retreat before, so the anger was just enormous. I mean, they wanted to kill."[84] With larger numbers, police detained anyone they could and put them in patrol wagons to go to jail, though Inspector Pine recalled, "Fights erupted with the transvestites, who wouldn't go into the patrol wagon." His recollection was corroborated by another witness across the street who said, "All I could see about who was fighting was that it was transvestites and they were fighting furiously."[85] The TPF formed a phalanx and attempted to clear the streets by marching slowly and pushing the crowd back. The mob openly mocked the police. The crowd cheered, started impromptu kick lines, and sang to the tune of Ta-ra-ra Boom-de-ay: "We are the Stonewall girls/ We wear our hair in curls/ We don't wear underwear/ We show our pubic hair."[86][87][note 7] Lucian Truscott reported in The Village Voice: "A stagnant situation there brought on some gay tomfoolery in the form of a chorus line facing the line of helmeted and club-carrying cops. Just as the line got into a full kick routine, the TPF advanced again and cleared the crowd of screaming gay power[-]ites down Christopher to Seventh Avenue."[88] One participant who had been in the Stonewall during the raid recalled, "The police rushed us, and that's when I realized this is not a good thing to do, because they got me in the back with a nightstick." Another account stated, "I just can't ever get that one sight out of my mind. The cops with the [nightsticks] and the kick line on the other side. It was the most amazing thing... And all the sudden that kick line, which I guess was a spoof on the machismo... I think that's when I felt rage. Because people were getting smashed with bats. And for what? A kick line."[89] Christopher Park, where many of the demonstrators met after the first night of rioting to talk about what had happened, now features a sculpture of four white figures by George Segal that commemorates the milestone.[90] Craig Rodwell, owner of the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop, reported watching police chase participants through the crooked streets, only to see them appear around the next corner behind the police. Members of the mob stopped cars, overturning one of them to block Christopher Street. Jack Nichols and Lige Clarke, in their column printed in Screw, declared that "massive crowds of angry protesters chased [the police] for blocks screaming, 'Catch them!' "[88] By 4:00 in the morning the streets had nearly been cleared. Many people sat on stoops or gathered nearby in Christopher Park throughout the morning, dazed in disbelief at what had transpired. Many witnesses remembered the surreal and eerie quiet that descended upon Christopher Street, though there continued to be "electricity in the air".[91] One commented: "There was a certain beauty in the aftermath of the riot... It was obvious, at least to me, that a lot of people really were gay and, you know, this was our street."[92] Thirteen people had been arrested. Some in the crowd were hospitalized,[note 8] and four police officers were injured. Almost everything in the Stonewall Inn was broken. Inspector Pine had intended to close and dismantle the Stonewall Inn that night. Pay phones, toilets, mirrors, jukeboxes, and cigarette machines were all smashed, possibly in the riot and possibly by the police.[83][93] A second night of rioting[edit] During the siege of the Stonewall, Craig Rodwell called The New York Times, the New York Post, and the Daily News to inform them what was happening. All three papers covered the riots; the Daily News placed coverage on the front page. News of the riot spread quickly throughout Greenwich Village, fueled by rumors that it had been organized by the Students for a Democratic Society, the Black Panthers, or triggered by "a homosexual police officer whose roommate went dancing at the Stonewall against the officer's wishes".[58] All day Saturday, June 28, people came to stare at the burned and blackened Stonewall Inn. Graffiti appeared on the walls of the bar, declaring "Drag power", "They invaded our rights", "Support gay power", and "Legalize gay bars", along with accusations of police looting, and—regarding the status of the bar—"We are open."[58][94] The next night, rioting again surrounded Christopher Street; participants remember differently which night was more frantic or violent. Many of the same people returned from the previous evening—hustlers, street youths, and "queens"—but they were joined by "police provocateurs", curious bystanders, and even tourists.[95] Remarkable to many was the sudden exhibition of homosexual affection in public, as described by one witness: "From going to places where you had to knock on a door and speak to someone through a peephole in order to get in. We were just out. We were in the streets."[96] You know, the guys there were so beautiful—they've lost that wounded look that fags all had 10 years ago –Allen Ginsberg Thousands of people had gathered in front of the Stonewall, which had opened again, choking Christopher Street until the crowd spilled into adjoining blocks. The throng surrounded buses and cars, harassing the occupants unless they either admitted they were gay or indicated their support for the demonstrators.[97] Sylvia Rivera saw a friend of hers jump on a nearby car trying to drive through; the crowd rocked the car back and forth, terrifying its occupants. Another of Rivera's friends, Marsha P. Johnson, an African-American street queen,[80][81][98] climbed a lamppost and dropped a heavy bag onto the hood of a police car, shattering the windshield.[99] As on the previous evening, fires were started in garbage cans throughout the neighborhood. More than a hundred police were present from the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Ninth Precincts, but after 2:00 a.m. the TPF arrived again. Kick lines and police chases waxed and waned; when police captured demonstrators, whom the majority of witnesses described as "sissies" or "swishes", the crowd surged to recapture them.[100] Street battling ensued again until 4:00 a.m.[99] Beat poet and longtime Greenwich Village resident Allen Ginsberg lived on Christopher Street, and happened upon the jubilant chaos. After he learned of the riot that had occurred the previous evening, he stated, "Gay power! Isn't that great!... It's about time we did something to assert ourselves", and visited the open Stonewall Inn for the first time. While walking home, he declared to Lucian Truscott, "You know, the guys there were so beautiful—they've lost that wounded look that fags all had 10 years ago."[101] Leaflets, press coverage, and more violence[edit] Activity in Greenwich Village was sporadic on Monday and Tuesday, partly due to rain. Police and Village residents had a few altercations, as both groups antagonized each other. Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant took the opportunity the morning after the first riot to print and distribute 5,000 leaflets, one of them reading: "Get the Mafia and the Cops out of Gay Bars." The leaflets called for gays to own their own establishments, for a boycott of the Stonewall and other Mafia-owned bars, and for public pressure on the mayor's office to investigate the "intolerable situation".[102][103] Not everyone in the gay community considered the revolt a positive development. To many older homosexuals and many members of the Mattachine Society who had worked throughout the 1960s to promote homosexuals as no different from heterosexuals, the display of violence and effeminate behavior was embarrassing. Randy Wicker, who had marched in the first gay picket lines before the White House in 1965, said the "screaming queens forming chorus lines and kicking went against everything that I wanted people to think about homosexuals... that we were a bunch of drag queens in the Village acting disorderly and tacky and cheap."[104] Others found the closing of the Stonewall Inn, termed a "sleaze joint", as advantageous to the Village.[105] On Wednesday, however, The Village Voice ran reports of the riots, written by Howard Smith and Lucian Truscott, that included unflattering descriptions of the events and its participants: "forces of faggotry", "limp wrists", and "Sunday fag follies".[106][note 9] A mob descended upon Christopher Street once again and threatened to burn down the offices of The Village Voice. Also in the mob of between 500 and 1,000 were other groups that had had unsuccessful confrontations with the police, and were curious how the police were defeated in this situation. Another explosive street battle took place, with injuries to demonstrators and police alike, looting in local shops, and arrests of five people.[107][108] The incidents on Wednesday night lasted about an hour, and were summarized by one witness: "The word is out. Christopher Street shall be liberated. The fags have had it with oppression."[109]

Aftermath[edit] The feeling of urgency spread throughout Greenwich Village, even to people who had not witnessed the riots. Many who were moved by the rebellion attended organizational meetings, sensing an opportunity to take action. On July 4, 1969, the Mattachine Society performed its annual picketing in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, called the Annual Reminder. Organizers Craig Rodwell, Frank Kameny, Randy Wicker, Barbara Gittings, and Kay Lahusen, who had all participated for several years, took a bus along with other picketers from New York City to Philadelphia. Since 1965, the pickets had been very controlled: women wore skirts and men wore suits and ties, and all marched quietly in organized lines.[110] This year Rodwell remembered feeling restricted by the rules Kameny had set. When two women spontaneously held hands, Kameny broke them apart, saying, "None of that! None of that!" Rodwell, however, convinced about ten couples to hold hands. The hand-holding couples made Kameny furious, but they earned more press attention than all of the previous marches.[111][112] Participant Lilli Vincenz remembered, "It was clear that things were changing. People who had felt oppressed now felt empowered."[111] Rodwell returned to New York City determined to change the established quiet, meek ways of trying to get attention. One of his first priorities was planning Christopher Street Liberation Day.[113] Gay rights demonstration (Trafalgar Square—the Trafalgar Hotel is in the background) including members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF). The GLF held its first meeting in a basement classroom at the London School of Economics on 13th October 1970. It was inspired by the US GLF movements, which aimed to gain equal rights for the LGBT communities on an unapologetic basis. The organisation was very informal, having no designated structure, and organised marches, "gay days", street theatre performances, sit-ins and produced a journal entitled 'Come Together'. These activities led to the first Gay Pride March in 1972. IMAGELIBRARY/1370 Persistent URL: Gay Liberation Front[edit] Although the Mattachine Society had existed since the 1950s, many of their methods now seemed too mild for people who had witnessed or been inspired by the riots. Mattachine recognized the shift in attitudes in a story from their newsletter entitled, "The Hairpin Drop Heard Around the World."[114][note 10] When a Mattachine officer suggested an "amicable and sweet" candlelight vigil demonstration, a man in the audience fumed and shouted, "Sweet! Bullshit! That's the role society has been forcing these queens to play."[115] With a flyer announcing: "Do You Think Homosexuals Are Revolting? You Bet Your Sweet Ass We Are!",[115] the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was soon formed, the first gay organization to use "gay" in its name. Previous organizations such as the Mattachine Society, the Daughters of Bilitis, and various homophile groups had masked their purpose by deliberately choosing obscure names.[116] The rise of militancy became apparent to Frank Kameny and Barbara Gittings—who had worked in homophile organizations for years and were both very public about their roles—when they attended a GLF meeting to see the new group. A young GLF member demanded to know who they were and what their credentials were. Gittings, nonplussed, stammered, "I'm gay. That's why I'm here."[117] The GLF borrowed tactics from and aligned themselves with black and antiwar demonstrators with the ideal that they "could work to restructure American society".[118] They took on causes of the Black Panthers, marching to the Women's House of Detention in support of Afeni Shakur, and other radical New Left causes. Four months after they formed, however, the group disbanded when members were unable to agree on operating procedure.[119] Gay Activists Alliance[edit] Within six months of the Stonewall riots, activists started a citywide newspaper called Gay; they considered it necessary because the most liberal publication in the city—The Village Voice—refused to print the word "gay" in GLF advertisements seeking new members and volunteers.[120] Two other newspapers were initiated within a six-week period: Come Out! and Gay Power; the readership of these three periodicals quickly climbed to between 20,000 and 25,000.[121][122] GLF members organized several same-sex dances, but GLF meetings were chaotic. When Bob Kohler asked for clothes and money to help the homeless youth who had participated in the riots, many of whom slept in Christopher Park or Sheridan Square, the response was a discussion on the downfall of capitalism.[123] In late December 1969, several people who had visited GLF meetings and left out of frustration formed the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA). The GAA was to be entirely focused on gay issues, and more orderly. Their constitution started, "We as liberated homosexual activists demand the freedom for expression of our dignity and value as human beings."[124] The GAA developed and perfected a confrontational tactic called a zap, where they would catch a politician off guard during a public relations opportunity, and force him or her to acknowledge gay and lesbian rights. City councilmen were zapped, and Mayor John Lindsay was zapped several times—once on television when GAA members made up the majority of the audience.[125] Raids on gay bars did not stop after the Stonewall riots. In March 1970, Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine raided the Zodiac and 17 Barrow Street. An after-hours gay club with no liquor or occupancy licenses called The Snake Pit was soon raided, and 167 people were arrested. One of them was Diego Viñales, an Argentinian national so frightened that he might be deported as a homosexual that he tried to escape the police precinct by jumping out of a two-story window, impaling himself on a 14-inch (36 cm) spike fence.[126] The New York Daily News printed a graphic photo of the young man's impalement on the front page. GAA members organized a march from Christopher Park to the Sixth Precinct in which hundreds of gays, lesbians, and liberal sympathizers peacefully confronted the TPF.[121] They also sponsored a letter-writing campaign to Mayor Lindsay in which the Greenwich Village Democratic Party and Congressman Ed Koch sent pleas to end raids on gay bars in the city.[127] The Stonewall Inn lasted only a few weeks after the riot. By October 1969 it was up for rent. Village residents surmised it was too notorious a location, and Rodwell's boycott discouraged business.[128] Gay Pride[edit] Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970 marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots with an assembly on Christopher Street; with simultaneous Gay Pride marches in Los Angeles and Chicago, these were the first Gay Pride marches in U.S. history.[129][130] The next year, Gay Pride marches took place in Boston, Dallas, Milwaukee, London, Paris, West Berlin, and Stockholm.[131] The march in New York covered 51 blocks, from Christopher Street to Central Park. It took less than half the scheduled time due to the excitement of the marchers, but because they were wary about walking through the city with gay banners and signs.[clarification needed] Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers.[132] The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks.[133] Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn one year ago".[131] There was little open animosity, and some bystanders applauded when a tall, pretty girl carrying a sign "I am a Lesbian" walked by. –The New York Times coverage of Gay Liberation Day, 1970[133] By 1972, the participating cities included Atlanta, Buffalo, Detroit, Washington, D.C., Miami, Minneapolis, and Philadelphia,[134] as well as San Francisco. Frank Kameny soon realized the pivotal change brought by the Stonewall riots. An organizer of gay activism in the 1950s, he was used to persuasion, trying to convince heterosexuals that gay people were no different than they were. When he and other people marched in front of the White House, the State Department, and Independence Hall only five years earlier, their objective was to look as if they could work for the U.S. government.[135] Ten people marched with Kameny then, and they alerted no press to their intentions. Although he was stunned by the upheaval by participants in the Annual Reminder in 1969, he later observed, "By the time of Stonewall, we had fifty to sixty gay groups in the country. A year later there was at least fifteen hundred. By two years later, to the extent that a count could be made, it was twenty-five hundred."[136] Similar to Kameny's regret at his own reaction to the shift in attitudes after the riots, Randy Wicker came to describe his embarrassment as "one of the greatest mistakes of his life".[137] The image of gays retaliating against police, after so many years of allowing such treatment to go unchallenged, "stirred an unexpected spirit among many homosexuals".[137] Kay Lahusen, who photographed the marches in 1965, stated, "Up to 1969, this movement was generally called the homosexual or homophile movement... Many new activists consider the Stonewall uprising the birth of the gay liberation movement. Certainly it was the birth of gay pride on a massive scale."[138] David Carter, in his article "What made Stonewall different", explained that even though there were several uprisings before Stonewall, the reason Stonewall was so historical was that thousands of people were involved, the riot lasted a long time (six days), it was the first to get major media coverage, and it sparked the formation of many gay rights groups.[139]

Legacy[edit] Unlikely community[edit] Within two years of the Stonewall riots there were gay rights groups in every major American city, as well as Canada, Australia, and Western Europe.[140] People who joined activist organizations after the riots had very little in common other than their same-sex attraction. Many who arrived at GLF or GAA meetings were taken aback by the number of gay people in one place.[141] Race, class, ideology, and gender became frequent obstacles in the years after the riots. This was illustrated during the 1973 Stonewall rally when, moments after Barbara Gittings exuberantly praised the diversity of the crowd, feminist activist Jean O'Leary protested what she perceived as the mocking of women by cross-dressers and drag queens in attendance. During a speech by O'Leary, in which she claimed that drag queens made fun of women for entertainment value and profit, Sylvia Rivera and Lee Brewster jumped on the stage and shouted "You go to bars because of what drag queens did for you, and these bitches tell us to quit being ourselves!"[142] Both the drag queens and lesbian feminists in attendance left in disgust.[143] O'Leary also worked in the early 1970s to exclude trans people from gay rights issues because she felt that rights for trans people would be too difficult to attain.[143] Sylvia Rivera left New York City in the mid-1970s, relocating to upstate New York,[144] but later returned to the city in the mid-1990s to advocate for homeless members of the gay community.[144][145] The initial disagreements between participants in the movements, however, often evolved after further reflection. O'Leary later regretted her stance against the drag queens attending in 1973: "Looking back, I find this so embarrassing because my views have changed so much since then. I would never pick on a transvestite now."[143] "It was horrible. How could I work to exclude transvestites and at the same time criticize the feminists who were doing their best back in those days to exclude lesbians?"[146] O'Leary was referring to the Lavender Menace, a description by second wave feminist Betty Friedan for attempts by members of the National Organization for Women (NOW) to distance themselves from the perception of NOW as a haven for lesbians. As part of this process, Rita Mae Brown and other lesbians who had been active in NOW were forced out. They staged a protest in 1970 at the Second Congress to Unite Women, and earned the support of many NOW members, finally gaining full acceptance in 1971.[147] The growth of lesbian feminism in the 1970s at times so conflicted with the gay liberation movement that some lesbians refused to work with gay men. Many lesbians found men's attitudes patriarchal and chauvinistic, and saw in gay men the same misguided notions about women as they saw in heterosexual men.[148] The issues most important to gay men—entrapment and public solicitation—were not shared by lesbians. In 1977 a Lesbian Pride Rally was organized as an alternative to sharing gay men's issues, especially what Adrienne Rich termed "the violent, self-destructive world of the gay bars".[148] Veteran gay activist Barbara Gittings chose to work in the gay rights movement, rationalizing "It's a matter of where does it hurt the most? For me it hurts the most not in the female arena, but the gay arena."[148] Throughout the 1970s gay activism had significant successes. One of the first and most important was the "zap" in May 1970 by the Los Angeles GLF at a convention of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). At a conference on behavior modification, during a film demonstrating the use of electroshock therapy to decrease same-sex attraction, Morris Kight and GLF members in the audience interrupted the film with shouts of "Torture!" and "Barbarism!"[149] They took over the microphone to announce that medical professionals who prescribed such therapy for their homosexual patients were complicit in torturing them. Although 20 psychiatrists in attendance left, the GLF spent the hour following the zap with those remaining, trying to convince them that homosexuals were not mentally ill.[149] When the APA invited gay activists to speak to the group in 1972, activists brought John E. Fryer, a gay psychiatrist who wore a mask, because he felt his practice was in danger. In December 1973—in large part due to the efforts of gay activists—the APA voted unanimously to remove homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.[150][151] Gay men and lesbians came together to work in grassroots political organizations responding to organized resistance in 1977. A coalition of conservatives named Save Our Children staged a campaign to repeal a civil rights ordinance in Dade County, Florida. Save Our Children was successful enough to influence similar repeals in several American cities in 1978. However, the same year a campaign in California called the Briggs Initiative, designed to force the dismissal of homosexual public school employees, was defeated.[152] Reaction to the influence of Save Our Children and the Briggs Initiative in the gay community was so significant that it has been called the second Stonewall for many activists, marking their initiation into political participation.[153] Rejection of gay subculture[edit] The Stonewall riots marked such a significant turning point that many aspects of prior gay and lesbian culture, such as bar culture formed from decades of shame and secrecy, were forcefully ignored and denied. Historian Martin Duberman writes, "The decades preceding Stonewall... continue to be regarded by most gays and lesbians as some vast neolithic wasteland."[154] Historian Barry Adam notes, "Every social movement must choose at some point what to retain and what to reject out of its past. What traits are the results of oppression and what are healthy and authentic?"[155] In conjunction with the growing feminist movement of the early 1970s, roles of butch and femme that developed in lesbian bars in the 1950s and 1960s were rejected, because as one writer put it: "all role playing is sick."[156] Lesbian feminists considered the butch roles as archaic imitations of masculine behavior.[157] Some women, according to Lillian Faderman, were eager to shed the roles they felt forced into playing. The roles returned for some women in the 1980s, although they allowed for more flexibility than before Stonewall.[158] Author Michael Bronski highlights the "attack on pre-Stonewall culture", particularly gay pulp fiction for men, where the themes often reflected self-hatred or ambivalence about being gay. Many books ended unsatisfactorily and drastically, often with suicide, and writers portrayed their gay characters as alcoholics or deeply unhappy. These books, which he describes as "an enormous and cohesive literature by and for gay men",[159] have not been reissued and are lost to later generations. Dismissing the reason simply as political correctness, Bronski writes, "gay liberation was a youth movement whose sense of history was defined to a large degree by rejection of the past."[160] Lasting impact and recognition[edit] The Stonewall, a bar in part of the building where the Stonewall Inn was located. The building and the surrounding streets have been declared a National Historic Landmark. The riots spawned from a bar raid became a literal example of gays and lesbians fighting back, and a symbolic call to arms for many people. Historian David Carter remarks in his book about the Stonewall riots that the bar itself was a complex business that represented a community center, an opportunity for the Mafia to blackmail its own customers, a home, and a place of "exploitation and degradation".[161] The true legacy of the Stonewall riots, Carter insists, is the "ongoing struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality".[162] Historian Nicholas Edsall writes, Stonewall has been compared to any number of acts of radical protest and defiance in American history from the Boston Tea Party on. But the best and certainly a more nearly contemporary analogy is with Rosa Parks' refusal to move to the back of the bus in Montgomery, Alabama, in December 1955, which sparked the modern civil rights movement. Within months after Stonewall radical gay liberation groups and newsletters sprang up in cities and on college campuses across America and then across all of northern Europe as well.[163] Before the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn, homosexuals were, as historians Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney write, a secret legion of people, known of but discounted, ignored, laughed at or despised. And like the holders of a secret, they had an advantage which was a disadvantage, too, and which was true of no other minority group in the United States. They were invisible. Unlike African Americans, women, Native Americans, Jews, the Irish, Italians, Asians, Hispanics, or any other cultural group which struggled for respect and equal rights, homosexuals had no physical or cultural markings, no language or dialect which could identify them to each other, or to anyone else... But that night, for the first time, the usual acquiescence turned into violent resistance.... From that night the lives of millions of gay men and lesbians, and the attitude toward them of the larger culture in which they lived, began to change rapidly. People began to appear in public as homosexuals, demanding respect.[164] Historian Lillian Faderman calls the riots the "shot heard round the world", explaining, "The Stonewall Rebellion was crucial because it sounded the rally for that movement. It became an emblem of gay and lesbian power. By calling on the dramatic tactic of violent protest that was being used by other oppressed groups, the events at the Stonewall implied that homosexuals had as much reason to be disaffected as they."[165] The sign left by police following the raid is now on display just inside the entrance Joan Nestle co-founded the Lesbian Herstory Archives in 1974, and credits "its creation to that night and the courage that found its voice in the streets."[114] Cautious, however, not to attribute the start of gay activism to the Stonewall riots, Nestle writes, I certainly don't see gay and lesbian history starting with Stonewall... and I don't see resistance starting with Stonewall. What I do see is a historical coming together of forces, and the sixties changed how human beings endured things in this society and what they refused to endure... Certainly something special happened on that night in 1969, and we've made it more special in our need to have what I call a point of origin... it's more complex than saying that it all started with Stonewall.[166] The events of the early morning of June 28, 1969 were not the first instances of homosexuals fighting back against police in New York City and elsewhere. Not only had the Mattachine Society been active in major cities such as Los Angeles and Chicago, but similarly marginalized people started the riot at Compton's Cafeteria in 1966, and another riot responded to a raid on Los Angeles' Black Cat Tavern in 1967.[167] However, several circumstances were in place that made the Stonewall riots memorable. The location of the raid was a factor: it was across the street from The Village Voice offices, and the narrow crooked streets gave the rioters advantage over the police.[134] Many of the participants and residents of Greenwich Village were involved in political organizations that were effectively able to mobilize a large and cohesive gay community in the weeks and months after the rebellion. The most significant facet of the Stonewall riots, however, was the commemoration of them in Christopher Street Liberation Day, which grew into the annual Gay Pride events around the world.[134] Stonewall (officially Stonewall Equality Limited) is an LGBT rights charity in the United Kingdom, founded in 1989, and named after the Stonewall Inn because of the Stonewall riots. The Stonewall Awards is an annual event by Stonewall held since 2006 to recognize people who have affected the lives of British lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. The middle of the 1990s was marked by the inclusion of bisexuals as a represented group within the gay community, when they successfully sought to be included on the platform of the 1993 March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. Transgender people also asked to be included, but were not, though trans-inclusive language was added to the march's list of demands.[168] The transgender community continued to find itself simultaneously welcome and at odds with the gay community as attitudes about binary and fluid sexual orientation and gender developed and came increasingly into conflict.[34][169] In 1994, New York City celebrated "Stonewall 25" with a march that went past the United Nations Headquarters and into Central Park. Estimates put the attendance at 1.1 million people.[170] Sylvia Rivera led an alternate march in New York City in 1994 to protest the exclusion of transgender people from the events.[11] Attendance at LGBT Pride events has grown substantially over the decades. Most large cities around the world now have some kind of Pride demonstration. Pride events in some cities mark the largest annual celebration of any kind.[11] The growing trend towards commercializing marches into parades—with events receiving corporate sponsorship—has caused concern about taking away the autonomy of the original grassroots demonstrations that put inexpensive activism in the hands of individuals.[11] A "Stonewall Shabbat Seder" was first held at B’nai Jeshurun, a synagogue on New York’s Upper West Side, in 1995.[171][172] In June 1999 the U.S. Department of the Interior designated 51 and 53 Christopher Street and the surrounding streets as a National Historic Landmark, the first of significance to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. In a dedication ceremony, Assistant Secretary of the Department of the Interior John Berry stated, "Let it forever be remembered that here—on this spot—men and women stood proud, they stood fast, so that we may be who we are, we may work where we will, live where we choose and love whom our hearts desire."[173] The Stonewall Inn itself was named a National Historic Landmark in 2000, and it is located in the Greenwich Village Historic District, a preserved area.[174] On June 1, 2009, President Barack Obama declared June 2009 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, citing the riots as a reason to "commit to achieving equal justice under law for LGBT Americans".[175] The year marked the 40th anniversary of the riots, giving journalists and activists cause to reflect on progress made since 1969. Frank Rich in The New York Times noted that no federal legislation exists to protect the rights of gay Americans. An editorial in the Washington Blade compared the scruffy, violent activism during and following the Stonewall riots to the lackluster response to failed promises given by President Obama; for being ignored, wealthy LGBT activists reacted by promising to give less money to Democratic causes.[176] Two years later, the Stonewall Inn served as a rallying point for celebrations after the New York Senate voted to pass same-sex marriage. The act was signed into law by Governor Andrew Cuomo on June 24, 2011.[177] Individual states continue to battle with homophobia. The Missouri Senate passed a measure its supporters characterize as a religious freedom bill that could change the state's constitution despite Democrats' objections, and their 39-hour filibuster. This bill allows the "protection of certain religious organizations and individuals from being penalized by the state because of their sincere religious beliefs or practices concerning marriage between two persons of the same sex" discriminating against homosexual patronage.[178] Obama also referenced the Stonewall riots in a call for full equality during his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013: We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths—that all of us are created equal—is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall.... Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law—for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well. A banner hanging from the top of the building the day after President Obama announced the National Monument This was a historic moment, being the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.[179][180] In 2014 a marker dedicated to the Stonewall riots was included in the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display in Chicago celebrating LGBT history and people.[181][182] On May 29, 2015, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission announced it would officially consider designating the Stonewall Inn as a landmark, making it the first city location to be considered based on its LGBT cultural significance alone.[183] On June 23, 2015, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission unanimously approved the designation of the Stonewall Inn as a city landmark, making it the first landmark honored for its role in the fight for gay rights.[184] The Stonewall Book Award is a set of three literary awards that annually recognize "exceptional merit relating to the gay/lesbian/bisexual/transgender experience" in English-language books published in the U.S. National monument[edit] On June 24, 2016, President Obama announced the establishment[185] of the Stonewall National Monument, a 7.7-acre site to be administered by the National Park Service. The designation, which followed transfer of city parkland to the federal government, protects Christopher Park and adjacent areas totaling more than seven acres; the Stonewall Inn is within the boundaries of the monument but remains privately owned.[186] The National Park Foundation formed a new nonprofit organization to raise funds for a ranger station and interpretive exhibits for the monument.[187]

Media representations[edit] Film[edit] Before Stonewall: The Making of a Gay and Lesbian Community (1984), a documentary of the decades leading up to Stonewall Stonewall (1995), a fictionalized presentation of the events leading up to the riots After Stonewall (1999), a documentary of the years from Stonewall to century's end Stonewall Uprising (2010), a documentary presentation using archival footage, photographs, documents and witness statements Stonewall (2015), another fictionalized drama about the days leading up to the riots Happy Birthday, Marsha! (2016), a short, experimental film about transgender rights pioneers Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera, set on the night of the riots Music[edit] The song "’69: Judy Garland", written by Stephin Merritt and appearing on 50 Song Memoir by The Magnetic Fields, centers on the Stonewall Riots and the idea[note 5] that they were caused by the death of Judy Garland.

See also[edit] 1960s portal LGBT portal New York City portal Stonewall National Monument LGBTQ culture in New York City List of incidents of civil unrest in New York City List of pre-Stonewall LGBT actions in the United States List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States

Footnotes[edit] ^ At the time, the term "gay" was commonly used to refer to all LGBT people. ^ Illinois decriminalized sodomy in 1961, but at the time of the Stonewall riots every other state criminalized homosexual acts, even between consenting adults acting in private homes. "An adult convicted of the crime of having sex with another consenting adult in the privacy of his or her home could get anywhere from a light fine to five, ten, or twenty years—or even life—in prison. In 1971, twenty states had 'sex psychopath' laws that permitted the detaining of homosexuals for that reason alone. In Pennsylvania and California sex offenders could be committed to a psychiatric institution for life, and [in] seven states they could be castrated." (Carter, p. 15) Through the 1950s and 1960s, castration, emetics, hypnosis, electroshock therapy, and lobotomies were used by psychiatrists to try to "cure" homosexuals. (Katz, pp. 181–197.) (Adam, p. 60.) ^ Accounts of people who witnessed the scene, including letters and news reports of the woman who fought with police, conflicted. Where witnesses claim one woman who fought her treatment at the hands of the police caused the crowd to become angry, some also remembered several "butch lesbians" had begun to fight back while still in the bar. At least one was already bleeding when taken out of the bar (Carter, pp. 152–153). Craig Rodwell (in Duberman, p. 197) claims the arrest of the woman was not the primary event that triggered the violence, but one of several simultaneous occurrences: "there was just ... a flash of group—of mass—anger." ^ Witness Morty Manford stated, "There's no doubt in my mind that those people were deliberately left unguarded. I assume there was some sort of relationship between the bar management and the local police, so they really didn't want to arrest those people. But they had to at least look like they were doing their jobs." (Marcus, p. 128.) ^ a b In the years since the riots occurred, the death of gay icon Judy Garland earlier in the week on June 22, 1969 has been attributed as a significant factor in the riots, but no participants in Saturday morning's demonstrations recall Garland's name being discussed. No print accounts of the riots by reliable sources cite Garland as a reason for the riot, although one sarcastic account by a heterosexual publication suggested it. (Carter, p. 260.) Although Sylvia Rivera recalls she was saddened and amazed by the turnout at Garland's funeral on Friday, June 27, she said that she did not feel like going out much but changed her mind later. (Duberman, pp. 190–191.) Bob Kohler used to talk to the homeless youth in Sheridan Square, and said, "When people talk about Judy Garland's death having anything much to do with the riot, that makes me crazy. The street kids faced death every day. They had nothing to lose. And they couldn't have cared less about Judy. We're talking about kids who were fourteen, fifteen, sixteen. Judy Garland was the middle-aged darling of the middle-class gays. I get upset about this because it trivializes the whole thing." (Deitcher, p. 72.) ^ Rivera was handed a Molotov cocktail (there were no eyewitness accounts of Molotov cocktails the first night although many fires were set), that she identified only because she had seen them on the news: "I'm like, 'What am I supposed to do with this?' And this guy said, 'Well, I'm going to light it, and you're going to throw it.' And I'm like, 'Fine. You light it, I throw it, 'cause if it blows up, I don't want it to blow up on me.' It's hard to explain, except that it had to happen one day..." (Deitcher, p. 67.) ^ Some references have the last line as "...pubic hairs" instead. ^ One protester needed stitches to repair a knee broken by a nightstick; another lost two fingers in a car door. Witnesses recollect that some of the most "feminine boys" were beaten badly. (Duberman, pp. 201–202.) ^ Carter (p. 201) attributes the anger at The Village Voice reports to its focus on the effeminate behavior of the participants, with the exclusion of any kind of bravery. Author Edmund White insists that Smith and Truscott were trying to assert their own heterosexuality by referring to the events and people in derogatory terms. ^ "Hairpin drop" was gay slang that meant to drop hints about one's sexual orientation. (LaFrank, p. 17.)

References[edit] ^ a b Carter, p. 143. ^ "Brief History of the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement in the U.S." University of Kentucky. Retrieved September 2, 2017.  ^ Nell Frizzell (June 28, 2013). "Feature: How the Stonewall riots started the LGBT rights movement". Pink News UK. Retrieved August 19, 2017.  ^ "Stonewall riots". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 19, 2017.  ^ U.S. National Park Service (October 17, 2016). "Civil Rights at Stonewall National Monument". Department of the Interior. Retrieved August 6, 2017.  ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". Archived from the original on 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  ^ Carter, p. 15. ^ a b c Duberman, p. 183. ^ Carter, pp. 79–83. ^ "Heritage | 1970 Christopher Street Liberation Day Gay-In, San Francisco". SF Pride. June 28, 1970. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved June 28, 2014.  ^ a b c d "Pride Marches and Parades", in Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America, Marc Stein, ed. (2004), Charles Scribner's Sons. ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (24 June 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-06-24.  ^ Adam, p. 56. ^ Edsall, p. 277. ^ David K. Johnson, The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government (University of Chicago Press, 2004), 101-2, 114-5 ^ Adam, p. 58. ^ Edsall, p. 278. ^ Adam, p. 59. ^ Edsall, p. 247. ^ Edsall, p. 310. ^ Marcus, pp. 58–59. ^ Marcus, pp. 24–25. ^ Adam, pp. 62–63. ^ Adam, pp. 63–64. ^ Marcus, pp. 42–43. ^ Marcus, p. 21. ^ Gallo, pp. 1–5, 11. ^ Marcus, pp. 47–48. ^ Marcus, pp. 80–88. ^ Adam, p. 71. ^ Marcus, pp. 105–108. ^ DiGuglielmo, Joey (October 20, 2011). "Steps to Stonewall". Washington Blade. Retrieved on November 5, 2012. ^ Adam, pp. 72–73. ^ a b c Stryker, Susan (Winter, 2008). "Transgender History, Homonormativity, and Disciplinarity". Radical History Review, pp. 145–157. ^ Faderman and Timmons, pp. 1–2 ^ a b Boyd, Nan Alamilla (2004). "San Francisco" in the Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered History in America, Ed. Marc Stein. Vol. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 71–78. ^ Edsall, pp. 253–254. ^ Edsall, pp. 255–256. ^ Adam, pp. 68–69. ^ Carter, pp. 29–37. ^ Carter, p. 46. ^ Duberman, pp. 116–117. ^ Carter, p. 48. ^ Jackson, Sharyn (June 17, 2008). "Before Stonewall: Remembering that, before the riots, there was a Sip-In" Archived 2011-07-12 at the Wayback Machine.. The Village Voice. Retrieved on September 8, 2008. ^ a b Duberman, p. 181. ^ Duberman, p. 185. ^ Carter, p. 68. ^ Carter, p. 80. ^ Duberman, p. 182. ^ Carter, p. 71. ^ a b Duberman, p. 187. ^ a b Duberman, p. 189. ^ Duberman, p. 188. ^ Deitcher, p. 70. ^ Carter p. 74. ^ a b Duberman, pp. 192–193. ^ Carter, pp. 124–125. ^ a b c Teal, p. 4. ^ Eskow, Dennis (June 29, 1969). "4 Policemen Hurt in 'Village' Raid: Melee Near Sheridan Square Follows Action at Bar". The New York Times. p. 33.  (subscription required) ^ Carter, photo spread, p. 1. ^ Carter, p. 137. ^ Carter, pp. 96–103 ^ a b Carter, p. 142. ^ Carter, p. 141. ^ Teal, p. 2. ^ Carter, p. 147. ^ Carter, pp. 147–148. ^ Carter, p. 148. ^ Duberman, p. 196. ^ Chu, Grace (July 26, 2010). "An interview with lesbian Stonewall veteran Stormé DeLarverie". Retrieved August 1, 2010.  ^ Carter, p. 152. ^ Carter, p. 151. ^ Lucian K. Truscott IV (2017-06-28). "The night they busted Stonewall". Salon. Retrieved 2017-07-01.  ^ Carter, p. 154. ^ a b Carter, p. 156. ^ Carter, p. 160. ^ Carter, p. 162. ^ Teal, p. 13. ^ Carter, pp. 163–165. ^ a b Feinberg, Leslie (September 24, 2006). Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries. Workers World Party. "Stonewall combatants Sylvia Rivera and Marsha “Pay It No Mind” Johnson... Both were self-identified drag queens." ^ a b Randy Wicker Interviews Sylvia Rivera on the Pier. Event occurs at 8:24.  September 21, 1995. Accessed July 24, 2015. ^ Deitcher, p. 67. ^ a b Teal, p. 3. ^ Carter, p. 175. ^ Carter, p. 174. ^ Teal, p. 5. ^ Sara Warner, Acts of Gaiety: LGBT Performance and the Politics of Pleasure (2012, ISBN 0472118536), page 17 ^ a b Teal, p. 6. ^ Carter, p. 178. ^ "Christopher Park Monuments - Gay Liberation : NYC Parks". Retrieved 2016-06-24.  ^ Carter, p. 180. ^ Carter, p. 181. ^ Duberman, p. 202. ^ "Police Again Rout Village Youths: Outbreak by 400 Follows a Near-Riot Over Raid". The New York Times. June 30, 1969. p. 22.  (subscription required) ^ Carter, p. 184. ^ Carter, p. 185. ^ Carter, p. 186. ^ "Feature Doc 'Pay It No Mind: The Life & Times of Marsha P. Johnson' Released Online. Watch It". Indiewire. December 26, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2015.  ^ a b Duberman, pp. 204–205. ^ Carter, p. 191. ^ Teal, p. 7. ^ Duberman, p. 205. ^ Teal, pp. 8–9. ^ Duberman, p. 207. ^ Duberman, p. 206. ^ Truscott, Lucian (July 3, 1969). "Gay Power Comes to Sheridan Square". The Village Voice. p. 1. Retrieved June 20, 2010.  ^ Duberman, pp. 208–209. ^ Carter, pp. 203–205. ^ Carter, p. 205. ^ Marcus, pp. 105–107. ^ a b Carter, pp. 216–217. ^ Duberman, p. 210. ^ Duberman, p. 211. ^ a b LaFrank, p. 17. ^ a b Teal, p. 19. ^ Clendinen, p. 31. ^ Marcus, p. 136. ^ Duberman, p. 216. ^ Carter, pp. 220–221. ^ Clendinen, p. 40. ^ a b Carter, p. 242. ^ Duberman, p. 235. ^ Carter, p. 220. ^ Clendinen, pp. 50–51. ^ Carter, pp. 245–246. ^ Carter, pp. 238–239. ^ Teal, pp. 106–108. ^ Carter, p. 252. ^ Duberman, pp. 278–279. ^ De la Croix, Sukie (2007). "Gay power: A History of Chicago Pride" Archived 2009-07-29 at the Wayback Machine.. Chicago Free Press. Retrieved on June 1, 2009. ^ a b LaFrank, p. 20. ^ Clendinen, pp. 62–64. ^ a b Fosburgh, Lacey (June 29, 1970). "Thousands of Homosexuals Hold A Protest Rally in Central Park". The New York Times, p. 1. ^ a b c Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Crage, Suzanna M. (October 2006). "Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth", American Sociological Review, 71 (5) pp. 724–752. doi:10.1177/000312240607100502. ^ Cain, pp. 91–92. ^ Carter, p. 251. ^ a b Clendinen, p. 25. ^ LaFrank, p. 21. ^ Carter, David (2009). "What made Stonewall Different". The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide. 16 (4): 11–3.  ^ Adam, p. 82. ^ Marcus, pp. 152–155. ^ Clendinen, pp. 171–172. ^ a b c Duberman, p. 236. ^ a b Randy Wicker Interviews Sylvia Rivera on the Pier]. Event occurs at Repeatedly throughout interview.  September 21, 1995. Accessed July 24, 2015. ^ Randy Wicker Interviews Sylvia Rivera on the Pier. Event occurs at 14:17.  September 21, 1995. Accessed July 24, 2015. ^ Marcus, p. 156. ^ Adam, pp. 90–91. ^ a b c Faderman, pp. 211–212. ^ a b Williams & Retter, p. 121. ^ Marcus, pp. 146–147. ^ Cain, p. 65. ^ Cain, p. 275. ^ Fejes, p. 214. ^ Duberman, p. xv. ^ Adam, p. 93. ^ Adam, p. 94. ^ Faderman, p. 232. ^ Faderman, pp. 210, 266. ^ Bronski, p. 16. ^ Bronski, p. 12. ^ Carter, p. 264. ^ Carter, p. 266. ^ Edsall, p. 333. ^ Clendinen, p. 12. ^ Faderman, p. 195. ^ Deitcher, p. 74. ^ Witt et al., p. 210 ^ Schalger, Neil, (ed.) (1997). Gay and Lesbian Almanac. St. James Press. ISBN 1-55862-358-2 pp. 22–23 ^ Thompson, Kara (2004). "Transsexuals, Transvestites, Transgender People, and Cross-Dressers" in Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered History in America, Ed. Marc Stein. Vol. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004. pp. 203–208. ^ LaFrank, p. 22. ^ Mark Horn. "The Stonewall Seder". Retrieved November 26, 2014.  ^ Guguhj (1999-06-29). "BEHIND THE HEADLINES Gay Jews recount dual struggle on anniversary of Stonewall Riots | Jewish Telegraphic Agency". Retrieved 2015-11-06.  ^ Dunlap, David (June 26, 1999). "Stonewall, Gay Bar That Made History, Is Made a Landmark". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2008. ^ Weill, Kelly (1969-06-28). "REBNY backs landmark status for Stonewall Inn". Capital New York. Retrieved 2015-06-23.  ^ "Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009" Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine.. The White House (June 1, 2009). Retrieved on June 2, 2009. ^ Naff, Kevin (June 26, 2009). "Alas, Poor Activism, We Knew Her Well". Washington Blade. Retrieved on March 2, 2014. ^ Zraick, Karen (June 25, 2011). "NY legalizes gay marriage 42 years after Stonewall" Archived 2011-06-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Yahoo!. Retrieved June 25, 2011. ^ "Missouri SJR39 | 2016 | Regular Session". LegiScan. Retrieved 2016-03-16.  ^ Robillard, Kevin (January 21, 2013). "First inaugural use of the word 'gay'". Politico. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ Michelson, Noah (January 21, 2013). "Obama Inauguration Speech Makes History With Mention Of Gay Rights Struggle, Stonewall Uprising". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ "Legacy Walk honors LGBT 'guardian angels'". The Chicago Tribune. October 11, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2015.  ^ "PHOTOS: 7 LGBT Heroes Honored With Plaques in Chicago's Legacy Walk". The Advocate. October 11, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2015.  ^ Humm, Andy (May 29, 2015). "EXCLUSIVE: Stonewall Inn Appears Headed for City Landmark Status - A Gay First". Gay City News. Retrieved May 29, 2015.  ^ Jim Smith reports (1987-07-01). "Stonewall Inn Designated A New York City Landmark « CBS New York". Archived from the original on 2015-06-23. Retrieved 2015-06-23.  ^ "President Obama Designates Stonewall National Monument" (official announcement from White House Press Office; June 24, 2016) ^ Johnson, Chris (24 June 2016). "Obama designates Stonewall national monument". Washington Blade. Retrieved 2016-06-24.  ^ Nakamura, David; Eilperin, Juliet (24 June 2016). "With Stonewall, Obama designates first national monument to gay rights movement". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-06-24. 

Sources[edit] Adam, Barry (1987). The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement. G. K. Hall & Co. ISBN 0-8057-9714-9.  Bronski, Michael (ed.) (2003). Pulp Friction: Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-25267-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Cain, Paul (2007). Leading the Parade: Conversations with America's Most Influential Lesbians and Gay Men,. Scarecrow Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8108-5913-0.  Carter, David (2004). Stonewall: The Riots that Sparked the Gay Revolution. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-34269-1.  Clendinen, Dudley, and Nagourney, Adam (1999). Out for Good. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81091-3.  Deitcher, David (ed.) (1995). The Question of Equality: Lesbian and Gay Politics in America Since Stonewall. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80030-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Duberman, Martin (1993). Stonewall. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-525-93602-5.  Edsall, Nicholas (2003). Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-2211-9.  Faderman, Lillian (1991). Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth Century America. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017122-3.  Faderman, Lillian; Timmons, Stuart (2006). Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02288-X. . Fejes, Fred (2008). Gay Rights and Moral Panic: The Origins of America's Debate on Homosexuality. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 1-4039-8069-1.  Gallo, Marcia (2006). Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. Seal Press. ISBN 1-58005-252-5.  Katz, Jonathan (1976). Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. Thomas Y. Crowell Company. ISBN 0-690-01165-2.  LaFrank, Kathleen (ed.) (January 1999). National Historic Landmark Nomination: Stonewall (PDF). U.S. Department of the Interior: National Park Service. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Marcus, Eric (2002). Making Gay History. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-093391-7.  Teal, Donn (1971). The Gay Militants. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-11279-3.  Williams, Walter; Retter, Yolanda (eds.) (2003). Gay and Lesbian Rights in the United States: A Documentary History. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30696-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Witt, Lynn; Thomas, Sherry; Marcus, Eric, (eds.) (1995). Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-67237-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stonewall Inn. "Police Records Document Start of Stonewall Uprising", The New York Times, June 22, 2009 Newspaper reports of the event New York City Pride "Media Could Use a Stonewall Uprising of Their Own" by Karl Frisch, The Huffington Post "A Look Back at the Uprising that Launched the Modern Gay Rights Movement"—Video report by Democracy Now! Stonewall Uprising in PBS' American Experience Screaming Queens: The Riot at Compton's Cafeteria at Internet Movie Database. A 2005 documentary by Victor Silverman and Susan Stryker about the riots at Compton's Cafeteria in San Francisco leading up to Stonewall Stonewall National Historic Landmark v t e Sexual revolution Main topics Free love Summer of Love Milestones Abortion law Divorce law by country Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Golden Age of Porn "Porno chic" Pornography Pornography in the United States Swinging The Pill (1965) United States v. One Book Called Ulysses Slogans "Make love, not war" "The personal is political" Events Kinsey Reports Masters and Johnson Institute Playboy Protests of 1968 Stonewall riots People Gerard Damiano Hugh Hefner Virginia Johnson Alfred Kinsey William Masters Wilhelm Reich Related topics Counterculture of the 1960s Feminist views of pornography Hippie LGBT LGBT culture in New York City Lust Peace movement v t e LGBT in New York History LGBTQ culture in New York City Stonewall riots Stop the Church Timeline of LGBT history in New York City Rights Gender Expression Non-Discrimination Act (proposed) Marriage Equality Act New York v. Onofre Same-sex marriage in New York Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination Act United States v. Windsor Culture by city New York City Clubs and resorts Cherry Grove Continental Baths Everard Baths Fire Island Pines Julius Mineshaft New St. Marks Baths The Saint Stonewall Inn Other places Callen-Lorde Community Health Center Christopher Street Greenwich Village Harvey Milk High School Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center Lesbian Herstory Archives Metropolitan Community Church of New York Oscar Wilde Bookshop Stonewall National Monument Events Gayfest NYC LGBT Pride March New York Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Film Festival Wigstock News media Gay City News Gaysweek The New York Blade New York Native Next Magazine Out FM Magazines Christopher Street (magazine) Organizations ACT UP Ali Forney Center Audre Lorde Project Empire State Pride Agenda (disbanded) Fed Up Queers Gay Activists Alliance Gay Liberation Front Gay Men's Health Crisis Lavender Menace Lesbian Avengers Lesbian Feminist Liberation Lesbian Sex Mafia New York Area Bisexual Network Pride Center of the Capital Region Queens Liberation Front Queer Nation Sex Panic! Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries v t e Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender history Adelphopoiesis Boston marriage Greek love History of bisexuality History of cross-dressing History of homosexuality (History of Christianity and homosexuality, Saints Sergius and Bacchus, LGBT in Islam) History of lesbianism History of same-sex unions (Timeline of same-sex marriage, Timeline of same-sex marriage in the United States) Homosexuality in ancient Egypt (Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum) Homosexuality in Japan Homosexuality in medieval Europe Homosexuality in Ottoman Empire LGBT history LGBT history by country LGBT history in China (Homosexuality in China) LGBT history in Germany (Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust) LGBT history in Greece (Homosexuality in ancient Greece, Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece) LGBT history in India LGBT history in Israel (David and Jonathan) LGBT history in Italy (Homosexuality in ancient Rome, Lex Scantinia, Sexuality in ancient Rome) LGBT history in Peru (Homosexuality in ancient Peru) LGBT history in Poland (Operation Hyacinth) LGBT history in the UK (Molly house, Bloomsbury Group in LGBT history, Sea queens, UK Gay Liberation Front 1971 Festival of Light action) LGBT history in the United States (Bisexuality in the United States, Gay men in American history, History of lesbianism in the United States, History of transgender people in the United States, White Night riots) LGBT History Month LGBT social movements Pederasty (Athenian pederasty, Cretan pederasty, Pederasty in ancient Greece) Platonic love Principle 6 campaign Romantic friendship Stonewall riots (List of LGBT actions in the United States prior to the Stonewall riots) Table of years in LGBT rights Timeline of LGBT history (List of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender firsts by year, Timeline of LGBT history in the United Kingdom, Timeline of LGBT history in Canada, Timeline of LGBT history in South Africa, Timeline of LGBT history in Turkey, Timeline of South Asian and diasporic LGBT history, Timeline of Asian and Pacific Islander Diasporic LGBT History) Transgender history Uranian Category:LGBT history v t e Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) topics Academic fields Discourse LGBT topics in education Gender studies Lavender linguistics Lesbian feminism LGBT literature LGBT/Queer studies Queer theory Transfeminism Community Culture Anthems Bars Bisexual community Coming out Community center Cross-dressers Drag king Drag queen Fiction topics Gay friendly Icons Lesbian utopia Literature Music Neighborhoods Organizations Periodicals Pride Pride parade Religious groups Rodeos Same-sex relationships Slang List of slang terms Slogans Sports Symbols Tourism Category:LGBT culture Gender identities Sexual identities Sexual diversities Gender identities Androgyne Bigender Boi Cisgender Female Gender bender Gender neutrality Genderqueer Male Pangender Transfeminine Transgender Trans man Transmasculine Transsexual Trans woman Womyn Third sex / Third gender Akava'ine Androgynos Bakla Bissu Eunuch Fa'afafine Fakaleiti Femminiello Hijra Kathoey Khanith Köçek Mahu Mak nyah Mukhannathun Muxe Sworn virgins Takatāpui Tomboy Travesti Tumtum Two-Spirit Winkte Sexual orientation identities Sexual orientations Asexual Bisexual Heterosexual Homosexual Attraction to transgender people Banjee Bi-curious Ex-gay Ex-ex-gay Gay Heteroflexible Lesbian Monosexual Non-heterosexual Pansexual Polyamorous Queer Questioning Romantic orientation Same gender loving Related Gender and Sexual Diversity Erotic target location error Gender roles Human female sexuality Human male sexuality Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures Intersex Hermaphrodite History LGBT history History of homosexuality History of lesbianism LGBT history timeline Social movements History of Christianity and homosexuality History of same-sex unions Pederasty Category:LGBT history Pre-modern era Adelphopoiesis Homosexuality in ancient Egypt Homosexuality in ancient Greece Homosexuality in ancient Peru Homosexuality in ancient Rome Homosexuality in medieval Europe 16th to 19th century Mollies Urnings 20th century Homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust Sea queens Stonewall riots Festival of Light action White Night riots 21st century Timeline of same-sex marriage LGBTQ culture in New York City Stonewall National Monument Rights and legal issues LGBT rights by country or territory Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania List of LGBT rights articles by region LGBT rights topics Adoption Civil unions and partnerships Hate crime laws Intersex human rights Military service Parenting Same-sex marriage Timeline List of couples Socialism Sodomy laws Transgender rights United Nations/Yogyakarta Principles La Francophonie Commonwealth of Nations LGBT rights movements Homophile Gay liberation LGBT rights groups LGBT rights activists Pink capitalism Sexual orientations – Medicine, science and sexology Biology Birth order Demographics Environment Heterosexual–homosexual continuum Homosexuality and psychology Kinsey scale Klein Grid Neuroscience Prenatal hormones Sexual inversion Sexual orientation change efforts Sexual orientation identity Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine Social attitudes Prejudice Violence Social attitudes Anti-LGBT slogans Heteronormativity Heteropatriarchy Homonationalism Pinkwashing Gay panic LGBT rights opposition LGBT stereotypes Religion and homosexuality Transgenderism and religion Prejudice and discrimination AIDS stigma Biphobia Genderism Heterosexism Homophobia Internalized homophobia Lesbophobia Non-binary discrimination Riddle scale SPLC-designated list of anti-gay U.S. hate groups Transmisogyny Transphobia Violence against LGBT people Corrective rape Death penalty for homosexuality Gay bashing History of violence in the UK History of violence in the US Orlando nightclub shooting Significant acts of violence against LGBT people Trans bashing Unlawfully killed transgender people LGBT suicides Category Portal v t e Early LGBT rights advocacy in the United States (pre–Stonewall riots) Organizations Council on Religion and the Homosexual Daughters of Bilitis Janus Society Knights of the Clock Mattachine Society Metropolitan Community Church NACHO ONE, Inc. PRIDE Society for Human Rights Student Homophile League Veterans Benevolent Association Mattachine Society Hal Call Rudi Gernreich James Gruber Harry Hay Dale Jennings Frank Kameny Jack Nichols Daughters of Bilitis Lisa Ben Barbara Gittings Barbara Grier Kay Lahusen Phyllis Lyon Del Martin Ruth Simpson Others Merton Bird Reed Erickson Arthur Evans Charles Henri Ford Henry Gerber Morris Kight Aristide Laurent W. Dorr Legg Bob Mizer Troy Perry Clark Polak Craig Rodwell José Sarria Parker Tyler Randy Wicker H. Lynn Womack Publications The Advocate Drum Focus: A Journal for Lesbians Journal of Homosexuality The Ladder Vice Versa Events List of actions Newport sex scandal (1919) Secret Court of 1920 (1920) One, Inc. v. Olesen (1958) MANual Enterprises v. Day (1962) Annual Reminder (1965–1969) Compton's Cafeteria riot (1966) Film/TV The Rejected (1961) "The Homosexuals" (1967) Related Athletic Model Guild Black Cat Bar Black Cat Tavern DOB Australia Homophile Garden of Allah (cabaret) Julius (NYC bar) Henry Gerber House Minorities Research Group (UK) ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives Oscar Wilde Bookshop The Patch Tavern Guild Coordinates: 40°44′02″N 74°00′08″W / 40.7338°N 74.0021°W / 40.7338; -74.0021 Retrieved from "" Categories: 1960s in LGBT history1969 in New York (state)1969 riots20th century in New York CityGreenwich VillageHistory of LGBT civil rights in the United StatesHistory of ManhattanHistory of the United States (1964–80)LGBT civil rights demonstrationsLGBT history in New York CityLGBT-related riotsPolice brutality in the United StatesRiots and civil disorder in New York City1969 in LGBT historyJune 1969 eventsHidden categories: Webarchive template wayback linksPages containing links to subscription-only contentWikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2016CS1 maint: Extra text: authors listFeatured articlesCoordinates on Wikidata

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia Commons Languages ÆngliscবাংলাБеларускаяБългарскиBosanskiCatalàČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschEestiΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançaisGalego한국어HrvatskiBahasa IndonesiaInterlinguaItalianoעבריתქართულიKurdîLatviešuLietuviųBahasa MelayuNederlands日本語PolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийSarduSimple EnglishSlovenščinaСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaTagalogไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаTiếng Việt中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 19 February 2018, at 17:39. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.836","walltime":"0.996","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6329,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":259190,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":16227,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":1,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 748.696 1 -total"," 42.96% 321.621 2 Template:Reflist"," 16.95% 126.873 20 Template:Cite_web"," 8.94% 66.958 18 Template:Cite_book"," 7.22% 54.078 1 Template:LGBT"," 6.87% 51.402 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 5.43% 40.654 1 Template:Clarify"," 4.76% 35.608 1 Template:Fix-span"," 4.36% 32.673 10 Template:Navbox"," 4.32% 32.364 2 Template:ISBN"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.305","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":9568684,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1317","timestamp":"20180219173946","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":93,"wgHostname":"mw1271"});});

Stonewall_Riots - Photos and All Basic Informations

Stonewall_Riots More Links

This Is A Featured Article. Click Here For More Information.EnlargeStonewall InnMattachine SocietyLGBT CommunityPolice RaidStonewall InnGreenwich VillageManhattanNew York CityGay LiberationLGBT Rights In The United StatesHomophileHeterosexualCivil Rights MovementCounterculture Of The 1960sOpposition To The Vietnam WarAmerican MafiaDrag QueenTransgenderEffeminateButch And FemmeMale ProstitutionHomelessness In The United StatesRiotNew York City Police DepartmentSexual OrientationPride ParadeChicago Pride ParadeStonewall National MonumentWorld War IIAnti-communismJoseph McCarthyAnarchismCommunismUnited States Department Of StateBlackmailClyde R. HoeyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationUnited States Postal ServiceHomosexualityAmerican Psychiatric AssociationDiagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental DisordersEvelyn HookerLos AngelesMattachine SocietyHarry HaySan FranciscoDaughters Of BilitisONE, Inc.One, Inc. V. OlesenHomophileFrank KamenyWashington, D.C.Civil Rights MovementPicketing (protest)White HouseOpposition To The U.S. Involvement In The Vietnam WarCompton's Cafeteria RiotCooper Do-nuts RiotCompton's Cafeteria RiotPoly(methyl Methacrylate)Susan StrykerTransgenderEnlargeWashington Square ParkManhattanHarlemWorld War IProhibition In The United StatesSpeakeasyBeat GenerationAllen GinsbergWilliam S. BurroughsRobert F. Wagner, Jr.1964 New York World's FairEntrapmentSolicitationNew York PostJohn LindsayAlcohol Laws Of New YorkJulius (New York City)American MafiaStonewall InnEnlargeChristopher StreetGenovese Crime FamilyLiquor LicenseBouncer (doorman)Black LightTransvestismDrag (clothing)Christopher ParkConscriptionEnlargeSeymour PineBureau Of Alcohol, Tobacco, And FirearmsRevenue StampRum-runningFinancial District, ManhattanWall StreetWe Shall OvercomeEdmund WhiteBaton (law Enforcement)Stormé DeLarverieDave Van RonkThe Village VoiceEnlargeThe New York Daily NewsParking MeterBattering RamSylvia RiveraDrag QueenPlywoodCharcoal Lighter FluidRiot ControlPhalanx FormationKick LineTa-ra-ra Boom-de-ayLucian Truscott IVEnlargeChristopher ParkGeorge Segal (artist)Craig RodwellOscar Wilde BookshopJack Nichols (activist)Lige ClarkeScrew (magazine)JukeboxThe New York TimesNew York PostDaily News (New York)Students For A Democratic SocietyBlack Panther PartyGraffitiAllen GinsbergMarsha P. JohnsonAfrican-AmericanDrag QueenOrganization Of The New York City Police DepartmentBeat GenerationAllen GinsbergMattachine SocietyThe Village VoiceIndependence HallPhiladelphiaAnnual ReminderCraig RodwellFrank KamenyRandy WickerBarbara GittingsKay LahusenEnlargeGay Liberation FrontMattachine SocietyDaughters Of BilitisOpposition To The Vietnam WarNew York Women's House Of DetentionAfeni ShakurNew LeftCapitalismGay Activists AllianceZap (action)John LindsayDiego ViñalesDeportationDemocratic Party (United States)Ed KochLos AngelesChicagoPride ParadeBostonDallasMilwaukeeLondonParisWest BerlinStockholmLGBT Pride March (New York City)Christopher StreetCentral ParkWikipedia:Please ClarifyAtlantaBuffalo, New YorkDetroitWashington, D.C.MiamiMinneapolisPhiladelphiaSan FranciscoHomosexualityBarbara GittingsJean O'LearyCross-dressersDrag QueenSylvia RiveraLee BrewsterTarrytown, New YorkLavender MenaceSecond-wave FeminismBetty FriedanNational Organization For WomenRita Mae BrownLesbian FeminismEntrapmentAdrienne RichAmerican Psychiatric AssociationBehavior ModificationElectroconvulsive TherapyMorris KightJohn E. FryerDiagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental DisordersGrassrootsSave Our ChildrenDade County, FloridaBriggs InitiativeLGBT CultureMartin DubermanButch And FemmeLillian FadermanGay Male Pulp FictionEnlargeStonewall InnNational Historic LandmarkAdam NagourneyLillian FadermanEnlargeJoan NestleLesbian Herstory ArchivesLos AngelesChicagoBlack Cat TavernGay PrideStonewall (charity)LGBTGay RightsUnited KingdomStonewall InnStonewall AwardsStonewall (charity)United KingdomBisexualityMarch On Washington For Lesbian, Gay And Bi Equal Rights And LiberationUnited Nations HeadquartersCentral ParkSylvia RiveraSederB'nai Jeshurun (Manhattan)United States Department Of The InteriorNational Historic LandmarkJohn Berry (administrator)Greenwich Village Historic DistrictBarack ObamaFrank RichWashington BladeSame-sex Marriage In New YorkAndrew CuomoMissouri SenateSecond Inauguration Of Barack ObamaInaugural AddressEnlargeGay RightsLegacy WalkLGBTNew York City Landmarks Preservation CommissionStonewall Book AwardStonewall National MonumentNational Park ServiceNational Park FoundationNonprofit OrganizationBefore StonewallStonewall (1995 Film)After StonewallStonewall UprisingStonewall (2015 Film)Happy Birthday, Marsha!Marsha P. JohnsonSylvia RiveraStephin Merritt50 Song MemoirThe Magnetic FieldsJudy GarlandPortal:1960sPortal:LGBTPortal:New York CityStonewall National MonumentLGBTQ Culture In New York CityList Of Incidents Of Civil Unrest In New York CityList Of Pre-Stonewall LGBT Actions In The United StatesList Of Incidents Of Civil Unrest In The United StatesSodomyEmeticElectroshock TherapyLobotomiesGay IconJudy GarlandSylvia RiveraMolotov CocktailGay SlangU.S. National Park ServiceDepartment Of The InteriorSusan StrykerWayback MachineThe New York TimesLeslie FeinbergWorkers World PartyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0472118536The New York TimesIndiewireWayback MachineDigital Object IdentifierInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55862-358-2Wayback MachineWayback MachineYahoo!International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8057-9714-9St. Martin's PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-25267-6Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8108-5913-0St. Martin's PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-34269-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-684-81091-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-684-80030-6Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-525-93602-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8139-2211-9Lillian FadermanInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-14-017122-3Lillian FadermanBasic BooksInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-465-02288-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4039-8069-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-58005-252-5Jonathan Ned KatzGay American History: Lesbians And Gay Men In The U.S.A.International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-690-01165-2National Park ServiceCategory:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListHarperCollinsInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-06-093391-7St. Martin's PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-11279-3Walter Lee WilliamsYolanda RetterInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-313-30696-6Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-446-67237-8Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListThe New York TimesThe Huffington PostDemocracy Now!Internet Movie DatabaseSusan StrykerTemplate:Sexual RevolutionTemplate Talk:Sexual RevolutionSexual RevolutionFree LoveSummer Of LoveAbortion LawDivorce Law By CountryFreedom Of SpeechFreedom Of The PressGolden Age Of PornGolden Age Of PornPornographyPornography In The United StatesSwinging (sexual Practice)Combined Oral Contraceptive PillUnited States V. One Book Called UlyssesMake Love, Not WarThe Personal Is PoliticalKinsey ReportsMasters And Johnson InstitutePlayboyProtests Of 1968Gerard DamianoHugh HefnerVirginia E. JohnsonAlfred KinseyWilliam MastersWilhelm ReichCounterculture Of The 1960sFeminist Views Of PornographyHippieLGBTLGBT Culture In New York CityLustPeace MovementTemplate:LGBT In New YorkTemplate Talk:LGBT In New YorkNew York (state)LGBT History In New YorkLGBTQ Culture In New York CityACT UPTimeline Of LGBT History In New York CityLGBT Rights In New YorkGender Expression Non-Discrimination ActMarriage Equality Act (New York)New York V. OnofreSame-sex Marriage In New YorkSexual Orientation Non-Discrimination ActUnited States V. WindsorLGBT Culture In New York CityCherry Grove, New YorkContinental BathsEverard BathsFire Island Pines, New YorkJulius (restaurant)Mineshaft (gay Club)New St. Marks BathsThe Saint (club)Stonewall InnCallen-Lorde Community Health CenterChristopher StreetGreenwich VillageHarvey Milk High SchoolLesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community CenterLesbian Herstory ArchivesMetropolitan Community Church Of New YorkOscar Wilde BookshopStonewall National MonumentGayfest NYCLGBT Pride March (New York City)New York Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, & Transgender Film FestivalWigstockGay City NewsGaysweekThe New York BladeNew York NativeNext Magazine (New York City)Out FMChristopher Street (magazine)ACT UPAli Forney CenterAudre Lorde ProjectEmpire State Pride AgendaFed Up QueersGay Activists AllianceGay Liberation FrontGay Men's Health CrisisLavender MenaceLesbian AvengersLesbian Feminist LiberationLesbian Sex MafiaNew York Area Bisexual NetworkQueens Liberation FrontQueer NationSex Panic!Street Transvestite Action RevolutionariesTemplate:LGBT HistoryTemplate Talk:LGBT HistoryLGBT HistoryAdelphopoiesisBoston MarriageGreek LoveHistory Of BisexualityHistory Of Cross-dressingHistory Of HomosexualityHistory Of Christianity And HomosexualitySaints Sergius And BacchusLGBT In IslamHistory Of LesbianismHistory Of Same-sex UnionsTimeline Of Same-sex MarriageTimeline Of Same-sex Marriage In The United StatesHomosexuality In Ancient EgyptKhnumhotep And NiankhkhnumHomosexuality In JapanHomosexuality In Medieval EuropeLGBT HistoryCategory:LGBT History By CountryLGBT History In ChinaHomosexuality In ChinaLGBT History In GermanyPersecution Of Homosexuals In Nazi Germany And The HolocaustLGBT History In GreeceHomosexuality In Ancient GreeceHomosexuality In The Militaries Of Ancient GreeceLGBT History In IndiaLGBT History In IsraelDavid And JonathanLGBT History In ItalyHomosexuality In Ancient RomeLex ScantiniaSexuality In Ancient RomeLGBT History In PeruHomosexuality In Ancient PeruLGBT History In PolandOperation HyacinthCategory:LGBT History In The United KingdomMolly HouseBloomsbury Group In LGBT HistorySea QueensUK Gay Liberation Front 1971 Festival Of Light ActionLGBT History In The United StatesBisexuality In The United StatesGay Men In American HistoryHistory Of Lesbianism In The United StatesHistory Of Transgender People In The United StatesWhite Night RiotsLGBT History MonthLGBT Social MovementsPederastyAthenian PederastyCretan PederastyPederasty In Ancient GreecePlatonic LovePrinciple 6 CampaignRomantic FriendshipList Of LGBT Actions In The United States Prior To The Stonewall RiotsTable Of Years In LGBT RightsTimeline Of LGBT HistoryList Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Or Transgender Firsts By YearTimeline Of LGBT History In The United KingdomTimeline Of LGBT History In CanadaTimeline Of LGBT History In South AfricaTimeline Of LGBT History In TurkeyTimeline Of South Asian And Diasporic LGBT HistoryTimeline Of Asian And Pacific Islander Diasporic LGBT HistoryTransgender HistoryUranianCategory:LGBT HistoryTemplate:LGBTTemplate Talk:LGBTLesbianGayBisexualityTransgenderLGBTList Of Academic DisciplinesDiscourseLGBT Topics In EducationGender StudiesLavender LinguisticsLesbian FeminismLGBT LiteratureQueer StudiesQueer TheoryTransfeminismLGBT CommunityLGBT CultureGay AnthemGay BarBisexual CommunityComing OutLGBT Community CentreCross-dressingDrag KingDrag QueenTemplate:LGBT FictionGay FriendlyGay IconLesbian UtopiaLGBT LiteratureLGBT MusicGay VillageList Of LGBT-related OrganizationsList Of LGBT PeriodicalsGay PridePride ParadeLGBT-affirming Religious GroupsGay RodeoSame-sex RelationshipLGBT SlangList Of LGBT Slang TermsLGBT SlogansHomosexuality In SportsLGBT SymbolsLGBT TourismCategory:LGBT CultureGender IdentitySexual IdentitySexual DiversityGender IdentityAndrogynyBigenderBoi (slang)CisgenderFemaleGender BenderGender NeutralityGenderqueerMalePangenderTransfeminineTransgenderTrans ManTransmasculineTranssexualTrans WomanWomynThird GenderAkava'ineAndrogynosBaklaBissuEunuchFa'afafineFakaleitiFemminielloHijra (South Asia)KathoeyKhanithKöçekMahu (person)Mak NyahMukhannathunMuxeSworn VirginsTakatāpuiTomboyTravestiTumtum (Judaism)Two-SpiritWinkteSexual Orientation IdentitySexual OrientationAsexualityBisexualityHeterosexualityHomosexualityAttraction To Transgender PeopleBanjeeBi-curiousEx-gay MovementEx-ex-gayGayHeteroflexibleLesbianMonosexualityNon-heterosexualPansexualityPolyamoryQueerQuestioning (sexuality And Gender)Romantic OrientationSame Gender LovingGender And Sexual DiversityErotic Target Location ErrorGender RolesHuman Female SexualityHuman Male SexualitySexuality And Gender Identity-based CulturesIntersexHermaphroditeLGBT HistoryLGBT HistoryHistory Of HomosexualityHistory Of LesbianismTimeline Of LGBT HistoryLGBT Social MovementsHistory Of Christianity And HomosexualityHistory Of Same-sex UnionsPederastyCategory:LGBT HistoryLGBT Pride FlagAdelphopoiesisHomosexuality In Ancient EgyptHomosexuality In Ancient GreeceHomosexuality In Ancient PeruHomosexuality In Ancient RomeHomosexuality In Medieval EuropeMolly HouseUranianPersecution Of Homosexuals In Nazi Germany And The HolocaustSea QueensUK Gay Liberation Front 1971 Festival Of Light ActionWhite Night RiotsTimeline Of Same-sex MarriageLGBTQ Culture In New York CityStonewall National MonumentLGBT Rights By Country Or TerritoryLGBT Rights By Country Or TerritoryLGBT Rights In AfricaLGBT Rights In The AmericasLGBT Rights In AsiaLGBT Rights In EuropeLGBT Rights In OceaniaList Of LGBT Rights Articles By RegionLGBT AdoptionCivil UnionHate CrimeIntersex Human RightsSexual Orientation And Military ServiceLGBT ParentingSame-sex MarriageTimeline Of Same-sex MarriageList Of Same-sex Married CouplesSocialism And LGBT RightsSodomy LawTransgender RightsLGBT Rights At The United NationsYogyakarta PrinciplesLGBT Rights In La FrancophonieLGBT Rights In The Commonwealth Of NationsLGBT Social MovementsHomophileGay LiberationList Of LGBT Rights OrganizationsList Of LGBT Rights ActivistsPink CapitalismSexual OrientationBiology And Sexual OrientationFraternal Birth Order And Male Sexual OrientationDemographics Of Sexual OrientationEnvironment And Sexual OrientationHeterosexual–homosexual ContinuumHomosexuality And PsychologyKinsey ScaleKlein Sexual Orientation GridNeuroscience And Sexual OrientationPrenatal Hormones And Sexual OrientationSexual Inversion (sexology)Sexual Orientation Change EffortsSexual Orientation IdentityTimeline Of Sexual Orientation And MedicineSocietal Attitudes Toward HomosexualityPrejudiceViolence Against LGBT PeopleSocietal Attitudes Toward HomosexualityAnti-LGBT SlogansHeteronormativityHeteropatriarchyHomonationalismPinkwashing (LGBT)Gay Panic DefenseLGBT Rights OppositionLGBT StereotypesReligion And HomosexualityTransgenderism And ReligionPrejudiceDiscriminationDiscrimination Against People With HIV/AIDSBiphobiaGenderismHeterosexismHomophobiaEgo-dystonic Sexual OrientationLesbophobiaNon-binary DiscriminationRiddle ScaleList Of Organizations Designated By The Southern Poverty Law Center As Anti-gay Hate GroupsTransmisogynyTransphobiaViolence Against LGBT PeopleCorrective RapeDeath Penalty For HomosexualityGay BashingHistory Of Violence Against LGBT People In The United KingdomHistory Of Violence Against LGBT People In The United StatesOrlando Nightclub ShootingSignificant Acts Of Violence Against LGBT PeopleTrans BashingList Of Unlawfully Killed Transgender PeopleList Of LGBT-related SuicidesCategory:LGBTPortal:LGBTTemplate:Early U.S. Gay Rights MovementTemplate Talk:Early U.S. Gay Rights MovementCouncil On Religion And The HomosexualDaughters Of BilitisJanus SocietyKnights Of The ClockMattachine SocietyMetropolitan Community ChurchNorth American Conference Of Homophile OrganizationsONE, Inc.Personal Rights In Defense And EducationSociety For Human RightsColumbia Queer AllianceVeterans Benevolent AssociationMattachine SocietyHal CallRudi GernreichJames GruberHarry HayDale JenningsFrank KamenyJack Nichols (activist)Daughters Of BilitisLisa BenBarbara GittingsBarbara GrierKay LahusenDel Martin And Phyllis LyonDel Martin And Phyllis LyonRuth Simpson (activist)Merton BirdReed EricksonArthur Evans (author)Charles Henri FordHenry GerberMorris KightAristide LaurentW. Dorr LeggBob MizerTroy PerryClark PolakCraig RodwellJosé SarriaParker TylerRandy WickerH. Lynn WomackThe AdvocateDrum (American Magazine)Focus: A Journal For LesbiansJournal Of HomosexualityThe Ladder (magazine)Vice Versa (magazine)List Of LGBT Actions In The United States Prior To The Stonewall RiotsNewport Sex ScandalSecret Court Of 1920One, Inc. V. OlesenMANual Enterprises V. DayAnnual ReminderCompton's Cafeteria RiotThe RejectedThe Homosexuals (CBS Reports)Athletic Model GuildBlack Cat BarBlack Cat TavernDaughters Of Bilitis (Australia)HomophileGarden Of Allah (cabaret)Julius (restaurant)Henry Gerber HouseMinorities Research GroupONE National Gay & Lesbian ArchivesOscar Wilde BookshopThe Patch (bar)Tavern GuildGeographic Coordinate SystemHelp:CategoryCategory:1960s In LGBT HistoryCategory:1969 In New York (state)Category:1969 RiotsCategory:20th Century In New York CityCategory:Greenwich VillageCategory:History Of LGBT Civil Rights In The United StatesCategory:History Of ManhattanCategory:History Of The United States (1964–80)Category:LGBT Civil Rights DemonstrationsCategory:LGBT History In New York CityCategory:LGBT-related RiotsCategory:Police Brutality In The United StatesCategory:Riots And Civil Disorder In New York CityCategory:1969 In LGBT HistoryCategory:June 1969 EventsCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:Pages Containing Links To Subscription-only ContentCategory:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From September 2016Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListCategory:Featured ArticlesCategory:Coordinates On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link