Contents 1 Geography 2 Politics 3 Federalism and state powers 4 Historical development 5 See also 6 References

Geography[edit] Burgenland Carinthia Lower Austria Upper Austria Salzburg Styria Tyrol Tyrol Vorarlberg Vienna The majority of the land area in the states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Vienna, and Burgenland is situated in the Danube valley and thus consists almost completely of accessible and easily arable terrain. The other five states, in contrast, are located in the Alps and thus are comparatively unsuitable for agriculture. Their terrain is also relatively unfavourable to heavy industry and long-distance trade. Accordingly, the population of what now is the Republic of Austria has been concentrated in the former four states since prehistoric times. Austria's most densely populated state is the city-state of Vienna, the heart of what is Austria's only metropolitan area. Lower Austria ranks only fourth with regard to population density even though it contains Vienna's suburbs; this is due to large areas of land being predominantly agricultural. The alpine state of Tyrol, the less alpine but geographically more remote state of Carinthia, and the non-alpine but near-exclusively agricultural state of Burgenland are Austria's least densely populated states. The wealthy alpine state of Vorarlberg is something of an anomaly due to its small size, isolated location and distinct Alemannic culture.[citation needed] The following ranked list of Austrian states cites official Statistik Austria population on 1 January 2015.[1] Areas are given in square kilometres, population density is expressed in inhabitants per square kilometre. For the purpose of the above list, a city is a community defined to be a city by Austrian law; a town is a community not defined to be a city. Many of Austria's cities have population figures on the order of ten thousand inhabitants; some are even smaller. Pop. rank State Capital Population Area (km2) Pop. density (inhab./km2) Cities Towns 1 Vienna (Wien) 1,794,770 415 4,326.1 1 0 2 Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) Sankt Pölten 1,636,287 19,178 85.3 76 497 3 Upper Austria (Oberösterreich) Linz 1,436,791 11,982 119.9 32 410 4 Styria (Steiermark) Graz 1,221,014 16,401 74.4 35 252 5 Tyrol (Tirol) Innsbruck 728,537 12,648 57.6 11 268 6 Carinthia (Kärnten) Klagenfurt 557,371 9,536 58.4 17 115 7 Salzburg Salzburg 538,258 7,154 75.2 11 108 8 Vorarlberg Bregenz 378,490 2,601 145.5 5 91 9 Burgenland Eisenstadt 288,229 3,965 72.7 13 158

Politics[edit] The nine states (Bundesländer) of Austria, here listed alphabetically by name, are:[2] Coat of Arms State (Bundesland) Capital Governor (Landeshauptmann) Incumbent Party Coalition Burgenland Eisenstadt Governor of Burgenland Hans Niessl SPÖ SPÖ, FPÖ Carinthia Klagenfurt Governor of Carinthia Peter Kaiser SPÖ SPÖ, ÖVP, Grüne Lower Austria Sankt Pölten Governor of Lower Austria Johanna Mikl-Leitner ÖVP ÖVP, SPÖ Salzburg Salzburg Governor of Salzburg Wilfried Haslauer ÖVP ÖVP, Grüne, TS Styria Graz Governor of Styria Hermann Schützenhöfer ÖVP ÖVP, SPÖ Tyrol Innsbruck Governor of Tyrol Günther Platter ÖVP ÖVP, Grüne Upper Austria Linz Governor of Upper Austria Josef Pühringer ÖVP ÖVP, FPÖ Vienna Vienna Mayor of Vienna Michael Häupl SPÖ SPÖ, Grüne Vorarlberg Bregenz Governor of Vorarlberg Markus Wallner ÖVP ÖVP, Grüne

Federalism and state powers[edit] Each Austrian state has an elected legislature, the Landtag, a state government, the Landesregierung, and a governor, the Landeshauptmann or Landeshauptfrau. Elections are held every five years (six years in Upper Austria). The state constitution, among other things, determines how the seats in the state government are assigned to political parties, with most states having a system of proportional representation based on the number of delegates in the Landtag in place. The Landeshauptmann is always elected by the Landtag, meaning that it may be necessary to form a coalition in order to secure the election of a particular candidate. Vienna, the capital of Austria, plays a double role as city and "Bundesland", meaning that the mayor serves as governor and the city council as Landtag at the same time. Austrian federalism is largely theoretical as the states are granted few legislative powers. The federal constitution initially granted all legislative powers to the states, but many powers have been subsequently taken away, and only a few remain, such as planning and zoning codes, nature protection, hunting, fishing, farming, youth protection, certain issues of public health and welfare and the right to levy certain taxes. All other matters, including but not limited to criminal law, civil law, corporate law, most aspects of economic law, defense, most educational matters and academia, telecommunications, and much of the healthcare system are regulated by federal laws. There is also no judiciary of the Länder, since the federal constitution defines the judiciary as an exclusively federal matter. This centralisation follows a historic model where central power during the time of the empire was largely concentrated in Vienna. However, the state governor (Landeshauptmann) is in charge of the administration of much of federal administrative law within the respective state, which makes this post an important political position. Furthermore, state competences include zoning laws, planning issues and public procurement on the regional level, which adds considerable weight to state politics. As a practical matter, there have been cases where states have been able to block projects endorsed by the federal government, as in the case of a railway tunnel that was to be built below the Semmering. Austrian Länder are endowed formally and practically with a much smaller degree of autonomy than American or German states. Even so, Austrians tend to identify passionately with their respective Land and often defend what little independent governance their states have. It is not unheard of for Austrians to consider themselves, for instance, Tyrolean first, Austrian second.

Historical development[edit] In terms of boundaries, the present-day states arose from the crown lands of Austria-Hungary, an extensive multiethnic realm whose German-speaking nucleus emerged as the Republic of Austria after the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy at the end of World War I. The states of Upper Austria and Lower Austria are essentially equivalent to what were since 1783/84 the two autonomous halves of the Archduchy of Austria, a principality which formed the empire's historic heartland. Salzburg is coterminous with the former Austro-Hungarian Duchy of Salzburg (the former Archbishopric). Similarly, the state of Carinthia descends from the Duchy of Carinthia, the state of Styria descends from the Duchy of Styria, and the state of Tyrol descends from the Princely County of Tyrol; these states had to cede territories to Italy and Yugoslavia when Austria emerged in its present form. Also, the state of Vorarlberg had been a semi-autonomous part of the County of Tyrol since 1861. The city-state of Vienna was a part of Lower Austria up until 1921.[3] The state of Burgenland is made up of the predominantly German-speaking area that the Kingdom of Hungary until 1921 had to cede to the First Austrian Republic after World War I as a result of the Treaties of Trianon and Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[4]

See also[edit] Distribution of seats in the Austrian Landtage Districts of Austria Flags of Austrian states Coats of arms of the Austrian states ISO 3166-2:AT

References[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to States of Austria. ^ STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bundesländer. Retrieved on 2015-05-02. ^ Parties and Elections in Europe – Austria (States) ^ City of Vienna, History, retrieved 2010-05-17 ^ Encyclopedia of Austria - Burgenland, retrieved 18 May 2010 v t e States of Austria  Burgenland •  Vienna •  Lower Austria •  Carinthia •  Styria •  Upper Austria •  Salzburg •  Tyrol •  Vorarlberg v t e Austria articles History Margraviate of Austria Duchy of Austria Archduchy of Austria Habsburg Monarchy Siege of Vienna Austrian Empire March Constitution of Austria Congress of Vienna Austria-Hungary German Austria First Austrian Republic Austrian Civil War Federal State of Austria Austrofascism Anschluss Ostmark Allied-administered Austria History of Vienna Military history of Austria Geography Administrative divisions Cities Districts Lakes Mountains Rivers States Politics Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Law enforcement LGBT rights Legal system Military Parliament Political parties Economy Agriculture Banking Companies Energy Mining Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport Society Austrian people Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health care Languages Religion Culture Architecture Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Flag Literature Media Museums Music National anthem Public holidays Sport Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e First-level administrative divisions in European countries Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan1 Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia1 Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan1 Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia1 San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey1 Ukraine United Kingdom States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Kosovo Nagorno-Karabakh2 Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria 1 Has part of its territory outside Europe. 2 Considered European for cultural, political and historical reasons but is geographically in Western Asia. Table of administrative divisions by country Authority control GND: 4253590-6 Retrieved from "" Categories: States of AustriaSubdivisions of AustriaLists of country subdivisionsCountry subdivisions in EuropeFirst-level administrative country subdivisionsAustria-related listsHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from May 2010All articles needing additional referencesArticles containing German-language textAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from November 2013Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers

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