Contents 1 History 1.1 Standardization 1.2 Early standards organizations 1.3 International organizations 2 Overview 2.1 International standards organizations 2.2 Regional standards organizations 2.3 National standards bodies 2.4 Standards developing organizations (SDOs) 2.5 Scope of work 2.6 Standards development process 2.7 Standards distribution and copyright 3 Trends 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Standardization[edit] Graphic representation of formulae for the pitches of threads of screw bolts The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became highly important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts. Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800, which allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time.[1] Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization; some companies' in-house standards spread a bit within their industries. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first (unofficial) national standard by companies around the country in 1841. It came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, and was widely adopted in other countries.[2][3] Early standards organizations[edit] By the end of the 19th century differences in standards between companies was making trade increasingly difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers generally specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible. In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work". The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body.[4][5] It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929. The national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, and enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries. The Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commission Permanente de Standardisation, both in 1918.[1] International organizations[edit] R. E. B. Crompton drew up the first international standards body, the International Electrotechnical Commission, in 1906. By the mid to late 19th century, efforts were being made to standardize electrical measurement. An important figure was R. E. B. Crompton, who became concerned by the large range of different standards and systems used by electrical engineering companies and scientists in the early 20th century. Many companies had entered the market in the 1890s and all chose their own settings for voltage, frequency, current and even the symbols used on circuit diagrams. Adjacent buildings would have totally incompatible electrical systems simply because they had been fitted out by different companies. Crompton could see the lack of efficiency in this system and began to consider proposals for an international standard for electric engineering.[6] In 1904, Crompton represented Britain at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri, as part of a delegation by the Institute of Electrical Engineers. He presented a paper on standardisation, which was so well received that he was asked to look into the formation of a commission to oversee the process.[7] By 1906 his work was complete and he drew up a permanent constitution for the first international standards organization, the International Electrotechnical Commission.[8] The body held its first meeting that year in London, with representatives from 14 countries. In honour of his contribution to electrical standardisation, Lord Kelvin was elected as the body's first President.[9] Memorial plaque of founding ISA in Prague. The International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) was founded in 1926 with a broader remit to enhance international cooperation for all technical standards and specifications. The body was suspended in 1942 during World War II. After the war, ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization (ISO); the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.[10]

Overview[edit] Standards organizations can be classified by their role, position, and the extent of their influence on the local, national, regional, and global standardization arena. By geographic designation, there are international, regional, and national standards bodies (the latter often referred to as NSBs). By technology or industry designation, there are standards developing organizations (SDOs) and also standards setting organizations (SSOs) also known as consortia. Standards organizations may be governmental, quasi-governmental or non-governmental entities. Quasi- and non-governmental standards organizations are often non-profit organizations. International standards organizations[edit] Broadly, an international standards organization develops international standards. (This does not necessarily restrict the use of other published standards internationally.) There are many international standards organizations. The three largest and most well-established such organizations are the International Organization for Standardization, the International Electrotechnical Commission, and the International Telecommunication Union, which have each existed for more than 50 years (founded in 1947, 1906, and 1865, respectively) and are all based in Geneva, Switzerland. They have established tens of thousands of standards covering almost every conceivable topic. Many of these are then adopted worldwide replacing various incompatible "homegrown" standards. Many of these standards are naturally evolved from those designed in-house within an industry, or by a particular country, while others have been built from scratch by groups of experts who sit on various technical committees (TCs). These three organizations together comprise the World Standards Cooperation (WSC) alliance. ISO is composed of the national standards bodies (NSBs), one per member economy. The IEC is similarly composed of national committees, one per member economy. In some cases, the national committee to the IEC of an economy may also be the ISO member from that country or economy. ISO and IEC are private international organizations that are not established by any international treaty. Their members may be non-governmental organizations or governmental agencies, as selected by ISO and IEC (which are privately established organizations). The ITU is a treaty-based organization established as a permanent agency of the United Nations, in which governments are the primary members,[citation needed] although other organizations (such as non-governmental organizations and individual companies) can also hold a form of direct membership status in the ITU as well. Another example of a treaty-based international standards organization with government membership is the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to these, a large variety of independent international standards organizations such as the ASME, the ASTM International, the IEEE, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), SAE International, TAPPI, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) develop and publish standards for a variety of international uses. In many such cases, these international standards organizations are not based on the principle of one member per country. Rather, membership in such organizations is open to those interested in joining and willing to agree to the organization's by-laws – having either organizational/corporate or individual technical experts as members. The Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee (AEEC) was formed in 1949 to prepare avionics system engineering standards with other aviation organizations RTCA, EUROCAE, and ICAO. The standards are widely known as the ARINC Standards. Regional standards organizations[edit] Regional standards bodies also exist, such as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in Europe, the Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC), the Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT), the African Organization for Standardization (ARSO), the Arabic industrial development and mining organization (AIDMO), and others. In the European Union, only standards created by CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI are recognized as European standards, and member states are required to notify the European Commission and each other about all the draft technical regulations concerning ICT products and services before they are adopted in national law.[11] These rules were laid down in Directive 98/34/EC with the goal of providing transparency and control with regard to technical regulations.[11] Sub-regional standards organizations also exist such as the MERCOSUR Standardization Association (AMN), the CARICOM Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality (CROSQ), and the ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ), EAC East Africa Standards Committee, and the GCC Standardization Organization (GSO) for Arab States of the Persian Gulf. National standards bodies[edit] In general, each country or economy has a single recognized national standards body (NSB). A national standards body is likely the sole member from that economy in ISO; ISO currently has 161 members. National standards bodies usually do not prepare the technical content of standards, which instead is developed by national technical societies. Example national standards bodies [12] Organization Initials Country Bureau of Indian Standards BIS India Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution BSTI Bangladesh Badan Standardisasi Nasional BSN Indonesia Brazilian National Standards Organization ABNT Brazil Spanish Association for Standardization and Certification AENOR Spain French association for Standardization AFNOR France American National Standards Institute ANSI U.S. Romanian Standards Association ASRO Romania British Standards Institution BSI U.K. Dirección General de Normas DGN Mexico Deutsches Institut für Normung DIN Germany Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación IRAM Argentina Bureau of Standards of Jamaica BSJ Jamaica Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification GOST Russia (Soviet Union) Colombian Institute of Technical Standards and Certification ICONTEC Colombia Luxembourg Institute for Standardization, Accreditation, Security, and Quality of Products and Services ILNAS Luxembourg Japanese Industrial Standards Committee JISC Japan Korean Agency for Technology and Standards KATS Korea (Republic) Norme Belge-Belgische Norm NBN België Nederlandse Norm NEN Netherlands South African Bureau of Standards SABS South Africa Standardization Administration of China SAC China Standards Council of Canada SCC Canada Standards Organisation of Nigeria SON Nigeria Swedish Standards Institute SIS Sweden Finnish Standards Association SFS Finland Standards Norway SN Norway Estonian Centre for Standardisation EVS Estonia Swiss Association for Standardization SNV Switzerland Standards New Zealand SNZ New Zealand it:Ente nazionale italiano di unificazione UNI Italy Standards Australia SAI Australia Jabatan Standard Malaysia DSM Malaysia pt:Instituto Português da Qualidade IPQ Portugal NSBs may be either public or private sector organizations, or combinations of the two. For example, the Standards Council of Canada is a Canadian Crown Corporation, Dirección General de Normas is a governmental agency within the Mexican Ministry of Economy, and ANSI is a 501(c)(3) non-profit U.S. organization with members from both the private and public sectors. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the U.S. government's standards agency, cooperates with ANSI under a memorandum of understanding to collaborate on the United States Standards Strategy. The determinates of whether an NSB for a particular economy is a public or private sector body may include the historical and traditional roles that the private sector fills in public affairs in that economy or the development stage of that economy. Standards developing organizations (SDOs)[edit] Whereas, the term national standards body (NSB) generally refers to the one-per-country standardization organization that is that country’s member of the ISO, the term standards developing organization (SDO) generally refers to the thousands of industry- or sector-based standards organizations that develop and publish industry specific standards. Some economies feature only an NSB with no other SDOs. Large economies like the United States and Japan have several hundred SDOs, many of which are coordinated by the central NSBs of each country (ANSI and JISC in this case). In some cases, international industry-based SDOs such as the IEEE and the Audio Engineering Society (AES) may have direct liaisons with international standards organizations, having input to international standards without going through a national standards body. SDOs are differentiated from standards setting organizations (SSOs) in that SDOs may be accredited to develop standards using open and transparent processes. Scope of work[edit] Developers of technical standards are generally concerned with interface standards, which detail how products interconnect with each other, and safety standards, which established characteristics ensure that a product or process is safe for humans, animals, and the environment. The subject of their work can be narrow or broad. Another area of interest is in defining how the behavior and performance of products is measured and described in data sheets. Overlapping or competing standards bodies tend to cooperate purposefully, by seeking to define boundaries between the scope of their work, and by operating in a hierarchical fashion in terms of national, regional and international scope; international organizations tend to have as members national organizations; and standards emerging at national level (such as BS 5750) can be adopted at regional levels (BS 5750 was adopted as EN 29000) and at international levels (BS 5750 was adopted as ISO 9000). Unless adopted by a government, standards carry no force in law. However, most jurisdictions have truth in advertising laws, and ambiguities can be reduced if a company offers a product that is "compliant" with a standard. Standards development process[edit] When an organization develops standards that may be used openly, it is common to have formal rules published regarding the process. This may include: Who is allowed to vote and provide input on new or revised standards What is the formal step-by-step process How are bias and commercial interests handled How negative votes or ballots are handled What type of consensus is required Though it can be a tedious and lengthy process, formal standard setting is essential to developing new technologies. For example, since 1865, the telecommunications industry has depended on the ITU to establish the telecommunications standards that have been adopted worldwide. The ITU has created numerous telecommunications standards including telegraph specifications, allocation of telephone numbers, interference protection, and protocols for a variety of communications technologies. The standards that are created through standards organizations lead to improved product quality, ensured interoperability of competitors’ products, and they provide a technological baseline for future research and product development. Formal standard setting through standards organizations has numerous benefits for consumers including increased innovation, multiple market participants, reduced production costs, and the efficiency effects of product interchangeability. Standards distribution and copyright[edit] Some standards – such as the SIF Specification in K12 education – are managed by a non-profit organizations composed of public entities and private entities working in cooperation that then publish the standards under an open license at no charge and requiring no registration. A technical library at a university may have copies of technical standards on hand. Major libraries in large cities may also have access to many technical standards. Some users of standards mistakenly assume that all standards are in the public domain. This assumption is correct only for standards produced by the central governments whose publications are not amenable to copyright or to organizations that issue their standard under an open license. Any standards produced by non-governmental entities remain the intellectual property of their developers (unless specifically designed otherwise) and are protected, just like any other publications, by copyright laws and international treaties. However, the intellectual property extends only to the standard itself and not to its use. For instance if a company sells a device that is compliant with a given standard, it is not liable for further payment to the standards organization except in the special case when the organization holds patent rights or some other ownership of the intellectual property described in the standard. It is, however, liable for any patent infringement by its implementation, just as with any other implementation of technology. The standards organizations give no guarantees that patents relevant to a given standard have been identified. ISO standards draw attention to this in the foreword with a statement like the following: "Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights".[13] If the standards organization is aware that parts of a given standard fall under patent protection, it will often require the patent holder to agree to Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing before including it in the standard. Such an agreement is regarded as a legally binding contract,[14] as in the 2012 case Microsoft v. Motorola.

Trends[edit] The ever-quickening pace of technology evolution is now more than ever affecting the way new standards are proposed, developed and implemented. Since traditional, widely respected standards organizations tend to operate at a slower pace than technology evolves, many standards they develop are becoming less relevant because of the inability of their developers to keep abreast with the technological innovation. As a result, a new class of standards setters appeared on the standardization arena: the industry consortia or standards setting organizations (SSOs). Despite having limited financial resources, some of them enjoy truly international acceptance. One example is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), whose standards for HTML, CSS, and XML are used universally. There are also community-driven associations such as the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a worldwide network of volunteers who collaborate to set standards for lower-level software solutions. Some industry-driven standards development efforts don't even have a formal organizational structure. They are projects funded by large corporations. Among them are the, an Apache Software Foundation-sponsored international community of volunteers working on an open-standard software that aims to compete with Microsoft Office, and two commercial groups competing fiercely with each other to develop an industry-wide standard for high-density optical storage.

See also[edit] Coordination game List of technical standard organisations Reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing Technical standard Transport standards organisations

References[edit] ^ a b c Wang Ping (April 2011), A Brief History of Standards and Standardization Organizations: A Chinese Perspective (PDF), East–West Center  ^ Gilbert, K. R., & Galloway, D. F., 1978, "Machine Tools". In Charles Singer, et al., (Eds.), A History of Technology. Oxford, Clarendon Press ^ Lee, Sidney (Ed.), 1900, Dictionary of National Biography, Vol LXI. Smith Elder, London ^ "BSI Group Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010, p. 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-03.  ^ Robert C. McWilliam. BSI: The First Hundred Years. 1901–2001. A Century of Achievement. 2001. Thanet Press. London ^ Colonel Crompton, IEC Website ^ Johnson, J. & Randell, W. (1948) Colonel Crompton and the Evolution of the Electrical Industry, Longman Green. ^ Chris K. Dyer; Patrick T. Moseley; Zempachi Ogumi; David A. J. Rand; Bruno Scrosati Newnes (2010). Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources. p. 540.  ^ IEC. "1906 Preliminary Meeting Report, pp. 46–48" (PDF). The minutes from our first meeting. Retrieved 21 October 2012.  ^ Friendship among equals - Recollections from ISO's first fifty years (PDF), International Organization for Standardization, 1997, pp. 15–18, ISBN 92-67-10260-5, retrieved 26 December 2013  ^ a b European Union: Directive 98/34/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 1998 laying down a procedure for the provision of information in the field of technical standards and regulations Official Journal L é04, 21.7.1998, p. 37–48. (This page also provides references to amendments.) See also European Commission: Enterprise Directorate-General: Vademecum on European Standardisation. (This document contains a consolidated version of Directive 98/34/EC, dated 15 November 2003.) Accessed 2009-05-05. ^ ISO Members, retrieved 2012 Feb 21 ^ Quoted from ISO/IEC 24751-1:2008: Information technology – Individualized adaptability and accessibility in e-learning, education and training – Part 1: Framework and reference model, p. v. ^ J. Gregory Sidak, The Meaning of FRAND, Part I: Royalties, 9 J. COMPETITION L. & ECON. 931, 977 (2013),

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Technical StandardDe Jure StandardDe Facto StandardHayes Command SetHayes Microcomputer ProductsApple ComputerTrueTypePrinter Command LanguageHewlett-PackardComputer PrinterBenefactor (law)Project StakeholderEnlargeIndustrial RevolutionMachine ToolInterchangeable PartsHenry MaudslayScrew-cutting LatheScrew ThreadJoseph WhitworthBritish Standard WhitworthThe TimesGirderBSI GroupFirst World WarDeutsches Institut Für NormungAmerican National Standards InstituteAFNOREnlargeR. E. B. CromptonInternational Electrotechnical CommissionVoltFrequencyElectric CurrentLouisiana Purchase ExpositionSt. Louis, MissouriMissouriInstitute Of Electrical EngineersInternational Electrotechnical CommissionWilliam Thomson, 1st Baron KelvinEnlargePragueISOWorld War IILondonInternational Organization For StandardizationInternational StandardsInternational Organization For StandardizationInternational Electrotechnical CommissionInternational Telecommunication UnionGenevaSwitzerlandWorld Standards CooperationUnited NationsWikipedia:Citation NeededCodex AlimentariusASMEASTM InternationalIEEEInternet Engineering Task ForceSAE InternationalTAPPIWorld Wide Web ConsortiumUniversal Postal UnionEuropean Committee For StandardizationEuropean Committee For Electrotechnical StandardizationEuropean Telecommunications Standards InstituteInstitute For Reference Materials And MeasurementsArabic Industrial Development And Mining OrganizationMERCOSURCARICOM Regional Organisation For Standards And QualityGCC Standardization OrganizationArab States Of The Persian GulfBureau Of Indian StandardsBangladesh Standards And Testing InstitutionBadan Standardisasi NasionalBrazilian National Standards OrganizationAsociación Española De Normalización Y CertificaciónAFNORAmerican National Standards InstituteBritish Standards InstitutionDeutsches Institut Für NormungInstituto Argentino De Normalización Y CertificaciónGOSTICONTECJapanese Industrial Standards CommitteeKorean Agency For Technology And StandardsSouth African Bureau Of StandardsStandardization Administration Of ChinaStandards Council Of CanadaSwedish Standards InstituteStandards NorwaySwiss Association For StandardizationStandards New ZealandStandards AustraliaCrown Corporation501(c)(3)National Institute Of Standards And TechnologyMemorandum Of UnderstandingInternational Organization For StandardizationIEEEAudio Engineering SocietyInterface StandardSafety StandardsISO 9000False AdvertisingInternational Telecommunication UnionInteroperabilitySchools Interoperability FrameworkPublic DomainCentral GovernmentCopyrightIntellectual PropertyPublicationCopyrightTreatiesReasonable And Non-discriminatory LicensingMicrosoft V. MotorolaStandardizationWorld Wide Web ConsortiumHTMLCascading Style SheetsXMLInternet Engineering Task ForceOpenOffice.orgApache Software FoundationOpen StandardMicrosoft OfficeDVDCoordination GameList Of Technical Standard OrganisationsReasonable And Non-discriminatory LicensingTechnical StandardTransport Standards OrganisationsEast–West CenterCharles SingerSidney LeeDictionary Of National BiographyInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/92-67-10260-5Template:Product TestingTemplate Talk:Product TestingProduct TestingConsumer OrganizationTrade OrganizationList Of Food Safety OrganisationsConformance TestingChemical TestDestructive TestingDiscrimination TestingNondestructive TestingPhysical TestSensory AnalysisSurvey ResearchTest MethodUsability TestingCannabis Product TestingCoffee CuppingCrash TestClinical TrialPackage TestingSoftware TestingWhisky TastingWine TastingHelp:CategoryCategory:Standards OrganizationsCategory:Product TestingCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From May 2009Category:Commons Category With Local Link Different Than On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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