Contents 1 Four-level stack 1.1 Examples 1.1.1 Europe 1.1.2 North America 1.1.3 Southern Hemisphere 2 Five-level stack 2.1 Texas-style stack 2.2 Other five-level stacks 3 Six-level stack 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Four-level stack[edit] Four-level stack The four-level stack[2] (or simply four-stack) has one major road crossing another on a bridge, with connector roads crossing on two further levels. This type of interchange does not usually permit U-turns. The four-level stack creates two "inverse" dual-carriageways—the turn ramps crossing the middle section have traffic driving on the opposite side of oncoming traffic to usual (see diagram for clarity). Examples[edit] Europe[edit] In the United Kingdom there are three four-level stacks: at the junction of the M4 and M25 near Heathrow Airport in London, at the junction of the M23 and M25 to the south of London, and at the junction of the M4 and M5 near Bristol (the Almondsbury Interchange). The M4/M25 junction is particularly unusual as it also has a railway line bisecting it at its lowest level. The M4/M25 junction is slightly offset so there is no point where all four levels are directly above each other. M25 (a north–south road at this junction) is offset to the east by approximately 60 metres (200 feet). The junction of the A19 and A66 in Teesside uses a three-level variant, with a 270-degree loop allowing southbound A19 traffic to exit to the westbound A66. In the Netherlands there is currently one four-level stack interchange: the Prins Clausplein near The Hague. It forms the junction of the A4 and A12. North America[edit] The first stack interchange was the Four Level Interchange (renamed the Bill Keene Memorial Interchange), built in Los Angeles, California, and completed in 1949, at the junction of U.S. Route 101 and State Route 110.[3] Since then, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has built eight more four-level stacks throughout the state of California, as well as a larger number of three-level stack/cloverleaf hybrids (where the least-used left-turning ramp is built as a cloverleaf-like 270-degree loop). The partially used stack interchange over I‑84. SR‑9 traffic can be seen using the flyover to access westbound I‑84. The first four-level stack interchange in Texas was built in Fort Worth at the intersection of Interstate 35W and Interstate 30 (Originally Interstate 20) near downtown. This interchange, finished in 1958, was known as "The Pretzel" or the "Mixmaster" by locals. The original contract cost was $1,220,000.[4] Improvements to the old Mixmaster over the past 60 years include an upgrade to a Texas-style five-level stack exchange (see below). One of the first four-level stack interchanges in the northeastern United States was constructed in the late 1960s over Interstate 84 in Farmington, Connecticut, for the controversial Interstate 291 beltway around the city of Hartford. Most of the I‑291 beltway was later cancelled, and the sprawling stack lay dormant for almost twenty-five years. In 1992 the extension of Connecticut Route 9 to Interstate 84 used the I‑291 right-of-way and some sections of the abandoned interchange. Several ramps still remain unused, including abandoned roadbed for Interstate 291 both north and south of the complex. Four-level stacks are used for the interchanges between Interstate 77 and Interstate 485 in North Carolina, Interstate 65 and Interstate 440 in Nashville, Tennessee, Interstate 90 and Interstate 405 in Bellevue, Washington; I‑110 and US 61/US 190 in Louisiana; Interstate 75 and Interstate 696 near Detroit, Michigan; and Interstate 69 and Interstate 475 in Flint, Michigan. In St. Louis, Missouri, I‑70/I‑270 and I‑270/I‑64 are stack interchanges. Another well-known stack interchange lies west of Baltimore, Maryland, serving as the junction between Interstate 695 and Interstate 70. It was originally built for a planned extension of I‑70 into the city, but because of heavy opposition, I‑70 ends at a park and ride three miles east. As a result, the road east of I‑695 sees very little traffic compared to the high volumes to and from the west. Another four-level stack interchange in the Baltimore area is located at the northeastern junction between Interstate 695 and Interstate 95. The stack was built as part of a massive I-95 reconstruction project that includes HOT lanes, designed to relieve congestion between Baltimore and its northeastern suburbs. In Lone Tree, Colorado, there is a four-level stack serving Interstate 25, the eastern end of C-470 and the southern end of E-470. In Thornton, Colorado, there is another stack serving Interstate 25 and E-470 at its northern end as it continues west as the Northwest Parkway. Although it planned to build many four-level stack interchanges, Canada has only one true four-level stack interchange, between Highway 400 and Highway 407 in Ontario. Planned four-level stacks at Highway 407 and Highway 410, and Highway 407 and Highway 404 were reduced to three-level interchanges, with loop ramps instead of a fourth level of ramps. The interchange between Highways 401, 403, and 410 is almost a full, four-level stack, with a loop ramp planned to be added in the northeast quadrant which would make it a four-way interchange.[5][6] Southern Hemisphere[edit] The Light Horse Interchange at the junction of the M4 and M7 is a four-level stack interchange in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Opened in late 2005, it is the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. The EB Cloete Interchange just outside Durban, South Africa, is another four-level stack interchange. The N3 is the busiest highway in South Africa and a very busy truck route. Because Johannesburg is not located near a body of water, most of the city's exports travel through the Port of Durban. The N2 connects Cape Town with Durban and serves the South African cities of Port Elizabeth, Plettenberg Bay, and Margate, and the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. Two busy roads intersect at the junction. A four-level stack interchange was chosen to serve the high volumes of traffic.

Five-level stack[edit] Texas-style stack[edit] The High Five Interchange in Dallas, Texas, United States, is a five-level interchange. In Texas, many stacks contain five levels. They usually have the same configuration as four-level stacks, but frontage roads add a fifth level. The frontage roads usually intersect with traffic lights and are similar to a grid of nearby one-way streets. A common setup is for one mainline to go below grade and another to go above grade. The intersection of the frontage roads is typically at grade or close to it. Two pairs of left-turn connectors are built above these. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex has several five-level stacks, most notably the High Five Interchange between U.S. Highway 75 and Interstate 635; completed in 2005 and currently the tallest interchange in the world.[7] Others can be found at the interchanges between S.H. 121 and the Dallas North Tollway, S.H. 121 and Interstate 35E/Highway 77, Interstate 30 and Interstate 35W, Interstate 30 and President George Bush Turnpike and others which are technically five levels but do not fit under a "Texas-style stack" configuration (i.e. the extra level being located away from the central stack or existing in only one direction). The Houston area has seven five-level stack interchanges along Beltway 8: at Interstate 10 east and west of downtown, Interstate 69 northeast and southwest of downtown, Interstate 45 north and south of downtown, and U.S. Highway 290 in the beltway's northwest quadrant.[8] The newly reconstructed interchange of Interstate 610 and Interstate 69, with the new I‑610 northbound feeder road built underground and the new I-610 southbound feeder road overpass, is also a five-level stack interchange.[9] Though not a "Texas-style stack" in the above sense, an unusual stack is nonetheless found in Houston that features more than four levels of traffic but whose fifth level exists in only one direction. In 2011, the previously four-level stack interchange between I-610 and I-10 on the city's east side gained a new (though long-planned)[10] level of complexity with the opening of four ramps connecting the new US 90 Crosby Freeway to the east, featuring direct movements for the new freeway to and from the southeast quadrant of I-610, to westbound I-10, and from eastbound I-10. It is the latter ramp which gives the interchange the fifth level, as US 90 to I-10 westbound merges onto I-10 before crossing I-610. (None of the frontage roads for these highways cross the interchange itself, and thus do not factor into the complexity of the stack.)[11] More than 40 bridges make up the five-level stack interchange known as the Big I between Interstates 40 and 25 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. China is also home to many Texas-style stack interchanges. For example the Nanjing's Yingtian Street Elevated has one each where it intersects the Inner Ring Road twice. Other five-level stacks[edit] The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in Los Angeles, California, United States. Sometimes a fifth level is added for HOV connectors. An example of this exists in Los Angeles, California, at the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange. The connector from HOV southbound 110 to HOV westbound 105 can be at the same level as the connector from mixed eastbound 105 to mixed northbound 110, but the connector from HOV southbound 110 to HOV eastbound 105 needs to be higher level, since it crosses over the former connector. Another case is where connection to nearby arterials suggests that another level may be useful, thus making the interchange more complicated but easier to use. In the Atlanta area, a side ramp forms the fifth level of the Tom Moreland Interchange, colloquially known as Spaghetti Junction, found in DeKalb County, Georgia.

Six-level stack[edit] Yan'an East Road Interchange, a six-level urban stack interchange in Puxi, Shanghai, China (Nanbei Elevated Road and Yan'an Elevated Road) This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2013) There is a six-level stack on the Yan'an East Road Interchange (Chinese: 延安东路立交) in Puxi, Shanghai, with no dedicated HOV/bus/truck lanes. It is six-level stack because it is formed by two elevated highways, Nanbei Elevated Road and Yan'an Elevated Road with service roads and a footbridge underneath. The centrally located interchange has a central pillar known as the Nine-Dragon Pillar (Chinese: 九龙柱). The story is that after several construction accidents, a monk suggested the nine-dragon be welcomed with a bas relief sculpture depicting the dragon.[citation needed] An unusual six-level stack is located at the junction between Interstate 35E and Interstate 635 in Dallas, Texas and does not contain any service or frontage roads. The interchange features two levels of highway with the top three levels consisting of direct connection ramps and HOV connectors. A single ramp leading from I-635 Westbound to I-35E Southbound weaves underneath the I-635 Eastbound bridge, making the interchange six levels.[12] The interchange between Interstate 35E and the Sam Rayburn Tollway in Lewisville, Texas, although similar in design to five-level stacks elsewhere in Texas, also qualifies as a six-level stack, since the ramp connecting the eastbound Sam Rayburn Tollway with northbound I-35E goes over the fifth-level ramps connecting I-35E in both directions with the Sam Rayburn Tollway. The ramp connecting the westbound Sam Rayburn Tollway with southbound I-35E is on the fourth level of the interchange, going under the fifth-level ramps connecting both directions of I-35E with the Sam Rayburn Tollway[13]. Yan'an East Road Interchange, seen from a pedestrian's perspective

See also[edit] List of road interchanges in the United States

References[edit] ^ A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, D.C.: AASHTO. 2011. pp. 10–53. ISBN 978-1-56051-508-1.  ^ Four Level Stack - ^ Four Level interchange-Los Angeles-Orange County Frwys ^ Interstate 35W, Fort Worth ^ "Design and Construction Report - Highway 401 Widening" (PDF).  ^ "NOTICE OF SUBMISSION DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION REPORT" (PDF).  ^ "High Five Interchange, Dallas - Texas" (PDF). Chryso.  ^ TexasFreeway > Houston > Photo Gallery > Beltway 8 Photos ^ Interstate 610 at U.S. 59 in Houston, Texas. Google Maps. Last accessed November 19, 2006. ^ "TexasFreeway > Houston > Future Freeway > Future section of US 90, the Northeast/Crosby Freeway". Retrieved 16 October 2011.  ^ "East Fwy at North Loop". Google Maps. Retrieved 16 October 2011.  ^ "Phase 2 Entrance and Exit Points | LBJ TEXpress Lanes". Retrieved 2016-01-11.  ^ "Renderings | The 35Express Project". Retrieved 2017-10-20. 

External links[edit] Media related to Stack interchanges at Wikimedia Commons Satellite image of Nanbei Elevated Road and Yanan Elevated Road 6-level interchange in Shanghai, China. Satellite image of Interstate 105 and Interstate 110 5-level interchange in Los Angeles. Satellite image of Interstate 95 and Interstate 695 4-level interchange near Baltimore, MD. v t e Streets and roadways Types of road Limited-access Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway By country Australia Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States Main roads Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway systems by country Local roads Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane Other terms Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number Special route Business route Street hierarchy Toll road Road junctions Interchanges (grade-separated) Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet Intersections (at-grade) 3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out (RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround Surfaces Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete Reinforced concrete Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture Road hazards Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road debris Road slipperiness Road train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout Space and time allocation Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road diet Road verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf Demarcation Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone Structures Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel Glossary of road transport terms Road types by features Retrieved from "" Categories: Road interchangesHidden categories: Articles to be expanded from September 2013All articles to be expandedArticles using small message boxesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from January 2017

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