Contents 1 History 1.1 Early Spanish settlements 1.2 Louisiana Purchase (1803–1804) 1.3 Annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War 1.4 Spanish–American War (1898) 1.5 Modern mass migration 2 Geographic distribution 3 Current status 3.1 California 3.2 Arizona 3.3 New Mexico 3.4 Texas 3.5 Puerto Rico 4 Spanish place names 5 Learning trends in the United States 6 Variation 6.1 Spanish sub-types 7 Common English words derived from Spanish 8 Phonetic features 9 Lexical features 10 Future of Spanish in the United States 11 American literature in Spanish 11.1 Southwest Colonial literature 11.2 19th century 11.3 20th century 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading

History[edit] Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He was one of the first Europeans to arrive to the current United States because he led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named. Spanish was the first European language spoken in the territory that is now the United States. See also: History of Hispanic and Latino Americans Early Spanish settlements[edit] Spanish was among the very first European languages spoken in North America, preceded only by Old Norse. Spanish arrived in the territory of the modern United States with Ponce de León in 1513. In 1565, the Spaniards founded St. Augustine, Florida, and as of the early 1800s, it became the oldest continuously occupied European settlement in what is now the United States. In 1898, San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico, became the oldest city in all of the U.S. territory: Juan Ponce De León founded San Juan in 1508. Historically, the Spanish-speaking population increased because of territorial annexation of lands claimed earlier by the Spanish Empire and by wars with Mexico and by land purchases, while modern factors continue increasing the size of this population. In 1819 Florida was transferred by Spain to the United States via the Adams–Onís Treaty; many Spanish settlers, whose ancestors came from Cuba, Andalusia, and the Canary Islands, became U.S. citizens and continued to speak Spanish. Louisiana Purchase (1803–1804)[edit] Further information: Louisiana Purchase In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, land claimed by Spain encompassed a large part of the contemporary U.S. territory, including the French colony of Louisiana that was under Spanish occupation from 1769 to 1800, and then part of the United States since 1803. When Louisiana was sold to the United States, its Spanish and Cajun French inhabitants became U.S. citizens, and continued to speak Spanish or French. In 1813, George Ticknor started a program of Spanish Studies at Harvard University.[6] Annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War[edit] Spanish language heritage in Florida dates back to 1565, with the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida. Spanish was the first European language spoken in Florida. In 1821,[7] after Mexico's War of Independence from Spain, Texas was part of the United Mexican States as the state of Coahuila y Tejas. A large influx of Americans soon followed, originally with the approval of Mexico's president. In 1836, the now largely "American" Texans fought a war of independence from the central government of Mexico and established the Republic of Texas. In 1846, the Republic dissolved when Texas entered the United States of America as a state. Per the 1850 U.S. census, fewer than 16,000 Texans were of Mexican descent, and nearly all were Spanish-speaking people (both Mexicans and non-Spanish European settlers who include German Texan) who were outnumbered (six-to-one) by English-speaking settlers (both Americans and other immigrant Europeans).[citation needed] After the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming also became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. Most of New Mexico, western Texas, southern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, and the Oklahoma panhandle were part of the territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México. The geographical isolation and unique political history of this territory led to New Mexican Spanish differing notably from both Spanish spoken in other parts of the United States of America and Spanish spoken in the present-day United Mexican States. Mexico lost almost half of the northern territory gained from Spain in 1821 to the United States in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). This included parts of contemporary Texas, and Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, California, Nevada, and Utah. Although the lost territory was sparsely populated, the thousands of Spanish-speaking Mexicans subsequently became U.S. citizens. The war-ending Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) does not explicitly address language. However, the English-speaking American settlers who entered the Southwest established their language, culture, and law as dominant, to the extent it fully displaced Spanish in the public sphere. In 1855, California declared that English would be the only medium of instruction in its schools; the newly admitted state of New Mexico followed suit in 1891 to mandate that all of its schools teach in English only.[6] The first California constitutional convention in 1849 had eight Californio participants; the resulting state constitution was produced in English and Spanish, and it contained a clause requiring all published laws and regulations to be published in both languages.[8] One of the very first acts of the first California Legislature of 1850 was to authorize the appointment of a State Translator, who would be responsible for translating all state laws, decrees, documents, or orders into Spanish.[9][10] But the state's second constitutional convention in 1872 had no Spanish-speaking participants; the convention's English-speaking participants felt that the state's remaining minority of Spanish-speakers should simply learn English; and the convention ultimately voted 46-39 to revise the earlier clause so that all official proceedings would henceforth be published only in English.[8] Spanish–American War (1898)[edit] Further information: Spanish–American War In 1898, consequent to the Spanish–American War, the United States took control of Cuba and Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam as American territories. In 1902, Cuba became independent from the United States, while Puerto Rico remained a U.S. territory. The American government required government services to be bilingual in Spanish and English, and attempted to introduce English-medium education to Puerto Rico, but the latter effort was unsuccessful.[11] In 1917, the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese was founded, and the academic study of Spanish literature was helped by negative attitudes towards German due to World War I. From 1942 to 1962, the Bracero program would provide for mass Mexican migration to the United States.[6] Once Puerto Rico was granted autonomy in 1948, even mainlander officials who came to Puerto Rico were forced to learn Spanish. Only 20% of Puerto Rico's residents understand English, and although the island's government had a policy of official bilingualism, it was repealed in favor of a Spanish-only policy in 1991. This policy was reversed in 1993 when a pro-statehood party ousted a pro-independence party from the commonwealth government.[11] Modern mass migration[edit] The relatively recent but large influx of Spanish-speakers to the United States has increased the overall total of Spanish-speakers in the country. They form majorities and large minorities in many political districts, especially in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, the American states bordering Mexico, and also in South Florida. Mexicans first moved to the United States as refugees in the turmoil of the Mexican Revolution from 1910–1917, but many more emigrated later for economic reasons. The large majority of Mexicans are in the former Mexican-controlled areas in the Southwest. At over 5 million, Puerto Ricans are easily the second largest Hispanic group. Of all major Hispanic groups, Puerto Ricans are the least likely to be proficient in Spanish, but millions of Puerto Rican Americans living in the U.S. mainland nonetheless are fluent in Spanish. Puerto Ricans are natural-born U.S. citizens, and many Puerto Ricans have migrated to New York City, Orlando, Philadelphia, and other areas of the Eastern United States, increasing the Spanish-speaking populations and in some areas being the majority of the Hispanophone population, especially in Central Florida. In Hawaii, where Puerto Rican farm laborers and Mexican ranchers have settled since the late 19th century, seven percent of the islands' people are either Hispanic or Hispanophone or both. The Cuban Revolution of 1959 created a community of Cuban exiles who opposed the Communist revolution, many of whom left for the United States. In 1963, the Ford Foundation established the first bilingual education program in the United States for the children of Cuban exiles in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 boosted immigration from Latin American countries, and in 1968, Congress passed the Bilingual Education Act.[6] Most of these one million Cuban Americans settled in southern and central Florida, while other Cubans live in the Northeastern United States; most are fluent in Spanish. In the city of Miami today Spanish is the first language mostly due to Cuban immigration. Likewise, the Nicaraguan Revolution promoted a migration of Contras who were opposed to the socialist government in Nicaragua, to the United States in the late 1980s.[citation needed] Most of these Nicaraguans migrated to Florida, California and Texas. SER-Niños Charter School, a K–8 bilingual public school in Houston, Texas. Bilingual education is popular in school districts with large numbers of Spanish-speakers. The exodus of Salvadorans was a result of both economic and political problems. The largest immigration wave occurred as a result of the Salvadoran Civil War in the 1980s, in which 20 to 30 percent of El Salvador's population emigrated. About 50 percent, or up to 500,000 of those who escaped, headed to the United States, which was already home to over 10,000 Salvadorans, making Salvadoran Americans the fourth-largest Hispanic and Latino American group, after the Mexican-American majority, stateside Puerto Ricans, and Cubans. As civil wars engulfed several Central American countries in the 1980s, hundreds of thousands of Salvadorans fled their country and came to the United States. Between 1980 and 1990, the Salvadoran immigrant population in the United States increased nearly fivefold from 94,000 to 465,000. The number of Salvadoran immigrants in the United States continued to grow in the 1990s and 2000s as a result of family reunification and new arrivals fleeing a series of natural disasters that hit El Salvador, including earthquakes and hurricanes. By 2008, there were about 1.1 million Salvadoran immigrants in the United States. Until the 20th century, there was no clear record of the number of Venezuelans who emigrated to the United States. Between the 18th and early 19th centuries, there were many European immigrants who went to Venezuela, only to later migrate to the United States along with their children and grandchildren who were born and/or grew up in Venezuela speaking Spanish. From 1910 to 1930, it is estimated that over 4,000 South Americans each year emigrated to the United States; however, there are few specific figures indicating these statistics. Many Venezuelans settled in the United States with hopes of receiving a better education, only to remain there following graduation. They are frequently joined by relatives. However, since the early 1980s, the reasons for Venezuelan emigration have changed to include hopes of earning a higher salary and due to the economic fluctuations in Venezuela which also promoted an important migration of Venezuelan professionals to the US.[12] In the 2000s, dissident Venezuelans migrated to South Florida, especially the suburbs of Doral and Weston.[citation needed] Other main states with Venezuelan American populations are, according to the 1990 census, New York, California, Texas (adding to their existing Hispanic populations), New Jersey, Massachusetts and Maryland.[12] Refugees from Spain also migrated to the U.S. due to the Spanish Civil War (1936 - 1939) and political instability under the regime of Francisco Franco that lasted until 1975. The majority of Spaniards settled in Florida, Texas, California, New Jersey, New York City, Chicago, and Puerto Rico. The publication of data by the United States Census Bureau in 2003 revealed that Hispanics were the largest minority in the United States and caused a flurry of press speculation in Spain about the position of Spanish in the United States.[citation needed] That year, the Instituto Cervantes, an organization created by the Spanish government in 1991 to promote Spanish language around the globe, established a branch in New York.[13]

Geographic distribution[edit] See also: Languages of the United States and List of U.S. cities by Spanish-speaking population Spanish-speakers in the United States Year Number of native Spanish-speakers Percent of US population 1980 11 million 5% 1990 17.3 million 7% 2000 28.1 million 10% 2010 37 million 13% 2015 41 million 13% Sources:[14][15][16][17] In total, there were 36,995,602 people aged five or older in the United States who spoke Spanish at home (12.8% of the total U.S. population).[18]

Current status[edit] Public elementary school sign in Spanish in Memphis, Tennessee. The Spanish-language logo of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Although the United States has no de jure official language, English is the dominant language of business, education, government, religion, media, culture, civil society, and the public sphere. Virtually all state and federal government agencies and large corporations use English as their internal working language, especially at the management level. Some states, such as New Mexico, provide bilingual legislated notices and official documents, in Spanish and English, and other commonly used languages. English is the home language of most Americans, including a growing proportion of Hispanic Americans; between 2000 and 2015, the proportion of Hispanics who spoke Spanish at home decreased from 78 to 73 percent.[19] As noted above, the only major exception is the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, where Spanish is the official and most commonly used language. Throughout the history of the Southwest United States, the controversial issue of language as part of cultural rights and bilingual state government representation has caused socio-cultural friction between Anglophones and Hispanophones. Currently, Spanish is the most widely taught second language in the United States.[20] California[edit] California's first constitution recognized Spanish language rights: All laws, decrees, regulations, and provisions emanating from any of the three supreme powers of this State, which from their nature require publication, shall be published in English and Spanish. — California Constitution, 1849, Art. 11 Sec. 21. By 1870, English-speaking Americans were a majority in California; in 1879, the state promulgated a new constitution under which all official proceedings were to be conducted exclusively in English, a clause that remained in effect until 1966. In 1986, California voters added a new constitutional clause, by referendum, stating that: English is the official language of the State of California. — California Constitution, Art. 3, Sec. 6 Spanish remains widely spoken throughout the state, and many government forms, documents, and services are bilingual, in English and Spanish. And although all official proceedings are to be conducted in English: A person unable to understand English who is charged with a crime has a right to an interpreter throughout the proceedings. — California Constitution, Art. 1. Sec. 14 Arizona[edit] The state (like its southwestern neighbors) has had close linguistic and cultural ties with Mexico. The state outside the Gadsden Purchase of 1853 was part of the New Mexico Territory until 1863, when the western half was made into the Arizona Territory. The area of the former Gadsden Purchase contained a majority of Spanish-speakers until the 1940s, although the Tucson area had a higher ratio of anglophones (including Mexican Americans who were fluent in English); the continuous arrival of Mexican settlers increases the number of Spanish-speakers. New Mexico[edit] Main article: New Mexican Spanish New Mexico is commonly thought to have Spanish as an official language alongside English because of its wide usage and legal promotion of Spanish in the state; however, the state has no official language. New Mexico's laws are promulgated bilingually in Spanish and English. Although English is the state government's paper working language, government business is often conducted in Spanish, particularly at the local level. Spanish has been spoken in the New Mexico-Colorado border and the contemporary U.S.–Mexico border since the 16th century.[citation needed] Because of its relative isolation from other Spanish-speaking areas over most of its 400-year existence, New Mexico Spanish, and in particular the Spanish of northern New Mexico and Colorado has retained many elements of 16th- and 17th-century Spanish and has developed its own vocabulary.[21] In addition, it contains many words from Nahuatl, the language currently spoken by the Nahua people in Mexico. New Mexican Spanish also contains loan words from the Pueblo languages of the upper Rio Grande Valley, Mexican-Spanish words (mexicanismos), and borrowings from English.[21] Grammatical changes include the loss of the second person verb form, changes in verb endings, particularly in the preterite, and partial merging of the second and third conjugations.[22] Texas[edit] "No Smoking" sign in Spanish and English at the headquarters of the Texas Department of Health in Austin, Texas This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) In Texas, English is the state's de facto official language (though it lacks de jure status) and is used in government. However, the continual influx of Spanish-speaking immigrants increased the import of Spanish in Texas. Although it is a part of the Southern United States, Texas's counties bordering Mexico are mostly Hispanic, and consequently, Spanish is commonly spoken in the region. The Government of Texas, through Section 2054.116 of the Government Code, mandates that state agencies provide information on their websites in Spanish to assist residents who have limited English proficiency.[23] Puerto Rico[edit] Main article: Puerto Rican Spanish The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico recognizes Spanish and English as official languages; Spanish is the dominant first language.

Spanish place names[edit] Main article: List of U.S. place names of Spanish origin

Learning trends in the United States[edit] Spanish is currently the most widely taught non-English language in American secondary schools and higher education.[24] More than 790,000 university students were enrolled in Spanish courses in the autumn of 2013, with Spanish the most widely taught language in American colleges and universities. Some 50.6 percent of the total number of U.S. students enrolled in foreign-language courses take Spanish, followed by French (12.7%), American Sign Language (7%), German (5.5%), Italian (4.6%), Japanese (4.3%), and Chinese (3.9%), although the totals remain relatively small in relation to the total U.S. population.[25]

Variation[edit] La Época is an upscale Miami department store, whose Spanish name comes from Cuba. La Época is an example of the many businesses started and owned by Spanish-speakers in the United States. The influence of English on American Spanish is very important. In many Latino[26] (also called Hispanic) youth subcultures, it is fashionable to variously mix Spanish and English, thereby producing Spanglish. Spanglish is the name for the admixture of English words and phrases to Spanish for effective communication. The Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española (North American Academy of the Spanish Language) tracks the developments of the Spanish spoken in the United States, and the influences of English upon it.[citation needed] Spanish sub-types[edit] Language experts distinguish the following varieties of the Spanish spoken in the United States: Mexican: the U.S.–Mexico border, throughout the US southwest from California to Texas, as well as the city of Chicago, but becoming ubiquitous throughout the continental United States as Mexican Spanish is used as the standardized dialect of Spanish in the continental United States. Caribbean Spanish: Spanish as spoken by Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Dominicans. Largely heard throughout the Northeastern United States and Florida, especially New York City and Miami, among other cities in the Eastern US. Central American Spanish: Spanish as spoken by Hispanics with origins in Central American countries such as El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Largely heard in major cities throughout California and Texas, as well as Washington DC, New York, and Miami. South American Spanish: Spanish as spoken by Hispanics with origins in South American countries such as Venzuela, Colombia, Peru, and Chile. Largely heard in major cities throughout New York, California, Texas, and Florida. Colonial Spanish: Spanish as spoken by descendants of Spanish colonists and early Mexicans before United States expansion and annexion of the US southwest and other areas. Californian (1769–present): California, especially the Central Coast Isleño (Islander) (18th century–present): St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana New Mexican Spanish: Central and north-central New Mexico and south-central Colorado and the border regions of Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico, and southeastern Colorado Most post-first generations of Spanish-speakers tend to speak the language with American English accents of the region they grew up in.

Common English words derived from Spanish[edit] Main article: List of English words of Spanish origin Analogously, many Spanish words are now standard American English. Admiral Avocado (aguacate from Nahuatl aguacatl) Aficionado Banana (originally from Wolof) Buckaroo (vaquero) Cafeteria (cafetería) Chocolate (from Nahuatl xocolatl) Cigar (cigarro) Corral Coyote (from Nahuatl coyotl) Desperado (desesperado) Guerrilla Guitar (guitarra) Hurricane (huracán from the Taíno storm god Juracán) Junta Lasso (lazo) Potato (patata; see Etymology of "potato") Ranch (rancho) Rodeo Siesta Tomato (tomate from Nahuatl tomatl) Tornado Vanilla (vainilla) Univisión is the country's largest Spanish language network, followed by Telemundo. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall.[27]

Phonetic features[edit] This section contains an enumeration of examples, but lacks a general overview of its topic. You can help by adding an appropriate introductory section. Editing help is available. (April 2017) First settled by the Spanish in the 16th century, today, 19% of Floridians speak Spanish, and is the most widely taught second language. In Miami, 67% of residents spoke Spanish as their first language in 2000. As most ancestors of Hispanic Americans came from Hispanic America, ⟨z⟩ and ⟨c⟩ (before /e/ and /i/) are pronounced as [s], the same as ⟨s⟩. However, seseo (replacement of [θ] with [s]) is also typical of the speech of Hispanic Americans of Andalusian and Canarian descent. Andalusia's and the Canary Island's predominant position in the conquest and subsequent immigration to Hispanic America from Spain is thought to be the reason for the absence of this distinction in most Hispanic American dialects. Most Americans of Spanish descent pronounce the two letters as [s]. Standard Spanish from Spain, particularly the regions that have a distinctive /θ/ phoneme, realize /s/ with the tip of tongue against the alveolar ridge. Phonetically this is an "apico-alveolar" "grave" sibilant [s̺], with a weak "hushing" sound reminiscent of retroflex fricatives. To a Hispanic and Latino American speaker (as well as to Andalusians or Canary Islanders in Spain), Standard European Spanish /s/ may sound close to [ʃ] like English sh as in she. However, this apico-alveolar realization of /s/ is not uncommon in some Latin American Spanish dialects which lack [θ]; some inland Colombian Spanish (particularly Antioquia) and Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia also have an apico-alveolar /s/. Spanish in the United States usually features yeísmo: there is no distinction between ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨y⟩, and both are [ʝ]. However, yeísmo is an expanding and now dominant feature of European Spanish, particularly in urban speech (Madrid, Toledo) and especially in Andalusia and Canary Islands, though in rural use [ʎ] is preserved in parts of rural northern Spain. Speakers of Rioplatense Spanish pronounce both ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨y⟩ as [ʒ] or [ʃ]. The traditional pronunciation of the digraph ⟨ll⟩ as [ʎ] is preserved in some dialects along the Andes range, especially in inland Peru and the Colombia highlands (Santander), northern Argentina, all Bolivia and Paraguay. Most speakers with ancestors born in coastal regions may debuccalize or aspirate syllable-final /s/ to [h], or drop it entirely, so that está [esˈta] ("s/he is") sounds like [ehˈta] or [eˈta], as in southern Spain (Andalusia, Murcia, Castile–La Mancha (except North-East), Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla). ⟨g⟩ (before /e/ or /i/) and ⟨j⟩ are usually aspirated to [h] in Caribbean and other coastal dialects, as well as in all Colombia, and southern Mexico, as in most southern Spanish dialects. While it may be [x] in other dialects of Hispanic Americans and often [χ] in Peruvian Spanish dialect, this is a common feature of Castilian Spanish. It is usually aspirated to [h] as in most southwestern Spanish varieties. Very often, especially in Argentina and Chile, [x] becomes more fronted [ç] when preceding high vowels /e, i/ (these speakers approach [x] to the realization of German ⟨ch⟩ in ich); in other phonological environments it is pronounced either [x] or [h]. In many Caribbean dialects, the phonemes /l/ and /r/ at the end of a syllable sound alike or can be exchanged: caldo > ca[r]do, cardo > ca[l]do; /r/ in word-final position becomes silent, giving Caribbean dialects of Spanish a partial non-rhoticity. This happens at a reduced level in Ecuador and Chile[citation needed] as well and is a feature brought from Extremadura and westernmost Andalusia. In many Andean regions, the alveolar trill of rata and carro is realized as an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or even as a voiced apico-alveolar [z]. The alveolar approximant realization is particularly associated with an indigenous substrate and it is quite common in Andean regions, especially in inland Ecuador, Peru, most of Bolivia and in parts of northern Argentina and Paraguay. In Puerto Rico, aside from [ɾ], [r], and [l], syllable-final /r/ can be realized as [ɹ], an influence of American English on the Puerto Rican dialect; "verso"' (verse) becomes [ˈbeɹso], aside from [ˈbeɾso], [ˈberso], or [ˈbelso], "invierno" (winter) becomes [imˈbjeɹno], aside from [imˈbjeɾno], [imˈbjerno], or [imˈbjelno], and "escarlata" (scarlet) becomes [ehkaɹˈlata], aside from [ehkaɾˈlata], [ehkarˈlata], or [ehkaˈlata]. In word-final position, /r/ will usually be one of these: a trill, a tap, approximant, [l], or elided when followed by a consonant or a pause, as in amo[r ~ ɾ ~ ɹ ~ l] paterno 'paternal love', amor [aˈmo], a tap, approximant, or [l] when the followed by a vowel-initial word, as in amo[ɾ ~ ɹ ~ l] eterno 'eternal love'). The voiced consonants /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are pronounced as plosives after and sometimes before any consonant in most Colombian Spanish dialects (rather than the fricative or approximant that is characteristic of most other dialects): pardo [ˈpaɾdo], barba [ˈbaɾba], algo [ˈalɡo], peligro [peˈliɡɾo], desde [ˈdezde/ˈdehde]—rather than the [ˈpaɾðo], [ˈbaɾβa], [ˈalɣo], [peˈliɣɾo], [ˈdezðe/ˈdehðe] of Spain and the rest of Spanish America. A notable exception is the Department of Nariño and most Costeño speech (Atlantic coastal dialects) which feature the soft, fricative realizations common to all other Hispanic American and European dialects. Word-final /n/ is frequently velar [ŋ] in Latin American Spanish; this means a word like pan (bread) is often articulated ['paŋ]. To an English-speaker, those speakers that have a velar nasal for word-final /n/ make pan sound like pang. Velarization of word-final /n/ is so widespread in the Americas that it is easier to mention those regions that maintain an alveolar, European-style, /n/: most of Mexico, Colombia (except for coastal dialects) and Argentina (except for some northern regions). Elsewhere, velarization is common, though alveolar word-final /n/ can appear among some educated speakers, especially in the media or in singing. Velar word-final /n/ is also frequent in Spain, especially in southern Spanish dialects (Andalusia and the Canary Islands) and also in the Northwest: Galicia, Asturias and León.

Lexical features[edit] The usage of Spanish words in American bilinguals shows a convergence of semantics between English and Spanish cognates. For example, the Spanish words atender ("to pay attention to") and éxito ("success") acquire a similar semantic range in American Spanish to the English words "attend" and "exit". In some cases, loanwords from English give existing Spanish words a homonymic meaning: so while coche has come to acquire the additional meaning of "coach" in the United States, it retains its older meaning of "car".[28] Disappearance of de (of) in certain expressions, as is the case with the dialect of Spanish in the Canary Islands. Example: esposo Rosa instead of esposo de Rosa, gofio millo instead of gofio de millo, etc. Doublets of Arabic-Latinate synonyms with the Arabic form are more common in American Spanish, which derives from Latin American Spanish and so influenced by Andalusian Spanish like Andalusian and Latin American alcoba for standard habitación or dormitorio ('bedroom') or alhaja for standard joya ('jewel'). See List of words having different meanings in Spain and Hispanic America.

Future of Spanish in the United States[edit] Spanish-speaking Americans are the fastest growing linguistic group in the United States. Continual immigration and prevalent Spanish-language mass media (such as Univisión, Telemundo, and Azteca América) support the Spanish-speaking populations. Moreover, because of the North American Free Trade Agreement, it is common for many American manufacturers to use multilingual product labeling using English, French and Spanish, three of the four official languages of the Organization of American States. Besides the businesses that always have catered to Hispanophone immigrants, a small, but increasing, number of mainstream American retailers now advertise bilingually in Spanish-speaking areas and offer bilingual, English-Spanish customer services. One common indicator of such businesses is Se Habla Español which means "Spanish Is Spoken". Federal agencies such as the United States Postal Service translate information into Spanish. The State of the Union Addresses and other presidential speeches are translated into Spanish, following the precedent set by the Bill Clinton administration. Moreover, non-Hispanic American origin politicians fluent in Spanish speak in Spanish to Hispanic majority constituencies. There are 500 Spanish newspapers, 152 magazines, and 205 publishers in the United States; magazine and local television advertising expenditures for the Hispanic market have increased substantially from 1999 to 2003, with growth of 58 percent and 43 percent, respectively. Historically, immigrants' languages tend to disappear or become reduced through generational assimilation. Spanish disappeared in several countries and U.S. territories during the 20th century, notably in the Philippines and in the Pacific Island countries of Guam, Micronesia, Palau, the Northern Marianas islands, and the Marshall Islands. The English-only movement seeks to establish English as the sole official language of the United States. Generally, they exert political public pressure upon Hispanophone immigrants to learn English and speak it publicly; as universities, business, and the professions use English, there is much social pressure to learn English for upward socio-economic mobility. Generally, Hispanic American origin US residents (13.4% of the 2002 population) are bilingual to a degree. A Simmons Market Research survey recorded that 19 percent of the Hispanic American origin population speak only Spanish, 9 percent speak only English, 55 percent have limited English proficiency, and 17 percent are fully English-Spanish bilingual.[29] Intergenerational transmission of Spanish is a more accurate indicator of Spanish's future in the United States than raw statistical numbers of Hispanophone immigrants. Although Hispanic American origin immigrants hold varying English proficiency levels, almost all second-generation Hispanic American origin U.S. residents speak English, yet about 50 percent speak Spanish at home. Two-thirds of third-generation Mexican Americans speak only English at home. Calvin Veltman undertook in 1988, for the National Center for Education Statistics and for the Hispanic Policy Development Project, the most complete study of English language adoption by Hispanophone immigrants. Veltman's language shift studies document abandonment of Spanish at rates of 40 percent for immigrants who arrived in the U.S. before the age of 14, and 70 percent for immigrants who arrived before the age of 10.[30] The complete set of these studies' demographic projections postulates the near-complete assimilation of a given Hispanophone immigrant cohort within two generations. Although his study based itself upon a large 1976 sample from the Bureau of the Census (which has not been repeated), data from the 1990 Census tend to confirm the great Anglicization of the U.S. Hispanic American origin population.

American literature in Spanish[edit] See also: Cuban American literature Southwest Colonial literature[edit] In 1610, Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá published his Historia de Nuevo México (History of New Mexico). 19th century[edit] In 1880, José Martí moved to New York City. Eusebio Chacón published El hijo de la tempestad in 1892. 20th century[edit] Federico García Lorca wrote his collection of poems, Poeta en Nueva York, and the two plays Así que pasen cinco años and El público while living in New York. Giannina Braschi wrote the Hispanic postmodern poetry classic El imperio de los sueños in Spanish in New York. José Vasconcelos and Juan Ramón Jiménez were both exiled to the United States. In her autobiography When I was Puerto Rican (1993), Esmeralda Santiago recounts her childhood on the island during the 1950s and her family's subsequent move to New York City, when she was 13 years old. Originally written in English, the book is an example of New York Rican literature.

See also[edit] United States portal Latino and Hispanic American portal Language portal List of most commonly learned foreign languages in the United States List of U.S. cities with diacritics List of U.S. communities with Hispanic majority populations List of Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States International comparisons: Bilingualism in Canada French language in Canada, as Canada's closest Romance language counterpart to Spanish in the USA Russian language in Ukraine Bilingualism in Hong Kong General: Bilingual education Spanish language in the Americas List of colloquial expressions in Honduras Spanish language in the Philippines History of the Spanish language Languages in the United States

References[edit] ^ Instituto Cervantes (Enciclopedia del español en Estados Unidos) ^ Instituto Cervantes' Yearbook 2006–07. (PDF). Retrieved on 2011-12-31. ^ "2000 Census, Language in the US" (PDF). Retrieved June 5, 2007.  ^ "Primary language spoken at home by people aged 5 or older". United States Census Bureau. 2012.  ^ US Census Bureau Public Information Office. "Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2010: Sept. 15 — Oct. 15 - Facts for Features & Special Editions - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b c d Garcia, Ofelia (2015). "Racializing the Language Practices of U.S. Latinos: Impact on Their Education". In Cobas, Jose; Duany, Jorge; Feagin, Joe. How the United States Racializes Latinos. Routledge. pp. 102–105.  ^ Van Young, Eric (2001). The Other Rebellion: Popular Violence, Ideology, and the Mexican Struggle. Stanford University Press. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-8047-4821-6.  ^ a b Guadalupe Valdés et al., Developing Minority Language Resources: The Case of Spanish in California (Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters, 2006), 28–29. ^ Martin, Daniel W. (2006). Henke's California Law Guide (8th ed.). Newark: Matthew Bender & Co. pp. 45–46. ISBN 08205-7595-X.  ^ Winchester, J. The Statutes of California Passed At The First Session of the Legislature. San Jose: California State Printer. p. 51.  ^ a b Crawford, James (1997). "Puerto Rico and Official English". Language Policy.  ^ a b Drew Walker (2010). "A Countries and Their Cultures: Venezuelan American". Countries and their cultures. Retrieved December 10, 2011.  ^ del Valle, Jose (2006). "US Latinos, la hispanofonia, and the Language Ideologies of High Moderinty". In Mar-Molinero, Clare; Stewart, Miranda. Globalization and Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: Macro and Micro Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 33–34.  ^ "What is the future of Spanish in the United States?". Pew Research Center. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Langauage Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000. ^ "The Future of Spanish in the United States". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Primary language spoken at home by people aged 5 or older". United States Census Bureau. 2010.  ^ Nasser, Haya El (January 2, 2015). "Candidates Facing More Latino Voters Who Don't Speak Spanish". Al Jazeera.  ^ Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education[permanent dead link], Fall 2009. ^ a b Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction" A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish (2nd ed.) Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe, N.M., p. ix, ISBN 0-89013-452-9 ^ Cobos, Rubén, op. cit., pp. x-xi. ^ "Sec. 2054.001." Texas Legislature. Retrieved on June 27, 2010. ^ Richard I. Brod "Foreign Language Enrollments in US Institutions of Higher Education—Fall 1986". Archived from the original on November 25, 2001. Retrieved September 1, 2016. . AFL Bulletin. Vol. 19, no. 2 (January 1988): 39–44 ^ Goldberg, David; Looney, Dennis; Lusin, Natalia (February 2015). "Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013" (PDF). Modern Language Association. Retrieved May 20, 2015.  ^ Jordan, Miriam (April 4, 2012). "'Hispanics' Like Clout, Not the Label". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ D.M. Levine (2012-01-19). "As Hispanic Television Market Grows, Univision Reshuffles Executives". Adweek. Retrieved 2013-10-02.  ^ Smead, Robert; Clegg, J Halvor. "English Calques in Chicano Spanish". In Roca, Ana; Jensen, John. Spanish in Contact: Issues in Bilingualism. p. 127.  ^ Roque Mateos, Ricardo (2017). A Good Spanish Book. University Academic Editions. p. 37.  ^ Faries, David (2015). A Brief History of the Spanish Language. University of Chicago Press. p. 198. 

Further reading[edit] Romero, Simon (2017-08-23). "Spanish Thrives in the U.S. Despite an English-Only Drive". The New York Times.  - Version in Spanish v t e Hispanic and Latino American groups in the United States Caribbean Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican Nuyorican North American Hispano Californio Nuevomexicano Tejano Creoles of Louisiana Isleño Mexican Chicano Indigenous Mexican Punjabi Central American Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Panamanian Salvadoran South American Argentine Bolivian Brazilian Chilean Colombian Ecuadorian Paraguayan Peruvian Uruguayan Venezuelan European Spanish Asturian Basque Catalan Canarian Galician Jews Racial groups All groups Amerindian Asian Punjabi Black White Multiracial Quadroon Castizo "Cholo" Mestizo Mulatto Pardo Zambo Languages Chicano English New York Latino English New Mexican Spanish Spanglish Spanish Portuguese Ethnic and religious groups Christians Garifuna Jews Muslims Related ethnic groups Belizean Filipino Guyanese Haitian Portuguese Surinamese v t e Languages of the United States Languages in italics are extinct. English Dialects of American English African-American English Appalachian English Baltimore English Boston English Cajun English California English Chicano English Eastern New England English General American English High Tider English Inland Northern American English Miami English Mid-Atlantic American / Delaware Valley English Maine English Midland American English New England Englishes New Mexican Englishes New Orleans English New York City English New York Latino English Northern American English North-Central American English Ozark English Pacific Northwest English Pennsylvania Dutch English Philadelphia English Puerto Rican English Southern American English Texan English Tidewater English Transatlantic English Upper Michigan English Western American English Western New England English Western Pennsylvania English Yeshiva English Oral Indigenous Languages Families Algic Abenaki Anishinnabemowin Arapaho Blackfoot Cheyenne Cree Fox Gros Ventre Mahican Massachusett Menominee Mi'kmaq Mohegan-Pequot Munsee Myaamia Nanticoke Narragansett Pamlico Potawatomi Powhatan Quiripi Shawnee Unami Etchemin Loup Nawathinehena Austronesian Chamorro Hawaiian Refaluwasch Samoan Tokelauan Caddoan Arikara Caddo Wichita Kitsai Chinookan Kathlamet Tsinúk Upper Chinook Chumashan Barbareño Cruzeño Obispeño Purisimeño Ventureño Dené– Yeniseian Ahtna Deg Xinag Dena'ina Gwich’in Hän Hupa Jicarilla Koyukon Lower Tanana Mescalero-Chiricahua Navajo Tanacross Tolowa Upper Kuskokwim Upper Tanana Western Apache Cahto Eyak Holikachuk Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie Lipan Mattole Plains Apache Tsetsaut Tututni Upper Umpqua Wailaki Eskaleut Inuit Inupiat Aleut Alutiiq Central Alaskan Yup'ik Central Siberian Yupik Chevak Cup’ik Iroquoian Cayuga Cherokee Mohawk Oneida Onondaga Osage Seneca Tuscarora Wyandot Erie Neutral Huron Nottoway Susquehannock Wenrohronon Kalapuyan Central Kalapuya Northern Kalapuya Yoncalla Keresan Cochiti Pueblo San Felipe–Santo Domingo Zia–Santa Ana Pueblos Western Keres Acoma Pueblo Laguna Pueblo Maiduan Konkow Maidu Nisenan Chico Muskogean Alabama Chickasaw Choctaw Koasati Mikasuki Muscogee Apalachee Palaihnihan Achumawi Atsugewi Plateau Penutian Nez Perce Sahaptin Klamath Molala Pomoan Central Pomo Eastern Pomo Kashaya Southeastern Pomo Southern Pomo Northeastern Pomo Northern Pomo Salishan Coeur d'Alene Columbia-Moses Halkomelem Klallam Lushootseed Nooksack North Straits Salish Okanagan Salish Thompson Twana Cowlitz Lower Chehalis Quinault Tillamook Upper Chehalis Siouan Assiniboine Crow Dakota Hidatsa Kansa Lakota Mandan Omaha–Ponca Quapaw Stoney Winnebago Biloxi Catawba Chiwere Mitchigamea Moneton Ofo Tutelo-Saponi Woccon Tanoan Jemez Kiowa Picuris Southern Tiwa Taos Tewa Piro Pueblo Tsimshianic Coast Tsimshian Uto-Aztecan Comanche Hopi Ivilyuat Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Luiseño Mono Northern Paiute O'odham Serrano Shoshoni Timbisha Tübatulabal Ute-Chemehuevi Yaqui Cupeño Tongva Wakashan Makah Wintuan Nomlaki Patwin Wintu Yuk-Utian Central Sierra Miwok Southern Sierra Miwok Tule-Kaweah Yokuts Valley Yokuts Bay Miwok Buena Vista Yokuts Coast Miwok Gashowu Yokuts Kings River Yokuts Lake Miwok Northern Sierra Miwok Palewyami Plains Miwok Yuman– Cochimí Cocopah Havasupai–Hualapai Ipai Kumeyaay Maricopa Mojave Quechan Tiipai Yavapai Others Isolates Haida Karuk Kutenai Siuslaw Washo Yuchi Zuni Chitimacha Tonkawa Mixed or Trade Languages Chinook Jargon Michif Mohawk Dutch Manual Indigenous languages Hand Talk Anishinaabe Sign Language Blackfoot Sign Language Cheyenne Sign Language Cree Sign Language Navajo Sign Language Plateau Sign Language Isolates Hawai'i Sign Language Keresan Pueblo Navajo Family Sign Language Oral settler languages French Louisiana Cajun Colonial Métis Missouri Muskrat New England German Pennsylvania Dutch Hutterite Plautdietsch Bernese Alsatian Texas Spanish Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño Manual settler languages Francosign American Sign Language Black American Sign Language Pro-Tactile American Sign Language Puerto Rican Sign Language BANZSL Samoan Sign Language Kentish Martha's Vineyard Sign Language Isolates Sandy River Valley Sign Language Henniker Sign Language Immigrant languages (number of speakers in 2010 in millions) Spanish (37) Varieties of Chinese (3) French (2) Tagalog (1.6) Vietnamese (1.4) German (1.1) Korean (1.1) Arabic (0.9) Russian (0.9) Italian (0.7) Portuguese (0.7) Polish (0.6) Hindi (0.6) Persian (0.4) Urdu (0.4) Gujarati (0.4) Japanese (0.4) Greek (0.3) Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian language in the United States (0.3) Armenian (0.2) Khmer (0.2) Hmong (0.2) Hebrew (0.2) Laotian (0.2) Yiddish (0.2) v t e Varieties of Spanish by continent Africa Canarian Equatoguinean Americas (Pan-American) Caribbean Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican Central America Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Panamanian Salvadoran North America American Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño Mexican South America Amazonic Andean Bolivian Chilean Chilote Chiloé Archipelago Colombian Cordobés Central Argentina Cuyano Central western Argentina Equatorial Coastal Ecuador Llanero Los Llanos Colombia/Venezuela Maracucho Zulia State Paisa Paisa Region Paraguayan Peruvian Ribereño Coastal Peru Rioplatense Coastal Argentina Uruguayan Venezuelan Asia Philippine Europe (Peninsular) Andalusian Canarian Castilian Castrapo (Galicia) Castúo (Extremadura) Murcian spoken by Catalan speakers Other Standard Caló (Para-Romani) Judaeo-Spanish Palenquero (creole) Chavacano (creole) Llanito Papiamento (Portuguese-based creole with Spanish influence) Extinct Mediaeval Cocoliche and Lunfardo Coastal Argentina, Uruguay Malespín Central America Bozal v t e United States articles History By event Timeline of U.S. history Pre-Columbian era Colonial era Thirteen Colonies military history Continental Congress American Revolution War American frontier America's Critical Period Drafting and ratification of Constitution Federalist Era War of 1812 Territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution Mexican–American War Civil War Reconstruction Era Indian Wars Gilded Age Progressive Era African-American civil rights movement 1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968 Spanish–American War Imperialism World War I Roaring Twenties Great Depression World War II home front Nazism in the United States American Century Cold War Korean War Space Race Feminist Movement Vietnam War Post-Cold War (1991–2008) War on Terror War in Afghanistan Iraq War Recent events (2008–present) By topic Outline of U.S. history Demographic Discoveries Economic debt ceiling Inventions before 1890 1890–1945 1946–91 after 1991 Military Postal Technological and industrial Geography Territory counties federal district federal enclaves Indian reservations insular zones minor outlying islands populated places states Earthquakes Extreme points Islands Mountains peaks ranges Appalachian Rocky National Park Service National Parks Regions East Coast West Coast Great Plains Gulf Mid-Atlantic Midwestern New England Pacific Central Eastern Northern Northeastern Northwestern Southern Southeastern Southwestern Western Rivers Colorado Columbia Mississippi Missouri Ohio Rio Grande Yukon Time Water supply and sanitation Politics Federal Executive Cabinet Civil service Executive departments Executive Office Independent agencies Law enforcement President of the United States Public policy Legislative House of Representatives current members Speaker Senate current members President pro tempore Vice President Judicial Courts of appeals District courts Supreme Court Law Bill of Rights civil liberties Code of Federal Regulations Constitution federalism preemption separation of powers Federal Reporter United States Code United States Reports Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency Defense Intelligence Agency Federal Bureau of Investigation National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency National Reconnaissance Office National Security Agency Office of the Director of National Intelligence Uniformed Armed Forces Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Coast Guard National Guard NOAA Corps Public Health Service Corps 51st state political status of Puerto Rico District of Columbia statehood movement Elections Electoral College Foreign relations Foreign policy Hawaiian sovereignty movement Ideologies anti-Americanism exceptionalism nationalism Local government Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Red states and blue states Purple America Scandals State government governor state legislature state court Uncle Sam Economy By sector Agriculture Banking Communications Energy Insurance Manufacturing Mining Tourism Trade Transportation Companies by state Currency Exports Federal budget Federal Reserve System Financial position Labor unions Public debt Social welfare programs Taxation Unemployment Wall Street Society Culture Americana Architecture Cinema Cuisine Dance Demography Education Family structure Fashion Flag Folklore Languages American English Indigenous languages ASL Black American Sign Language HSL Plains Sign Talk Arabic Chinese French German Italian Russian Spanish Literature Media Journalism Internet Newspapers Radio Television Music Names People Philosophy Public holidays Religion Sexuality Sports Theater Visual art Social class Affluence American Dream Educational attainment Homelessness Home-ownership Household income Income inequality Middle class Personal income Poverty Professional and working class conflict Standard of living Wealth Issues Ages of consent Capital punishment Crime incarceration Criticism of government Discrimination affirmative action antisemitism intersex rights islamophobia LGBT rights racism same-sex marriage Drug policy Energy policy Environmental movement Gun politics Health care abortion health insurance hunger obesity smoking Human rights Immigration illegal International rankings National security Mass surveillance Terrorism Separation of church and state Outline Index Book Category Portal v t e United States state-related lists List of states and territories of the United States Demographics Educational attainment Irreligion Largest cities by population Most popular given names Most populous counties Population Density Growth rate Birth and death rates Historical African American Amish Asian Hispanic and Latino Spanish-speaking Religiosity Economy Billionaires Budgets Companies Federal tax revenue Federal taxation and spending Gross domestic product Growth rate Per capita Income Household Per capita Inequality Minimum wages Poverty rates Sales taxes Sovereign wealth funds State income taxes Flat rate None Unemployment rates Union affiliation Vehicles per capita Environment Carbon dioxide emissions Botanical gardens Parks Renewable energy Superfund sites Wilderness areas Geography Area Coastline Elevation Extreme points Forest Geographic centers Regions Government Attorneys general Capitals Historical Capitol buildings Comparison Counties Alphabetical Current State Legislators Governors Lieutenant governors Legislatures Libraries and archives Official languages Poets laureate Political divisions State auditors State secretaries of state State superintendents of education State supreme courts State treasurers Health American Human Development Index Fertility rates Hospitals Life expectancy Obesity rates History Date of statehood Name etymologies Historical societies and museums National Historic Landmarks National Register of Historic Places State partitions Historic regions Law Abortion Age of consent Alcohol Dry communities Alford plea Cell phone use while driving Constitutions Firearms Homicide Law enforcement agencies Legality of cannabis Peace Index Prisons Incarceration rate Same-sex unions Former constitutional bans Marriage law Seat belt laws Self-representation Smoking bans Speed limits (by jurisdiction) Statutory codes Miscellaneous Abbreviations Demonyms Fictional states Flags Insignia License plates Numbered highways Quarters 50 states DC & Territories ATB Symbols Tallest buildings Time zones Category Commons Portals Retrieved from "" Categories: Spanish dialects of North AmericaLanguages of the United StatesAmerican cultureHispanic and Latino American cultureSpanish-American cultureHidden categories: All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from December 2017Articles with permanently dead external linksArticles needing additional references from May 2015All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2007Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013Articles needing additional references from June 2010Articles with unsourced statements from October 2013Articles containing Spanish-language textArticles with text from the Nahuatl languages collectiveArticles needing cleanup from April 2017All pages needing cleanupArticles with sections that need to be turned into prose from April 2017Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages DeutschEspañolItalianoNederlandsPolskiРусскийதமிழ்اردو中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 13 March 2018, at 23:44. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.956","walltime":"1.174","ppvisitednodes":{"value":6931,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":537549,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":61560,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":31,"limit":500},"unstrip-depth":{"value":0,"limit":20},"unstrip-size":{"value":28174,"limit":5000000},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 845.224 1 -total"," 20.88% 176.505 21 Template:Navbox"," 19.61% 165.785 1 Template:Reflist"," 16.76% 141.671 16 Template:Lang"," 9.14% 77.249 7 Template:Citation_needed"," 9.05% 76.465 13 Template:Cite_web"," 8.53% 72.118 8 Template:Fix"," 8.15% 68.892 85 Template:IPA"," 7.34% 62.020 1 Template:United_States_topics"," 7.01% 59.211 1 Template:Country_topics"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.443","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":20162456,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1270","timestamp":"20180323142205","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":1304,"wgHostname":"mw1270"});});

Spanish_language_in_the_United_States - Photos and All Basic Informations

Spanish_language_in_the_United_States More Links

Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalEnlargeHispanic And Latino AmericansArgentine AmericansBolivian AmericanBrazilian AmericansChilean AmericanColombian AmericanCosta Rican AmericanCuban AmericanDominican AmericanEcuadorian AmericanGuatemalan AmericanHonduran AmericanMexican AmericanNicaraguan AmericanPanamanian AmericanParaguayan AmericanPeruvian AmericanPuerto Ricans In The United StatesSalvadoran AmericanSpanish AmericansUruguayan AmericanVenezuelan AmericanHistory Of Hispanic And Latino AmericansHistory Of Mexican AmericansCastaCastizoCholoCriollo PeopleMestizoMulattoPardoZamboChicano MovementHispanic And Latino American PoliticsAssociation Of Hispanic ArtsCongressional Hispanic CaucusCongressional Hispanic ConferenceLeague Of United Latin American CitizensMexican American Legal Defense And Educational FundMEChANational Association Of Latino Elected And Appointed OfficialsNational Association Of Latino Fraternal OrganizationsNational Council Of La RazaNational Hispanic InstituteRepublican National Hispanic AssemblySociety Of Hispanic Professional EngineersUnited Farm WorkersUSHCCCategory:Hispanic And Latino American WritersLatin American Music In The United StatesHispanic And Latino AmericansLatino StudiesBelizean AmericanBrazilian AmericanFilipino AmericansGuyanese AmericanHaitian AmericansPortuguese AmericansSpanish AmericansSurinamese AmericanAmerican EnglishSpanglishSpanish LanguageCuban SpanishNew Mexican SpanishPuerto Rican SpanishCalifornioChicanoHispanosCanarian AmericansNuevomexicanoNuyoricanTejanoList Of U.S. Communities With Hispanic Majority Populations In The 2010 CensusList Of Hispanic And Latino AmericansOutline Of Puerto RicoCategory:Hispanic And Latino American PeopleTemplate:Hispanic And Latino AmericansTemplate Talk:Hispanic And Latino AmericansSpanish LanguageLanguages Of The United StatesHispanic And Latino AmericansFirst LanguageSecond LanguageHeritage LanguageUnited StatesHispanophoneMexicoColombiaU.S. CensusFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesHawaiian LanguageChinese Language In The United StatesNative American LanguagesU.S. Census BureauSpanish Colonization Of The AmericasNorth AmericaFloridaTexasColoradoNew MexicoArizonaNevadaUtahCaliforniaConquistadorU.S. StateHispanicLouisiana TerritoryFrench And Indian WarPuerto RicoMexicoCubaEl SalvadorHispanic AmericaHispanic And Latino AmericansEnlargeJuan Ponce De LeónSantervás De CamposProvince Of ValladolidSpainFloridaHistory Of Hispanic And Latino AmericansLanguages Of North AmericaOld NorseJuan Ponce De LeónSpaniardsSt. Augustine, FloridaSpanish EmpireHispanic And Latino AmericansSpainAdams–Onís TreatyCanary IslandsLouisiana PurchaseLouisiana (New Spain)Louisiana PurchaseCajun FrenchGeorge TicknorSpanish StudiesEnlargeSt. Augustine, FloridaMexican War Of IndependenceUnited Mexican StatesCoahuila Y TejasGerman TexanEuropean Ethnic GroupsWikipedia:Citation NeededMexican War Of IndependenceCaliforniaNevadaArizonaUtahColoradoWyomingAlta CaliforniaNew MexicoColoradoKansasOklahomaSanta Fe De Nuevo MéxicoNew Mexican SpanishMexican–American WarTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoPublic SphereMedium Of InstructionNew MexicoCalifornioCalifornia State LegislatureSpanish–American WarSpanish–American WarCubaPuerto RicoPhilippinesGuamAmerican Association Of Teachers Of Spanish And PortugueseGerman LanguageBracero ProgramStatehood Movement In Puerto RicoPuerto Rican IndependenceSouth FloridaMexican RevolutionSouthwestern United StatesPuerto Rican AmericansNew York CityOrlandoPhiladelphiaEastern United StatesHispanophoneCentral FloridaCuban RevolutionCuban ExileFord FoundationMiami-Dade County, FloridaImmigration And Nationality Act Of 1965Bilingual Education ActCuban AmericansCubansNicaraguan RevolutionContrasWikipedia:Citation NeededNicaraguansEnlargeSER-Niños Charter SchoolHoustonTexasBilingual EducationSalvadoransSalvadoran Civil WarEl SalvadorVenezuelaVenezuelansVenezuelansSouth FloridaSuburbDoral, FloridaWeston, FloridaWikipedia:Citation NeededNew York (state)CaliforniaTexasNew JerseyMassachusettsMarylandSpanish Civil WarSpain Under FrancoNew JerseyNew York CityChicagoPuerto RicoUnited States Census BureauWikipedia:Citation NeededInstituto CervantesLanguages Of The United StatesList Of U.S. Cities By Spanish-speaking PopulationEnlargeMemphis, TennesseeEnlargeU.S. Citizenship And Immigration ServicesOfficial LanguageCivil SocietyWorking LanguageNew MexicoSecond LanguageCalifornia ConstitutionReferendumAmerican SouthwestGadsden PurchaseNew Mexico TerritoryArizona TerritoryTucsonNew Mexican SpanishU.S.–Mexico BorderWikipedia:Citation NeededNahuatlNahua PeoplePuebloRio GrandePreteriteEnlargeTexas Department Of State Health ServicesAustin, TexasWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalDe FactoDe JureSouthern United StatesGovernment Of TexasState AgencyPuerto Rican SpanishList Of U.S. Place Names Of Spanish OriginAmerican Sign LanguageEnlargeMiamiCubaSubcultureSpanglishAcademia Norteamericana De La Lengua EspañolaWikipedia:Citation NeededMexican SpanishStandard LanguageCaribbean SpanishCentral American SpanishSouth American SpanishNew York (state)Central Coast (California)Isleño SpanishSt. Bernard ParishNew Mexican SpanishList Of English Words Of Spanish OriginNahuatlWolof LanguageTaínoJuracánPotatoEnlargeUnivisiónTelemundoWikipedia:Manual Of Style (lists)Help:EditingEnlargeMiamiClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelClose Front Unrounded VowelPhonological History Of Spanish Coronal FricativesVoiceless Alveolar FricativeSeseoVoiceless Dental FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeAndalusian PeopleCanarian PeopleSpanish AmericanDistinciónVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Dental FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Alveolar Retracted SibilantVoiceless Apico-alveolar SibilantRetroflex ConsonantVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Postalveolar FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Dental FricativeVoiceless Alveolar FricativeYeísmoVoiced Palatal FricativeEuropean SpanishAndalusiaCanary IslandsPalatal Lateral ApproximantRioplatense SpanishVoiced Postalveolar FricativeVoiceless Postalveolar FricativePalatal Lateral ApproximantAndesPeruColombiaBoliviaParaguayDebuccalizationAspiration (linguistics)Voiceless Alveolar FricativeVoiceless Glottal FricativeHelp:IPA/SpanishAndalusiaRegion Of MurciaCastile–La ManchaCanary IslandsCeutaMelillaClose-mid Front Unrounded VowelClose Front Unrounded VowelAspiration (linguistics)Voiceless Glottal FricativeVoiceless Velar FricativeVoiceless Uvular FricativeCastilian SpanishAspiration (linguistics)Voiceless Glottal FricativeVoiceless Velar FricativeVoiceless Palatal FricativeVoiceless Velar FricativeIch-LautVoiceless Velar FricativeVoiceless Glottal FricativeDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsRhotic And Non-rhotic AccentsWikipedia:Citation NeededAlveolar TrillAlveolar ApproximantAlveolar And Postalveolar ApproximantsVoiced Alveolar FricativeDental And Alveolar FlapsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsAlveolar And Postalveolar ApproximantsAmerican EnglishDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar TrillsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar Lateral ApproximantsVoice (phonetics)Voiced Bilabial StopVoiced Dental And Alveolar StopsVoiced Velar StopPlosiveColombian SpanishFricative ConsonantApproximant ConsonantNariño DepartmentColombian SpanishDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsVelar NasalDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsDental, Alveolar And Postalveolar NasalsSemanticsCognateLoanwordHomonymCanarian SpanishArabic LanguageSpanish Dialects And VarietiesUnivisiónTelemundoAzteca AméricaNorth American Free Trade AgreementOrganization Of American StatesOrganization Of American StatesEnlargeUnited States Postal ServiceState Of The Union AddressBill ClintonConstituencyAssimilation (linguistics)PhilippinesPacific IslandGuamPalauNorthern MarianasMarshall IslandsEnglish-only MovementMexican AmericanCalvin VeltmanLanguage ShiftAnglicizationCuban American LiteratureGaspar Pérez De VillagráJosé MartíFederico García LorcaGiannina BraschiJosé VasconcelosJuan Ramón JiménezExilePortal:United StatesPortal:Latino And Hispanic AmericanPortal:LanguageList Of Most Commonly Learned Foreign Languages In The United StatesList Of U.S. Cities With DiacriticsList Of U.S. Communities With Hispanic Majority PopulationsList Of Spanish-language Newspapers Published In The United StatesOfficial Bilingualism In CanadaFrench Language In CanadaRomance LanguageRussian Language In UkraineBilingualism In Hong KongBilingual EducationSpanish Language In The AmericasList Of Colloquial Expressions In HondurasSpanish Language In The PhilippinesHistory Of The Spanish LanguageLanguages In The United StatesStanford University PressInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8047-4821-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/08205-7595-XAl JazeeraWikipedia:Link RotInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-89013-452-9Texas LegislatureAdweekThe New York TimesTemplate:Hispanic And Latino Americans NavboxTemplate Talk:Hispanic And Latino Americans NavboxHispanic And Latino AmericansCaribbean AmericansCuban AmericansDominican Americans (Dominican Republic)Puerto Ricans In The United StatesNuyoricanNorth American AmericansHispanosCalifornioNuevomexicanoTejanoLouisiana Creole PeopleIsleños In LouisianaMexican AmericansChicanoIndigenous Mexican AmericanPunjabi Mexican AmericansCosta Rican AmericansGuatemalan AmericansHonduran AmericansNicaraguan AmericansPanamanian AmericansSalvadoran AmericansArgentine AmericansBolivian AmericansBrazilian AmericansChilean AmericansColombian AmericansEcuadorian AmericansParaguayan AmericansPeruvian AmericansUruguayan AmericansVenezuelan AmericansEuropean AmericansSpanish AmericansAsturian AmericansBasque AmericansCatalan AmericansCanarian AmericansGalician AmericansSpanish And Portuguese JewsHispanic And Latino AmericansIndigenous Peoples Of The AmericasAsian Hispanic And Latino AmericansPunjabi Mexican AmericansBlack Hispanic And Latino AmericansWhite Hispanic And Latino AmericansMultiracial AmericansQuadroonCastizoCholoMestizos In The United StatesMulattoPardoZamboHispanic And Latino AmericansChicano EnglishNew York Latino EnglishNew Mexican SpanishSpanglishLanguages Of The United StatesChristianity Among Hispanic And Latino AmericansGarifuna AmericansLatino JewsHispanic And Latino American MuslimsBelizean AmericansFilipino AmericansGuyanese AmericansHaitian AmericansPortuguese AmericansSurinamese AmericansTemplate:Languages Of The United StatesTemplate Talk:Languages Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesUnited StatesAmerican EnglishAfrican-American EnglishAppalachian EnglishBaltimore EnglishBoston EnglishCajun EnglishCalifornia EnglishChicano EnglishEastern New England EnglishGeneral AmericanHigh TiderInland Northern American EnglishMiami AccentMid-Atlantic American EnglishMaine AccentMidland American EnglishNew England EnglishNew Mexican EnglishNew Orleans EnglishNew York City EnglishNew York Latino EnglishNorthern American EnglishNorth-Central American EnglishOzark EnglishPacific Northwest EnglishPennsylvania Dutch EnglishPhiladelphia EnglishEnglish In Puerto RicoSouthern American EnglishTexan EnglishOlder Southern American EnglishMid-Atlantic AccentYooper EnglishWestern American EnglishWestern New England EnglishWestern Pennsylvania EnglishYeshivishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAlgic LanguagesAbenaki LanguageOjibwe LanguageArapaho LanguageBlackfoot LanguageCheyenne LanguageCree LanguageFox LanguageGros Ventre LanguageMahican LanguageMassachusett LanguageMenominee LanguageMi'kmaq LanguageMohegan-Pequot LanguageMunsee LanguageMiami-Illinois LanguageNanticoke LanguageNarragansett LanguageCarolina Algonquian LanguagePotawatomi LanguagePowhatan LanguageQuiripi LanguageShawnee LanguageUnami LanguageEtchemin LanguageLoup LanguageNawathinehena LanguageAustronesian LanguagesChamorro LanguageHawaiian LanguageCarolinian LanguageSamoan LanguageTokelauan LanguageCaddoan LanguagesArikara LanguageCaddo LanguageWichita LanguageKitsai LanguageChinookan LanguagesKathlamet LanguageLower ChinookUpper Chinook LanguageChumashan LanguagesBarbareño LanguageCruzeño LanguageObispeño LanguagePurisimeño LanguageVentureño LanguageDené–Yeniseian LanguagesAhtna LanguageDeg Xinag LanguageDena'ina LanguageGwich’in LanguageHän LanguageHupa LanguageJicarilla LanguageKoyukon LanguageLower Tanana LanguageMescalero-Chiricahua LanguageNavajo LanguageTanacross LanguageTolowa LanguageUpper Kuskokwim LanguageUpper Tanana LanguageWestern Apache LanguageCahto LanguageEyak LanguageHolikachuk LanguageKwalhioqua-Clatskanie LanguageLipan LanguageMattole LanguagePlains Apache LanguageTsetsaut LanguageTututni LanguageUpper Umpqua LanguageWailaki LanguageEskimo–Aleut LanguagesInuit LanguageInupiat LanguageAleut LanguageAlutiiq LanguageCentral Alaskan Yup'ik LanguageCentral Siberian Yupik LanguageChevak Cup’ik LanguageIroquoian LanguagesCayuga LanguageCherokee LanguageMohawk LanguageOneida LanguageOnondaga LanguageOsage LanguageSeneca LanguageTuscarora LanguageWyandot LanguageErie LanguageNeutral Huron LanguageNottoway LanguageSusquehannock LanguageWenrohronon LanguageKalapuyan LanguagesCentral Kalapuya LanguageNorthern Kalapuya LanguageYoncalla LanguageKeresan LanguagesMaiduan LanguagesKonkow LanguageMaidu LanguageNisenan LanguageChico LanguageMuskogean LanguagesAlabama LanguageChickasaw LanguageChoctaw LanguageKoasati LanguageMikasuki LanguageMuscogee LanguageApalachee LanguagePalaihnihan LanguagesAchumawi LanguageAtsugewi LanguagePlateau Penutian LanguagesNez Perce LanguageSahaptin LanguageKlamath LanguageMolala LanguagePomoan LanguagesCentral Pomo LanguageEastern Pomo LanguageKashaya LanguageSoutheastern Pomo LanguageSouthern Pomo LanguageNortheastern Pomo LanguageNorthern Pomo LanguageSalishan LanguagesCoeur D'Alene LanguageColumbia-Moses LanguageHalkomelemKlallam LanguageLushootseed LanguageNooksack LanguageNorth Straits Salish LanguageOkanagan LanguageSalish-Spokane-Kalispel LanguageThompson LanguageTwana LanguageCowlitz LanguageLower Chehalis LanguageQuinault LanguageTillamook LanguageUpper Chehalis LanguageSiouan LanguagesAssiniboine LanguageCrow LanguageDakota LanguageHidatsa LanguageKansa LanguageLakota LanguageMandan LanguageOmaha–Ponca LanguageQuapaw LanguageStoney LanguageWinnebago LanguageBiloxi LanguageCatawba LanguageChiwere LanguageMitchigamea LanguageMoneton LanguageOfo LanguageTutelo LanguageWoccon LanguageTanoan LanguagesJemez LanguageKiowa LanguagePicuris DialectSouthern Tiwa LanguageTaos DialectTewa LanguagePiro Pueblo LanguageTsimshianic LanguagesCoast Tsimshian DialectUto-Aztecan LanguagesComanche LanguageHopi LanguageCahuilla LanguageKawaiisu LanguageKitanemuk LanguageLuiseño LanguageMono Language (California)Northern Paiute LanguageO'odham LanguageSerrano LanguageShoshoni LanguageTimbisha LanguageTübatulabal LanguageColorado River Numic LanguageYaqui LanguageCupeño LanguageTongva LanguageWakashan LanguagesMakah LanguageWintuan LanguagesNomlaki LanguagePatwin LanguageWintu LanguageYok-Utian LanguagesCentral Sierra MiwokSouthern Sierra Miwok LanguageTule-Kaweah YokutsValley YokutsBay Miwok LanguageBuena Vista YokutsCoast Miwok LanguageGashowu YokutsKings River YokutsLake Miwok LanguageNorthern Sierra MiwokPalewyami LanguagePlains Miwok LanguageYuman–Cochimí LanguagesCocopah LanguageHavasupai–Hualapai LanguageIpai LanguageKumeyaay LanguageMaricopa LanguageMojave LanguageQuechan LanguageTiipai LanguageYavapai LanguageHaida LanguageKaruk LanguageKutenai LanguageSiuslaw LanguageWasho LanguageYuchi LanguageZuni LanguageChitimacha LanguageTonkawa LanguageChinook JargonMichif LanguageMohawk DutchPlains Indian Sign LanguagePlateau Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguageKeresan Sign LanguageFrench Language In The United StatesLouisiana FrenchCajun FrenchColonial FrenchMetis FrenchMissouri FrenchMuskrat FrenchNew England FrenchGerman Language In The United StatesPennsylvania German LanguageHutterite GermanPlautdietschBernese GermanAlsatian DialectTexas GermanCaló (Chicano)New Mexican SpanishPuerto Rican SpanishCanarian AmericansFrench Sign Language FamilyAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageVarieties Of American Sign LanguageBANZSLSamoan Sign LanguageMartha's Vineyard Sign LanguageSandy River Valley Sign LanguageHenniker Sign LanguageChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesTagalog Language In The United StatesVietnamese Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesKorean AmericansArabic Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesPolish Language In The United StatesPersian Language In The United StatesJapanese AmericansGreek Language In The United StatesSerbo-CroatianArmenian AmericansHmong AmericansLaotian LanguageYiddish LanguageTemplate:Spanish Varieties By ContinentTemplate Talk:Spanish Varieties By ContinentSpanish Dialects And VarietiesSpanish LanguageCanarian SpanishEquatoguinean SpanishSpanish Language In The AmericasCaribbean SpanishCuban SpanishDominican SpanishPuerto Rican SpanishCentral American SpanishBelizean SpanishCosta Rican SpanishGuatemalan SpanishHonduran SpanishNicaraguan SpanishPachucoPanamanian SpanishSalvadoran SpanishNorth American SpanishCaló (Chicano)New Mexican SpanishPuerto Rican SpanishIsleño SpanishMexican SpanishSpanish Language In South AmericaAmazonic SpanishAndean SpanishBolivian SpanishChilean SpanishChilote SpanishColombian SpanishCordobés SpanishCuyo SpanishEquatorial SpanishLlanero SpanishMaracucho SpanishPaisa RegionParaguayan SpanishPeruvian SpanishPeruvian Ribereño SpanishRioplatense SpanishUruguayan SpanishVenezuelan SpanishPhilippine SpanishPeninsular SpanishAndalusian SpanishCanarian SpanishCastilian SpanishCastrapoCastúoMurcian SpanishLinguistic Features Of Spanish As Spoken By Catalan SpeakersStandard SpanishCaló LanguagePara-RomaniJudaeo-SpanishPalenqueroChavacanoLlanitoPapiamentoOld SpanishCocolicheLunfardoMalespínBozal SpanishTemplate:United States TopicsTemplate Talk:United States TopicsUnited StatesHistory Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States HistoryPre-Columbian EraColonial History Of The United StatesThirteen ColoniesColonial American Military HistoryContinental CongressAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary WarAmerican FrontierAmerica's Critical PeriodTimeline Of Drafting And Ratification Of The United States ConstitutionFederalist EraWar Of 1812United States Territorial AcquisitionsTerritorial Evolution Of The United StatesMexican–American WarAmerican Civil WarReconstruction EraAmerican Indian WarsGilded AgeProgressive EraAfrican-American Civil Rights Movement (1865–1896)African-American Civil Rights Movement (1896–1954)Civil Rights MovementSpanish–American WarAmerican ImperialismHistory Of The United States (1865–1918)Roaring TwentiesGreat DepressionMilitary History Of The United States During World War IIUnited States Home Front During World War IIGerman American BundAmerican CenturyCold WarKorean WarSpace RaceSecond-wave FeminismVietnam WarHistory Of The United States (1991–2008)War On TerrorWar In Afghanistan (2001–present)Iraq WarHistory Of The United States (2008–present)Outline Of The United StatesDemographic History Of The United StatesTimeline Of United States DiscoveriesEconomic History Of The United StatesHistory Of United States Debt CeilingTimeline Of United States InventionsTimeline Of United States Inventions (before 1890)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1890–1945)Timeline Of United States Inventions (1946–91)Timeline Of United States Inventions (after 1991)Military History Of The United StatesPostage Stamps And Postal History Of The United StatesTechnological And Industrial History Of The United StatesGeography Of The United StatesUnited States TerritoryCounty (United States)Washington, D.C.Federal EnclaveIndian ReservationTerritories Of The United StatesUnited States Minor Outlying IslandsLists Of Populated Places In The United StatesU.S. StateList Of Earthquakes In The United StatesList Of Extreme Points Of The United StatesList Of Islands Of The United StatesList Of Mountains Of The United StatesList Of Mountain Peaks Of The United StatesList Of Mountain RangesAppalachian MountainsRocky MountainsNational Park ServiceList Of Areas In The United States National Park SystemList Of Regions Of The United StatesEast Coast Of The United StatesWest Coast Of The United StatesGreat PlainsGulf Coast Of The United StatesMid-Atlantic (United States)Midwestern United StatesNew EnglandPacific StatesCentral United StatesEastern United StatesNorthern United StatesNortheastern United StatesNorthwestern United StatesSouthern United StatesSoutheastern United StatesSouthwestern United StatesWestern United StatesList Of Rivers Of The United StatesColorado RiverColumbia RiverMississippi RiverMissouri RiverOhio RiverRio GrandeYukon RiverTime In The United StatesDrinking Water Supply And Sanitation In The United StatesPolitics Of The United StatesFederal Government Of The United StatesCabinet Of The United StatesUnited States Federal Civil ServiceUnited States Federal Executive DepartmentsExecutive Office Of The President Of The United StatesIndependent Agencies Of The United States GovernmentFederal Law Enforcement In The United StatesPresident Of The United StatesPublic Policy Of The United StatesUnited States CongressUnited States House Of RepresentativesCurrent Members Of The United States House Of RepresentativesSpeaker Of The United States House Of RepresentativesUnited States SenateCurrent Members Of The United States SenatePresident Pro Tempore Of The United States SenateVice President Of The United StatesFederal Judiciary Of The United StatesUnited States Courts Of AppealsUnited States District CourtSupreme Court Of The United StatesLaw Of The United StatesUnited States Bill Of RightsCivil Liberties In The United StatesCode Of Federal RegulationsUnited States ConstitutionFederalism In The United StatesFederal PreemptionSeparation Of Powers Under The United States ConstitutionFederal ReporterUnited States CodeUnited States ReportsUnited States Intelligence CommunityCentral Intelligence AgencyDefense Intelligence AgencyFederal Bureau Of InvestigationNational Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyNational Reconnaissance OfficeNational Security AgencyDirector Of National IntelligenceUniformed Services Of The United StatesUnited States Armed ForcesUnited States ArmyUnited States Marine CorpsUnited States NavyUnited States Air ForceUnited States Coast GuardNational Guard Of The United StatesNOAA Commissioned Officer CorpsUnited States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps51st StatePolitical Status Of Puerto RicoDistrict Of Columbia Statehood MovementElections In The United StatesElectoral College (United States)Foreign Relations Of The United StatesForeign Policy Of The United StatesHawaiian Sovereignty MovementPolitical Ideologies In The United StatesAnti-AmericanismAmerican ExceptionalismAmerican NationalismLocal Government In The United StatesPolitical Parties In The United StatesDemocratic Party (United States)Republican Party (United States)Third Party (United States)Red States And Blue StatesPurple AmericaList Of Federal Political Scandals In The United StatesState Governments Of The United StatesGovernor (United States)State Legislature (United States)State Court (United States)Uncle SamEconomy Of The United StatesEconomy Of The United States By SectorAgriculture In The United StatesBanking In The United StatesCommunications In The United StatesEnergy In The United StatesInsurance In The United StatesManufacturing In The United StatesMining In The United StatesTourism In The United StatesForeign Trade Of The United StatesTransportation In The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United StatesList Of Companies Of The United States By StateUnited States DollarList Of Exports Of The United StatesUnited States Federal BudgetFederal Reserve SystemFinancial Position Of The United StatesLabor Unions In The United StatesNational Debt Of The United StatesSocial Programs In The United StatesTaxation In The United StatesUnemployment In The United StatesWall StreetSociety Of The United StatesCulture Of The United StatesAmericanaArchitecture Of The United StatesCinema Of The United StatesCuisine Of The United StatesDance In The United StatesDemography Of The United StatesEducation In The United StatesFamily Structure In The United StatesFashion In The United StatesFlag Of The United StatesFolklore Of The United StatesLanguages Of The United StatesAmerican EnglishIndigenous Languages Of The AmericasAmerican Sign LanguageBlack American Sign LanguageHawai'i Sign LanguagePlains Indian Sign LanguageArabic Language In The United StatesChinese Language And Varieties In The United StatesFrench Language In The United StatesGerman Language In The United StatesItalian Language In The United StatesRussian Language In The United StatesAmerican LiteratureMedia Of The United StatesHistory Of American JournalismInternet In The United StatesHistory Of American NewspapersRadio In The United StatesTelevision In The United StatesMusic Of The United StatesNaming In The United StatesAmericansAmerican PhilosophyPublic Holidays In The United StatesReligion In The United StatesSexuality In The United StatesSports In The United StatesTheater In The United StatesVisual Art Of The United StatesSocial Class In The United StatesAffluence In The United StatesAmerican DreamEducational Attainment In The United StatesHomelessness In The United StatesHome-ownership In The United StatesHousehold Income In The United StatesIncome Inequality In The United StatesAmerican Middle ClassPersonal Income In The United StatesPoverty In The United StatesProfessional And Working Class Conflict In The United StatesStandard Of Living In The United StatesWealth In The United StatesSocial Issues In The United StatesAges Of Consent In The United StatesCapital Punishment In The United StatesCrime In The United StatesIncarceration In The United StatesCriticism Of The United States GovernmentDiscrimination In The United StatesAffirmative Action In The United StatesAntisemitism In The United StatesIntersex Rights In The United StatesIslamophobia In The United StatesLGBT Rights In The United StatesRacism In The United StatesSame-sex Marriage In The United StatesFederal Drug Policy Of The United StatesEnergy Policy Of The United StatesEnvironmental Movement In The United StatesGun Politics In The United StatesHealth Care In The United StatesAbortion In The United StatesHealth Insurance In The United StatesHunger In The United StatesObesity In The United StatesTobacco In The United StatesHuman Rights In The United StatesImmigration To The United StatesIllegal Immigration To The United StatesInternational Rankings Of The United StatesNational Security Of The United StatesMass Surveillance In The United StatesTerrorism In The United StatesSeparation Of Church And State In The United StatesOutline Of The United StatesIndex Of United States-related ArticlesBook:United StatesCategory:United StatesPortal:United StatesTemplate:USStateListsTemplate Talk:USStateListsLists Of U.S. State TopicsList Of States And Territories Of The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Educational AttainmentIrreligion In The United StatesList Of U.S. States' Largest Cities By PopulationList Of Most Popular Given Names By State In The United StatesList Of The Most Populous Counties By U.S. StateList Of U.S. States And Territories By PopulationList Of U.S. States By Population DensityList Of U.S. States By Population Growth RateList Of U.S. States And Territories By Birth And Death RatesList Of U.S. States By Historical PopulationList Of U.S. States By African-American PopulationList Of U.S. States By Amish PopulationDemographics Of Asian AmericansList Of U.S. States By Hispanic And Latino PopulationSpanish Language In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By ReligiosityList Of U.S. States By The Number Of BillionairesList Of U.S. State BudgetsList Of Companies Of The United States By StateFederal Tax Revenue By StateFederal Taxation And Spending By StateList Of U.S. States By GDPList Of U.S. States By Economic Growth RateList Of U.S. States By GDP Per CapitaList Of U.S. States By IncomeList Of U.S. States By IncomeList Of U.S. States By IncomeList Of U.S. States By Gini CoefficientMinimum Wage In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Poverty RateSales Taxes In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Sovereign Wealth FundsState Tax Levels In The United StatesState Income TaxState Income TaxList Of U.S. States By Unemployment RateUnion Affiliation By U.S. StateList Of U.S. States By Vehicles Per CapitaList Of U.S. States By Carbon Dioxide EmissionsList Of Botanical Gardens And Arboretums In The United StatesLists Of State Parks By U.S. StateList Of U.S. States By Electricity Production From Renewable SourcesList Of Superfund SitesList Of U.S. State And Tribal Wilderness AreasList Of U.S. States And Territories By AreaList Of U.S. States By CoastlineList Of U.S. States By ElevationList Of Extreme Points Of U.S. States And TerritoriesForest Cover By State In The United StatesGeographic Centers Of The United StatesList Of Regions Of The United StatesState Attorney GeneralList Of Capitals In The United StatesList Of Capitals In The United StatesList Of State And Territorial Capitols In The United StatesComparison Of U.S. State GovernmentsList Of Counties By U.S. StateIndex Of U.S. CountiesList Of Current U.S. State LegislatorsList Of Current United States GovernorsList Of Current United States Lieutenant GovernorsList Of United States State LegislaturesList Of U.S. State Libraries And ArchivesLanguages Of The United StatesList Of U.S. States' Poets LaureatePolitical Divisions Of The United StatesState AuditorSecretary Of State (U.S. State Government)Superintendent (education)State Supreme CourtState TreasurerList Of U.S. States By American Human Development IndexList Of U.S. States And Territories By Fertility RateLists Of Hospitals In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Life ExpectancyObesity In The United StatesList Of U.S. States By Date Of Admission To The UnionList Of State Name Etymologies Of The United StatesList Of U.S. State Historical Societies And MuseumsList Of U.S. National Historic Landmarks By StateUnited States National Register Of Historic Places ListingsList Of U.S. State Partition ProposalsHistoric Regions Of The United StatesAbortion In The United States By StateAges Of Consent In The United StatesAlcohol Laws Of The United StatesList Of Dry Communities By U.S. StateList Of U.S. States By Alford Plea UsageRestrictions On Cell Phone Use While Driving In The United StatesList Of U.S. State ConstitutionsGun Laws In The United States By StateGun Violence In The United States By StateList Of United States State And Local Law Enforcement AgenciesLegality Of Cannabis By U.S. StateUnited States Peace IndexList Of United States State PrisonsList Of U.S. States By Incarceration RateList Of U.S. State Laws On Same-sex UnionsList Of U.S. State Constitutional Amendments Banning Same-sex Unions By TypeSame-sex Marriage Law In The United States By StateSeat Belt Laws In The United StatesList Of U.S. State Constitutional Provisions Allowing Self-representation In State CourtsList Of Smoking Bans In The United StatesSpeed Limits In The United StatesSpeed Limits In The United States By JurisdictionList Of U.S. State Statutory CodesList Of U.S. State AbbreviationsList Of Demonyms For U.S. StatesList Of Fictional U.S. StatesFlags Of The U.S. States And TerritoriesList Of U.S. State, District, And Territorial InsigniaUnited States License Plate Designs And Serial FormatsNumbered Highways In The United StatesU.S. Quarter50 State QuartersDistrict Of Columbia And United States Territories QuartersAmerica The Beautiful QuartersLists Of United States State SymbolsList Of Tallest Buildings By U.S. StateList Of Time Offsets By U.S. StateCategory:States Of The United StatesWikipedia:List Of U.S. State PortalsHelp:CategoryCategory:Spanish Dialects Of North AmericaCategory:Languages Of The United StatesCategory:American CultureCategory:Hispanic And Latino American CultureCategory:Spanish-American CultureCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From December 2017Category:Articles With Permanently Dead External LinksCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From May 2015Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From February 2007Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From September 2016Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From April 2013Category:Articles Needing Additional References From June 2010Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2013Category:Articles Containing Spanish-language TextCategory:Articles With Text From The Nahuatl Languages CollectiveCategory:Articles Needing Cleanup From April 2017Category:All Pages Needing CleanupCategory:Articles With Sections That Need To Be Turned Into Prose From April 2017Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From May 2012Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link