Contents 1 Computation 2 New year traditions 3 Songkran in Thailand 4 Songkran elsewhere 5 In other calendars 6 Controversies 6.1 Accidents 6.2 Arrests 6.3 Intellectual property 6.3.1 Celebrate Singapore 7 Dates in Thai lunar calendar 7.1 Cycle 7.2 Nang Songkran 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links 12 Further reading

Computation Songkran was traditionally computed according to method described in Suriyayart (Thai: สุริยยาตร์), the Thai version of Surya Siddhanta. The celebration starts when the Sun enters Aries according to sidereal zodiac system. This is called Maha Songkran day (Thai: วันมหาสงกรานต์). The final day marks the new solar year and is called Wan Thaloengsok (Thai: วันเถลิงศก). The astrologers, local or royal, then make the prediction on economy, agriculture, rainfall and political affairs according to observations between both days.[5] The king, or chief royal astrologer on his behalf, issued official notification on the new year for members of the public. The announcement, called Prakat Songkran (Thai: ประกาศสงกรานต์, Songkran notification), contained the information on Maha Songkran, Thaloengsok, lunisolar calendar, religious and royal ceremonies.[6] The government strictly adhered to the announcement and arranged some ceremonies according to the computation made by royal astrologer.[7][8][n 1] Today, however, the government fixes the feast to 13–15 April for simplicity, possibly without understanding of how this celebration originates and difference in calendar systems.[9][n 2] According to the scripture, there are 292,207 days within 800 years[10][11][n 3]. In other words, each solar year lasts 292,207 kammaja (Thai: กัมมัช, lit. one produced by karma), where 1 kammaja equals 108 seconds and 800 kammaja corresponds to 1 day. Timekeeping began as Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE (–3101 CE). At the start of each year, it is possible to compute the number of days since Kali Yuga commenced using following formula[12][13] S D = 292207 × ( K E ) 800 = 292207 × ( C E + 3101 ) 800 = 292207 × ( B E + 2558 ) 800 , {\displaystyle SD={\frac {292207\times \left(KE\right)}{800}}={\frac {292207\times \left(CE+3101\right)}{800}}={\frac {292207\times \left(BE+2558\right)}{800}},} where K E {\displaystyle KE} , C E {\displaystyle CE} , B E {\displaystyle BE} denote Kaliyuga, common and Buddhist era respectively. S D {\displaystyle SD} is Suriyayart day number, which can vary according to the calendar era being used. The integer result is the count of days at new year's day, while the remainder (in kammaja) suggests when the new year will start, which can be other time than midnight. Owing to huge number of kammajas in calculation, there are many calendar era devised, including Minor Era (ME). 0 ME coresponds to 1181 BE, 638 CE or 3739 KE. Following equation above, it follows that there were 1,365,702 days since the start of Kali Yuga. The remainder of the division suggests that the new year started at 373 kammaja after midnight. This corresponds to 373/800 day or 11 hours 11 minutes and 24 seconds. In other words, 0 ME started at 11:11:24 of Sunday, 25 March 638 CE in proleptic Gregorian calendar. To compute Julian day at new year, following formula is computed, J D n e w y e a r = ( 292207 × M E ) + 373 800 + 1954167.5 = ( 292207 × ( C E − 638 ) ) + 373 800 + 1954167.5 , {\displaystyle JD_{\mathrm {newyear} }={\frac {\left(292207\times ME\right)+373}{800}}+1954167.5={\frac {\left(292207\times \left(CE-638\right)\right)+373}{800}}+1954167.5,} then the number is converted back into date using Julian day algorithm (see Julian day). Maha Songkran day is computed either by lengthy process or by substracting J D n e w y e a r {\displaystyle JD_{\mathrm {newyear} }} by 2.165 days (2 days 3 hours 57 minutes 36 seconds). This can be rewritten as J D s o n g k r a n = ( 292207 × M E ) − 1732 800 + 1954167.5 = ( 292207 × ( C E − 638 ) ) − 1732 800 + 1954167.5. {\displaystyle JD_{\mathrm {songkran} }={\frac {\left(292207\times ME\right)-1732}{800}}+1954167.5={\frac {\left(292207\times \left(CE-638\right)\right)-1732}{800}}+1954167.5.} Solar year lasts 292,207 kammajas or 365.25875 days every year. However, Gregorian year lasts, on average, 292194 kammajas respectively.[n 4] The difference of 13 kammajas (23 minutes 24 seconds) accumulates every year, causing the shift of Songkran towards the end of calendar year.[14] In 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000, Maha Songkran was on 7 April, 9 April, 10 April, 12 April and 13 April respectively. Nowadays royal palace ceased to issue Songkran notification; they replaced it with a small calendar booklet given to the public on New Year's day. Government Savings Bank still prints a one-page lunisolar calendar, which is different from multiple-page solar calendar commonly seen. The calendar features the image is Songkran goddess with her vehicle and subordinates, led by Chinese zodiac animal holding flag with Thai script for that zodiac. It also contains comprehensive information on the correct Songkran day and religious days.[15] Some astrologers, especially in northern Thailand, still issue their own Songkran notification containing predictions and other information.[16] In 2013, Chiang Mai provincial council decided to defy the government-set holiday by rescheduling the ceremony according to the correct calculation.[17] Following table lists start and end dates of Songkran festival obtained from the formulae discussed above. Chinese zodiac for each year is also given since it is also used in Thai astrology. However, Chinese zodiac in Chinese astrology changes on Lichun, just before Chinese New Year, in February, while Thai astrology uses first day of fifth lunar month (roughly new moon in late March to early April).[18][19] Before the cut off date, astrologer uses zodiac of the last year. Maha Songkran and Thaloengsok Table Year Chinese zodiac Maha Songkran Songkran starts Thaloengsok Songkran ends 2013 Snake 14 April 2013 01:58:48 16 April 2013 05:56:24 2014 Horse 14 April 2014 08:11:24 16 April 2014 12:09:00 2015 Goat 14 April 2015 14:24:00 16 April 2015 18:21:36 2016 Monkey 13 April 2016 20:36:36 16 April 2016 00:34:12 2017 Rooster 14 April 2017 02:49:12 16 April 2017 06:46:48 2018 Dog 14 April 2018 09:01:48 16 April 2018 12:59:24 2019 Pig 14 April 2019 15:14:24 16 April 2019 19:12:00 2020 Rat 13 April 2020 21:27:00 16 April 2020 01:24:36 2021 Ox 14 April 2021 03:39:36 16 April 2021 07:37:12 2022 Tiger 14 April 2022 09:52:12 16 April 2022 13:49:48 2023 Rabbit 14 April 2023 16:04:48 16 April 2023 20:02:24

New year traditions The Songkran celebration is rich with symbolic traditions. Mornings begin with merit-making. Visiting local temples and offering food to the Buddhist monks is commonly practiced. On this specific occasion, performing water pouring on Buddha statues and the young and elderly is considered an iconic ritual for this holiday. It represents purification and the washing away of one's sins and bad luck.[4] As a festival of unity, people who have moved away usually return home to their loved ones and elders. Paying reverence to ancestors is also an important part of Songkran tradition. The holiday is known for its water festival which is mostly celebrated by young people. Major streets are closed to traffic, and are used as arenas for water fights. Celebrants, young and old, participate in this tradition by splashing water on each other. Traditional parades are held and in some venues "Miss Songkran" is crowned.[20]” where contestants are clothed in traditional Thai dress. Songkran at Wat Thai, Los Angeles Water fights along the west moat, Chiang Mai People in a tuk-tuk getting soaked during Songkran, Chiang Mai The use of chalk (Thai: ดินสอพอง) is also very common having originated in the chalk used by monks to mark blessings.

Songkran in Thailand Central Region People in this region clean their houses when Songkran approaches. All dress up in colorful clothing or Thai dress. After offering food to the monks, people will offer a requiem to their ancestors. People make merit such offerings as giving sand to the temple for construction or repair. Other forms of merit include releasing birds and fish. Nowadays, people also release other kinds of animals such as buffaloes and cows.[citation needed] South Southerners have three Songkran rules: Work as little as possible and avoid spending money; do not hurt other persons or animals: do not tell lies.[citation needed] North In the northern region of Thailand 13 April is celebrated with gunfire or firecrackers to repel bad luck. On the next day, people prepare food and useful things to offer to the monks at the temple. People have to go to temple to make merit and bathe Buddha's statue and after that they pour water on the hands of elders and ask for their blessings. East The eastern region has activities similar to the other part of Thailand, but people in the east always make merit at the temple throughout all the days of the Songkran Festival and create the sand pagoda. Some people, after making merit at the temple, prepare food to be given to the elderly members of their family. Monks receiving blessing at a temple in Ban Khung Taphao

Songkran elsewhere This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Songkran is celebrated by the Malaysian Siamese community in the states of Kedah, Kelantan, Penang, Perak, Perlis and Terengganu where most of the community are located.[1] The festival is celebrated as Sangken in northeastern areas of India and in Bizu, Boisuk, Shangrai, and Boisabi in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, as the traditional New Year's Day by the Indigenous people and Buddhist Community. The Sangken festival is celebrated by the people of the Khampti tribe. The festival is also celebrated by Singpho, Khamyang, Tikhaks (Tangsa) and Phakyal community of Arunachal Pradesh, and Tai Phake community of Assam. Sangken generally falls in the month of 'Naun Ha', the fifth month of the year of the Khampti Lunar calendar coinciding with the month of April. It is celebrated in the last days of the old year and the Lunar New Year begins on the day just after the end of the festival. Vishu, a Hindu religious festival, celebrated mainly in the South Indian State of Kerala (and some parts of Tamil Nadu), also falls during the same timeframe. It is predominantly a harvest festival where 'Kani' or a visual treat is seen as the first view in the morning. In some villages in south India, especially Karnataka, a festival called "Okhali" or "Okhli" is celebrated in which every household keeps a barrel of water mixed with chalk and turmeric to throw on passers-by. The date of Okhali coincides with that of Songkran in Thailand and Thingyan in Myanmar, not with the dates of Holi, which is a north Indian festival. Songkran is celebrated annually on the U.S. territory of Wake Island by Air Force members and American and Thai contractors.[21]

In other calendars Songkran occurs at the same time as that given by Bede for festivals of Eostre—and Easter weekend occasionally coincides with Songkran (most recently 1979, 1990, and 2001, but not again until 2085.[22])

Notes ^ In 1896, for example, the ceremony started on 12 April. According to Suriyayart, the Sun enters Aries at 19:30 on 12 April. The main ceremony started one day later, possibly due to inconvenience organising the ceremony at the exact time. In 1949, Maha Songkran was on 13 April at 12:35 and the ceremony started that day. ^ In 1989, the cabinet decided to fix Songkran festival at 12 — 14 April, despite the correct starting date (13 April at 20:57). The cabinet later fixed this issue by shifting these holidays by one day to 13 — 15 April, which are still in use today. ^ According to Deva Sastri, Bapu (1861). "Translation of the Surya Siddhanta" (PDF). C B Lewis and the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta.  Sloka 37, there are 1,577,917,828 solar (or terrestrial, as the translator chose) day within one great Yuga, or eon. There are four Yugas, or periods, within the eon. All of them spans 4,320,000 solar years (Sloka 15 — 16). It follows that 800 solar years correspond to 292,207 days. ^ Julian year lasts 292,200 kammajas on average

External links Media related to Songkran in Thailand at Wikimedia Commons