Contents 1 History 2 Lists of sockens 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links


History[edit] Socken, in old Swedish sokn, Danish or bokmål sogn, nynorsk sokn, is an archaic name for the original country church parishes, kyrksocken. It also describes a secular area, a sockenkommun ("rural area locality") or a taxation area, a jordbokssocken.[1][2] In the Nordic countries a socken was an administrative area consisting of several villages or localities in much the same way as the civil parishes in England, but the concept is not used in reference to towns. A socken had a socken church, it was governed by a socken council and it was the predecessor to modern municipalities[3][4] In 1862, the kyrksockens ("church socken") and the sockenkommuns ("rural area locality") in Sweden were abolished as administrative areas during municipality reforms. The jordbrukssocken ("taxation area") remained in use until the Fastighetsdatareformen ("Reform for registration of real property") 1976–1995 was complete.[5] No further alterations to the sockens was made after this. On 1 January 2016, a new administrative division and area for statistics, registration districts or simply districts, was introduced in Sweden. Geographically, the districts correspond with the parishes of the Church of Sweden as of 31 December 1999. About 85% of the old sockens corresponds with the new districts.[6][7][8] Even though the term socken is no longer used administratively in Sweden, it is still used for cataloging and registering historical archives (Swedish National Heritage Board), botany, dialect research, toponymy and by local historical societies. Socken is a convenient parameter for these purposes since it does not change with time.[9]


Lists of sockens[edit] Skåne, one place where socken is in use. Gotland, one place where socken is in use. Dalarna, one place where socken is in use. List of sockens in Sweden on Swedish Wikipedia, sv:Kategori:Socknar i Sverige. Parish (Denmark).


See also[edit] Administrative divisions of Sweden Civil parishes in England Historical region Hundred (county division) Soke (legal) Townships of the People's Republic of China


References[edit] ^ Svenska akademiens ordlista över svenska språket. Acta Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi, 0065-0897 ; 57Studier till en svensk ortnamnsatlas, 99-0382294-4 ; 14 (in Swedish) (12 uppl. ed.). Stockholm: Nordstedts ordbok. 1998. p. 876. ISBN 91-7227-032-2. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ Brink, Stefan (1990). Sockenbildning och sockennamn : studier i äldre territoriell indelning i Norden = Parish-formation and parish-names : studies in early territorial division in Scandinavia. Uppsala: Gustav Adolfs akad. ISBN 91-85352-17-9. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Svenska akademins ordbok". www.saob.se. Svenska Akademin. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ Brink, Stefan (1991). Olle Ferm, ed. "Sockenbildningen i Sverige". Kyrka och socken i medeltidens Sverige / av Roger Andersson. Studier till Det medeltida Sverige, 0347-7495 ; 5: 113–142. ISBN 91-7192-825-1. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Förordning (1983:594) om genomförande av fastighetsdatareformen". www.riksdagen.se. Justitiedepartementet F2. Retrieved 15 June 2014.  ^ "Distriktsindelning i folkbokföringen". Swedish National Heritage Board. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ "SFS 2015:493 Förordning om district" (PDF). Swedish Code of Statutes. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016.  ^ "Nya folkbokföringsdistrikt" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-23. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) In: Lantmäteriet 2014. Lantmäteriet. accessdate=23 May 2016. ^ Förteckning över städer och socknar. D. 1, Alfabetisk och efter sockennummer (2., [rev,] uppl. ed.). Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet. 1999. ISBN 91-7209-149-5. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 


Further reading[edit] Almquist, Johan Axel (1917–1923). Den civila lokalförvaltningen i Sverige 1523-1630: med särskild hänsyn till den kamerala indelningen. Meddelanden från svenska Riksarkivet, 99-0506720-5 ; 6 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  Lagerstedt, Torsten (1973). Den civila lokalförvaltningens gränser 1630-1952: kameral redovisning, areell beteckning och gränsförändring. Meddelanden från Kulturgeografiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, 0585-3508 ; B 24 (in Swedish). Stockholm. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  Litzen, veikko (1977). "Om socken". Historisk tidskrift för Finland. Helsingfors: 331–335.  |access-date= requires |url= (help) Svensson, Patric (1999). Peter Aronsson & Lennart Johansson, ed. "Att skapa ordning och reda: administrativa förändringar på landsbygden omkring 1870-1940". Stationssamhällen. Växjö : Univ., 1999: 146–154. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 


External links[edit] Sogneportalen, information about sockens in Denmark Swedish Tax Agency, Parishes in Sweden, historical–current.(in Swedish) Swedish National Heritage Board, List of towns and sockens.(in Swedish) v t e Designations for types of administrative territorial entities English terms Common English terms1 Area Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area Canton Half-canton Borough County borough Metropolitan borough Capital Federal capital Imperial capital City City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city Community Autonomous community Residential community County Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy Country Overseas country Department Overseas department District Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district Division Census division Police division Subdivision Municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality Prefecture Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture Province Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province Region Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion Reserve Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve State Federal state Free state Sovereign state Territory Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory Town Census town Market town Township Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township Unit Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit Zone Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone Other English terms Current Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner Autonomous Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor Royal Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector Autonomous Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village Administrative Summer Ward Historical Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing Non-English or loanwords Current Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun Finland Sweden Län Località Megye Muban Oblast Autonomous Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine Historical Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome Egypt Greece Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou v t e Arabic terms for country subdivisions First-level Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate") Second / third-level Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak) City / township-level Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision") English translations given are those most commonly used. v t e French terms for country subdivisions arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures v t e Greek terms for country subdivisions Modern apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§ Historical archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma § signifies a defunct institution v t e Portuguese terms for country subdivisions Regional subdivisions Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania Local subdivisions Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição Settlements Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Slavic terms for country subdivisions Current dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija Historical darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa v t e Spanish terms for country subdivisions National, Federal Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región Regional, Metropolitan Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia Ecuador Spain Urban, Rural Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad Ciudad autónoma Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo) Historical subdivisions in italics. v t e Turkish terms for country subdivisions Modern il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter) Historical ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces) 1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative divisions by country This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Swedish. (June 2014) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Swedish article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template {{Translated|sv|Socken}} to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Socken&oldid=819155381" Categories: Types of populated placesScandinavian historySubdivisions of SwedenHidden categories: CS1 Swedish-language sources (sv)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknownPages using citations with accessdate and no URLArticles with Swedish-language external linksArticles to be expanded from June 2014All articles to be expandedArticles needing translation from Swedish Wikipedia


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages DanskDeutschItalianoNederlandsNorskNorsk nynorskSuomiSvenska Edit links This page was last edited on 7 January 2018, at 19:54. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.564","walltime":"0.677","ppvisitednodes":{"value":2672,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":359459,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":38811,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":17,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":3,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":0,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 533.715 1 -total"," 82.77% 441.781 10 Template:Navbox"," 54.35% 290.070 1 Template:Types_of_administrative_country_subdivision"," 53.37% 284.844 1 Template:Navbox_with_collapsible_groups"," 35.42% 189.048 1 Template:Arabic_terms_for_country_subdivisions"," 33.21% 177.235 38 Template:Resize"," 31.88% 170.166 20 Template:Lang"," 20.84% 111.223 1 Template:Reflist"," 13.75% 73.388 5 Template:Cite_book"," 6.92% 36.946 1 Template:Expand_Swedish"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.313","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":12981257,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1226","timestamp":"20180219032332","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":85,"wgHostname":"mw1270"});});


Socken - Photos and All Basic Informations

Socken More Links

Paul G. SockenEnlargeDenmarkFinlandNorwaySwedenCivil ParishParish (administrative Division)ParishHuman SettlementOld SwedishDanish LanguageBokmålNynorskCivil Parishes In EnglandMunicipalityStatistics SwedenRegistration Districts In SwedenParishes Of The Church Of SwedenSwedish National Heritage BoardBotanyDialectToponymyEnlargeEnlargeEnlargeParish (Denmark)Administrative Divisions Of SwedenCivil Parishes In EnglandHistorical RegionHundred (county Division)Soke (legal)Townships Of The People's Republic Of ChinaInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/91-7227-032-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/91-85352-17-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/91-7192-825-1Swedish National Heritage BoardSwedish Code Of StatutesCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownLantmäterietInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/91-7209-149-5Help:CS1 ErrorsTemplate:Terms For Types Of Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Terms For Types Of Country SubdivisionsAdministrative DivisionList Of Terms For Administrative DivisionsArea (country Subdivision)Insular AreaLocal Government AreaProtected AreaSpecial Areas BoardStatistical Area (United States)Combined Statistical AreaMetropolitan Statistical AreaMicropolitan Statistical AreaUrban AreaCanton (country Subdivision)Half-cantonBoroughCounty BoroughMetropolitan BoroughCapital CityFederal CapitalCapital CityCityCity StateAutonomous CityCharter CityIndependent CityIncorporated CityImperial CityFree Imperial CityRoyal Free CityCommunity (administrative Division)Autonomous Communities Of SpainResidential CommunityCountyAdministrative CountyAutonomous Counties Of The People's Republic Of ChinaConsolidated City-countyMetropolitan CountyNon-metropolitan CountyViscountcyCountryOverseas CountryDepartment (country Subdivision)Overseas DepartmentDistrictCapital DistrictCity DistrictCongressional DistrictElectoral DistrictFederal DistrictList Of Municipalities In British ColumbiaLands Administrative Divisions Of AustraliaMetropolitan DistrictNon-metropolitan DistrictMilitary DistrictMunicipal DistrictPolice DistrictList Of Regional Districts Of British ColumbiaRural DistrictSanitary DistrictSubdistrictUrban DistrictSpecial District (United States)Division (country Subdivision)Census DivisionPolice DivisionSubdivision (country Subdivision)MunicipalityCounty Municipality (disambiguation)County Municipality (Norway)County Municipality (Nova Scotia)Regional County MunicipalityDirect-controlled MunicipalityDistrict MunicipalityMountain Resort MunicipalityNeutral MunicipalityRegional MunicipalityResort MunicipalityRural MunicipalitySpecialized MunicipalityPrefectureAutonomous PrefectureSubprefectureSuper-prefecturePraetorian PrefectureProvinceAutonomous ProvinceOverseas ProvinceRoman ProvinceRegionAdministrative RegionAutonomous RegionCapital RegionDevelopment RegionMesoregion (geography)MicroregionOverseas RegionSpecial Administrative RegionSubregion (country Subdivision)Reserve (territorial Entity)Biosphere ReserveEcological ReserveGame ReserveIndian ReserveNature ReserveFederated StateFederal StateFree State (government)Sovereign StateTerritoryCapital TerritoryFederal Capital TerritoryDependent TerritoryFederal TerritoryOrganized Incorporated TerritoryOverseas TerritoryUnion TerritoryUnorganized TerritoryTownCensus TownMarket TownTownshipCharter TownshipCivil TownshipPaper TownshipSurvey TownshipUrban TownshipAutonomous Territorial UnitLocal Administrative UnitRegional UnitEconomic ZoneExclusive Economic ZoneFree Economic ZoneSpecial Economic ZoneFree-trade ZoneNeutral Zone (territorial Entity)Self-administered ZoneLocal Government In VictoriaBailiwickBanner (country Subdivision)Banners Of Inner MongoliaBlock (district Subdivision)CadastreCircle (country Subdivision)Circuit (administrative Division)ColonyMunicipalityCondominium (international Law)Constituency (administrative Division)DuchyElderships Of LithuaniaEmirateFederal Dependencies Of VenezuelaGovernorateHamlet (place)IlkhanateIndian ReservationManorRoyal ManorMuftiateNeighbourhoodParish (administrative Division)Periphery (country Subdivision)PrecinctPrincipalityProtectorateQuarter (urban Subdivision)List Of Regencies And Cities Of IndonesiaAutonomous RepublicRiding (country Subdivision)Sector (country Subdivision)Autonomous SectorShireSultanateSuzeraintyTownlandVillageAdministrative VillageList Of Summer Villages In AlbertaWard (electoral Subdivision)Agency (country Subdivision)BaronyBurghExarchateHide (unit)Hundred (county Division)Imperial CircleMarch (territorial Entity)MonthonPresidency (country Subdivision)Residency (country Subdivision)Roman DioceseSeat (territorial Administrative Unit)Tenth (country Subdivision)TithingAmt (country Subdivision)BakhshBarangayBezirkRegierungsbezirkComuneFrazioneFu (country Subdivision)GemeindeJudețMunicipalities Of FinlandMunicipalities Of SwedenLänLocalitàCounties Of HungaryMubanOblastAutonomous OblastOkrugProvinces Of IranPoblacionPurokCounties Of IranSum (country Subdivision)SýslaTehsilVingtaineCommoteGau (territory)HeerlijkheidKöpingMaalaiskuntaNome (Egypt)Prefectures Of GreecePagusParganaPlasăSatrapSubahSysselZhou (country Subdivision)Template:Arabic Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Arabic Terms For Country SubdivisionsArabicAdministrative DivisionMuhafazahWilayahMintaqahMudiriyahEmirateBaladiyahShabiyahMintaqahKazaNahiyahMarkaz (country Subdivision)MutamadiyahDaerahDaïraSanjakSanjakAmanah (administrative Subdivision)BaladiyahMahallahVillageSheyakhahTemplate:French Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:French Terms For Country SubdivisionsFrench LanguageAdministrative DivisionArrondissementDepartment (country Subdivision)Prefectures In FranceSubprefectures In FranceTemplate:Greek Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Greek Terms For Country SubdivisionsGreek LanguageAdministrative DivisionDecentralized Administrations Of GreeceGovernor-generalGeographic Regions Of GreeceAdministrative Regions Of GreecePrefectures Of GreeceRegional Units Of GreeceMunicipalities And Communities Of GreeceProvinces Of GreeceMunicipalities And Communities Of GreeceArchonBandon (Byzantine Empire)DemeDespot (court Title)Roman DioceseDuxDroungosEparchyExarchKatepanoKephale (Byzantine Empire)Kleisoura (Byzantine District)MeridarchNaucrarySatrapStrategosTheme (Byzantine District)ToparchesTurmaTemplate:Portuguese Terms For Country SubdivisionsPortuguese LanguageAdministrative DivisionEstadoDistrito FederalProvinceRegionDistrictComarcaCaptaincyMunicípioConcelhoFreguesiaCommunes Of AngolaElectoral DistrictCidadeTownVillageBairroLugar (country Subdivision)Template:Slavic Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Slavic Terms For Country SubdivisionsSlavic LanguagesAdministrative DivisionDzielnicaGminaKraiKrajKrajinaMěstysObecOblastOkręgOkresOkrugOpštinaOsiedlePowiatRaionSelsovietSołectwoVoivodeshipŽupanijaDarughaGromadaGuberniyaJurydykaKhutorObshchinaOkoliaOpole (administrative)PogostProwincjaSorokSrezStarostwoUyezdVolostZiemiaŽupaTemplate:Spanish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Spanish Terms For Country SubdivisionsSpanish LanguageAdministrative DivisionAutonomous Communities Of SpainDepartamentoDistrito FederalState (polity)ProvinceRegionCanton (country Subdivision)ComarcaCommunes Of ChileCorregimientoBoroughs Of MexicoDistrictMancomunidadMerindadMunicipalidadMunicipioParroquiaParishes Of EcuadorParroquia (Spain)Hamlet (place)AlqueriaElizateAsentamientoShanty TownPueblos JóvenesBarrioCampamento (Chile)Hamlet (place)CityAutonomous CityColonia (Mexico)Lugar (country Subdivision)MasiaPoblacionRancheríaSitioVeredaVillaVillageTemplate:Turkish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTemplate Talk:Turkish Terms For Country SubdivisionsTurkish LanguageAdministrative DivisionProvinces Of TurkeyIlçeCityTownBelediyeBeldeKöyMahalleAgalukBucak (administrative Unit)EyaletKadilukKazaKhedivate Of EgyptMutasarrıfNahiyaPashalikRaya (country Subdivision)SanjakVilayetVoivodeshipCensus DivisionElectoral DistrictPolitical DivisionList Of Administrative Divisions By CountryWikipedia:Copying Within WikipediaHelp:Edit SummaryHelp:Interlanguage LinksTalk:SockenWikipedia:TranslationHelp:CategoryCategory:Types Of Populated PlacesCategory:Scandinavian HistoryCategory:Subdivisions Of SwedenCategory:CS1 Swedish-language Sources (sv)Category:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownCategory:Pages Using Citations With Accessdate And No URLCategory:Articles With Swedish-language External LinksCategory:Articles To Be Expanded From June 2014Category:All Articles To Be ExpandedCategory:Articles Needing Translation From Swedish WikipediaDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link