Contents 1 Origins 2 Early uses 3 Film adaptations 4 Contemporary presence 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Origins[edit] The name "slapstick" originates from the Italian batacchio or bataccio — called the "slap stick" in English — a club-like object composed of two wooden slats used in commedia dell'arte. When struck, the batacchio produces a loud smacking noise, though little force transfers from the object to the person being struck. Actors may thus hit one another repeatedly with great audible effect while causing no damage and only very minor, if any, pain. Along with the inflatable bladder (of which the whoopee cushion is a modern variant), it was among the earliest special effects.

Early uses[edit] Advertisement for Punch and Judy showing Punch with his slapstick (1910) Slapstick comedy's history is measured in centuries. Shakespeare incorporated many chase scenes and beatings into his comedies, such as in his play The Comedy of Errors. In early 19th century England, pantomime acquired its present form which includes slapstick comedy, while comedy routines also featured heavily in British music hall theatre which became popular in the 1850s.[4][5] In Punch and Judy shows, which first appeared in England on 9 May 1662, a large slapstick is wielded by Punch against the other characters.[6]

Film adaptations[edit] Fred Karno, music hall impresario and pioneer of slapstick comedy British comedians who honed their skills at pantomime and music hall sketches include Charlie Chaplin, Stan Laurel, George Formby and Dan Leno.[7][8] The influential English music hall comedian and theatre impresario Fred Karno developed a form of sketch comedy without dialogue in the 1890s, and Chaplin and Laurel were among the young comedians who worked for him as part of "Fred Karno's Army".[7] Chaplin's fifteen year music hall career inspired the comedy in all his later film work, especially as pantomimicry.[9] In his biography Laurel stated, "Fred Karno didn't teach Charlie [Chaplin] and me all we know about comedy. He just taught us most of it".[10] American film producer Hal Roach described Fred Karno as "not only a genius, he is the man who originated slapstick comedy. We in Hollywood owe much to him."[11] A slapstick scene from the 1915 Charlie Chaplin film His New Job. Chaplin started his film career as a physical comedian, and his later work continued to contain elements of slapstick. Building on its later popularity in the 19th and early 20th-century ethnic routines of the American vaudeville house, the style was explored extensively during the "golden era" of black and white, silent movies directed by figures Mack Sennett and Hal Roach and featuring such notables as Charlie Chaplin, Laurel and Hardy, the Marx Brothers, the Keystone Cops, the Three Stooges, and Chespirito. Slapstick is also common in Disney's Goofy shorts, MGM's Tom and Jerry, Warner Bros. Looney Tunes/Merrie Melodies, MGM's Barney Bear, and Tex Avery's Screwy Squirrel. Silent slapstick comedy was also popular in early French films and included films by Max Linder and Charles Prince.

Contemporary presence[edit] Slapstick continues to maintain a presence in modern comedy that draws upon its lineage, running in film from Buster Keaton and Louis de Funès to Mel Brooks to the television series Jackass and comedy movies by the Farrelly Brothers, and in live performance from Weber and Fields to Jackie Gleason to Rowan Atkinson. In England, slapstick was a main element of the Monty Python comedy troupe and in television series such as Fawlty Towers and The Benny Hill Show. Slapstick has remained a popular art form to the present day.

See also[edit] Comedy portal List of slapstick comedy topics Slapstick film Physical comedy Stage combat Schadenfreude Harisen, a paper fan used by the Japanese for a similar purpose.

References[edit] ^ "slapstick - definition of slapstick by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ "Slapstick Comedy - film, cinema". Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ "Slapstick comedy definition of Slapstick comedy in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ David Christopher (2002). "British Culture: An Introduction". p. 74. Routledge, ^ Jeffrey Richards (2014). "The Golden Age of Pantomime: Slapstick, Spectacle and Subversion in Victorian England". I.B.Tauris, ^ Miller, Judith (2017). Miller's Antiques Handbook & Price Guide 2018-2019. Hachette UK. p. 351.  ^ a b McCabe, John. "Comedy World of Stan Laurel". p. 143. London: Robson Books, 2005, First edition 1975 ^ "Enjoy Cumbria - Stan Laurel". BBC. Retrieved 2 January 2015 ^ St. Pierre, Paul (2009). Music Hall Mimesis in British Film, 1895-1960: On the Halls on the Screen. Associated University Press. p. 38.  ^ Burton, Alan (2000). Pimple, pranks & pratfalls: British film comedy before 1930. Flicks Books. p. 51.  ^ J. P. Gallagher (1971). "Fred Karno: master of mirth and tears". p. 165. Hale.

External links[edit] Look up slapstick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. v t e Comedy Topics Comedian Comedic device Comedy festival Comic timing Farce Humorist Humour Impersonator Impressionist Irony Joke Prank call Punch line Satire Visual gag Wit Word play Film Country American British French Italian Genre Horror Parody Remarriage Romance Science fiction Screwball Sex Italian Silent Slapstick Stoner Theatre Country Europe Ancient Greek comedy Comédie-Française Comédie-Italienne Corral de comedias Theatre of ancient Rome Asia China Xiangsheng Mo lei tau Japan Kyōgen Manzai Owarai Rakugo Sarugaku Genre Boulevard theatre Comedy-drama Comedy of errors Comedy of humours Comedy of manners Comedy of menace Commedia dell'arte Double act Farce Improvisational Macchietta One-person show Pantomime Restoration comedy Sentimental comedy Comédie larmoyante Shadow play Shakespearean comedy Sketch comedy Spex Stand-up comedy Street theatre Theatre of the Absurd Tragicomedy Vaudeville Music & dance Ballad opera Cabaret Café-chantant Café-théâtre Comédie-ballet Comedy club Light music Music hall Musical theatre Opéra bouffe Opera buffa Opéra comique Operetta Revue Media Music Album Rock Novel Radio Television Roast Sitcom Subgenres Alternative Black Blue Character Christian Cringe Deadpan (dry humor) Documentary Gallows High / low Horror Insult Observational Physical Prop Shock Sick Slapstick Topics Surreal Zombie Category Portal Retrieved from "" Categories: Slapstick comedyFilm genres

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