Contents 1 History 1.1 Early Indigenous Period 1.2 Colonial period 1.2.1 The Bandeirantes 1.3 Imperial Period 1.4 Old Republican Period 1.5 Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 2 Geography 2.1 Metropolitan area 2.2 Hydrography 2.3 Climate 3 Demographics 3.1 Immigration 3.2 Domestic migration 3.3 Religion 3.4 Public security 3.5 Languages 3.6 Social challenges 4 Government 4.1 Subdivisions 4.2 International relations 5 Economy 5.1 Science and technology 5.2 Luxury goods 5.3 Tourism 6 Urban infrastructure 6.1 Urban fabrics 6.2 Urban planning 7 Education 7.1 Educational institutions 8 Health care 8.1 Municipal health 9 Transport 9.1 Highways 9.1.1 Rodoanel 9.2 Airports 9.3 Railways 9.3.1 Metro 9.4 Buses 9.5 Helicopters 10 Culture 10.1 Music 10.1.1 Music halls and concert halls 10.1.2 Free music festivals 10.2 Literature 10.3 Theaters 10.4 Museums 10.5 Media 11 Sports 11.1 Football 11.2 Other sports 11.2.1 Brazilian Grand Prix 12 See also 13 References 13.1 Bibliography 13.2 Notes 14 External links


History[edit] See also: Timeline of São Paulo Early Indigenous Period[edit] Historical affiliations Portuguese Empire 1554–1815 United Kingdom of PBA 1815–1822  Empire of Brazil 1822–1889 Republic of Brazil 1889–present The region of modern-day São Paulo, then known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim, Guaianas, and Guarani. Other tribes also lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region. The region was divided in Caciquedoms (chiefdoms) at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Ipiranga, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Piratininga, Diadema, Cotia, Itapevi, Barueri, Embu-Guaçu etc... Colonial period[edit] Founding of São Paulo, 1913 painting by Antonio Parreiras Courtyard of the College, Pátio do Colégio, in the Historic Center of São Paulo. At this location, the city was founded in 1554. The current building is a reconstruction made in the late 20th century, based on the Jesuit college and church that were erected at the site in 1653. The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554. The Jesuit college of twelve priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Anhangabaú and Tamanduateí rivers.[19] They first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach (catechesis) the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity. The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba.[20] The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus:[20] The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college. It was then named "College of St. Paul Piratininga". The new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups. It was renamed Vila de São Paulo, belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente.[20] For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived largely through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives. For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Piraiquê" (Piaçaguera today), because of frequent Indian raids along it.[20] On March 22, 1681, the Marquis de Cascais, the donee of the Captaincy of São Vicente, moved the capital to the village of St. Paul, designating it the "Head of the captaincy." The new capital was established on April 23, 1683, with public celebrations.[20] The Bandeirantes[edit] Main article: Bandeirantes The Monument to the Bandeiras commemorates the 17th-century bandeiras In the 17th century, São Paulo was one of the poorest regions of the Portuguese colony. It was also the center of interior colonial development. Because they were extremely poor, the Paulistas could not afford to buy African slaves, as did other Portuguese colonists. The discovery of gold in the region of Minas Gerais, in the 1690s, brought attention and new settlers to São Paulo. The Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas do Ouro was created on November 3, 1709, when the Portuguese crown purchased the Captaincies of São Paulo and Santo Amaro from the former grantees.[20] Conveniently located in the country, up the steep Serra do Mar sea ridge when traveling from Santos, while also not too far from the coastline, São Paulo became a safe place to stay for tired travellers. The town became a centre for the bandeirantes, intrepid explorers who marched into unknown lands in search for gold, diamonds, precious stones, and Indians to enslave.[20] Domingos Jorge Velho, a notable bandeirante. The bandeirantes, which could be translated as "flag-bearers" or "flag-followers", organized excursions into the land with the primary purpose of profit and the expansion of territory for the Portuguese crown. Trade grew from the local markets and from providing food and accommodation for explorers. The bandeirantes eventually became politically powerful as a group, and forced the expulsion of the Jesuits from the city of São Paulo in 1640. The two groups had frequently come into conflict because of the Jesuits' opposition to the domestic slave trade in Indians.[20] On July 11, 1711, the town of São Paulo was elevated to city status. Around the 1720s, gold was found by the pioneers in the regions near what are now Cuiabá and Goiania. The Portuguese expanded their Brazilian territory beyond the Tordesillas Line to incorporate the gold regions.[20] When the gold ran out in the late 18th century, São Paulo shifted to growing sugar cane. Cultivation of this commodity crop spread through the interior of the Captaincy. The sugar was exported through the Port of Santos. At that time, the first modern highway between São Paulo and the coast was constructed and named the Walk of Lorraine.[20] Nowadays, the estate that is home to the Governor of the State of São Paulo, located in the city of São Paulo, is called the Palácio dos Bandeirantes (Palace of Bandeirantes), in the neighbourhood of Morumbi.[20] Imperial Period[edit] Main article: Empire of Brazil Monument to Independence in Independence Park, located at the place where then-Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil Cathedral Square of São Paulo in 1880, during the reign of Emperor Pedro II by Marc Ferrez. After Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1822, as declared by Emperor Pedro I where the Monument of Ipiranga is located, he named São Paulo as an Imperial City. In 1827, a law school was founded at the Convent of São Francisco, these days a part of the University of São Paulo. The influx of students and teachers gave a new impetus to the city's growth, thanks to which the city became the Imperial City and Borough of Students of St. Paul of Piratininga.[20] The expansion of coffee production was a major factor in the growth of São Paulo, as it became the region's chief export crop and yielded good revenue. It was cultivated initially in the Vale do Paraíba (Paraíba Valley) region in the East of the State of São Paulo, and later on in the regions of Campinas, Rio Claro, São Carlos and Ribeirão Preto.[20] From 1869 onwards, São Paulo was connected to the port of Santos by the Railroad Santos-Jundiaí, nicknamed The Lady. In the late 19th century, several other railroads connected the interior to the state capital. São Paulo became the point of convergence of all railroads from the interior of the state. Coffee was the economic engine for major economic and population growth in the State of São Paulo.[20] In 1888, the "Golden Law" (Lei Áurea) was sanctioned by Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, declaring abolished the slavery institution in Brazil. Slaves were the main source of labour in the coffee plantations until then. As a consequence of this law, and following governmental stimulus towards the increase of immigration, the province began to receive a large number of immigrants, largely Italians, Japanese and Portuguese peasants, many of whom settled in the capital. The region's first industries also began to emerge, providing jobs to the newcomers, especially those who had to learn Portuguese.[20] Old Republican Period[edit] Luz Station in 1900. Paulista Avenue in 1902 By the time Brazil became a republic on November 15, 1889, coffee exports were still an important part of São Paulo's economy. São Paulo grew strong in the national political scene, taking turns with the also rich state of Minas Gerais in electing Brazilian presidents, an alliance that became known as "coffee and milk", given that Minas Gerais was famous for its dairy produce.[20] During this period, São Paulo went from regional center to national metropolis, becoming industrialized and reaching its first million inhabitants in 1928. Its greatest growth in this period was relative in the 1890s when it doubled its population. The height of the coffee period is represented by the construction of the second Estação da Luz (the present building) at the end of the 19th century and by the Paulista Avenue in 1900, where they built many mansions.[21] Industrialization was the economic cycle that followed the coffee plantation model. By the hands of some industrious families, including many immigrants of Italian and Jewish origin, factories began to arise and São Paulo became known for its smoky, foggy air. The cultural scene followed modernist and naturalist tendencies in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Some examples of notable modernist artists are poets Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade, artists Anita Malfatti, Tarsila do Amaral and Lasar Segall, and sculptor Victor Brecheret. The Modern Art Week of 1922 that took place at the Theatro Municipal was an event marked by avant-garde ideas and works of art.[20] In 1929, São Paulo won its first skyscraper, the Martinelli Building.[21] The modifications made in the city by Antônio da Silva Prado, Baron of Duprat and Washington Luiz, who governed from 1899 to 1919, contributed to the climate Development of the city; Some scholars consider that the entire city was demolished and rebuilt at that time. São Paulo's main economic activities derive from the services industry—factories are since long gone, and in came financial services institutions, law firms, consulting firms. Old factory buildings and warehouses still dot the landscape in neighborhoods such as Barra Funda and Brás. Some cities around São Paulo, such as Diadema, São Bernardo do Campo, Santo André, and Cubatão are still heavily industrialized to the present day, with factories producing from cosmetics to chemicals to automobiles.[20] Anhangabaú Valley in Downtown São Paulo in 1920. Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932[edit] Group of aviators from São Paulo at Campo de Marte Airport in September 1932 This "revolution" is considered by some historians as the last armed conflict to take place in Brazil's history. On July 9, 1932, the population of São Paulo town rose against a coup d'état by Getúlio Vargas to take the presidential office. The movement grew out of local resentment from the fact that Vargas ruled by decree, unbound by a constitution, in a provisional government. The 1930 coup also affected São Paulo by eroding the autonomy that states enjoyed during the term of the 1891 Constitution and preventing the inauguration of the governor of São Paulo Júlio Prestes in the Presidency of the Republic, while simultaneously overthrowing President Washington Luís, who was governor of São Paulo from 1920 to 1924. These events marked the end of the Old Republic.[20] The uprising commenced on July 9, 1932, after four protesting students were killed by federal government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.[20] Obelisk of São Paulo, at Ibirapuera Park In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of the political elites of two other powerful states, (Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul), the politicians from São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo revolt was militarily crushed on October 2, 1932. In total, there were 87 days of fighting (July 9 to October 4, 1932—with the last two days after the surrender of São Paulo), with a balance of 934 official deaths, though non-official estimates report up to 2,200 dead, and many cities in the state of São Paulo suffered damage due to fighting.[20] There is an obelisk in front of Ibirapuera Park that serves as a memorial to the young men that died for the MMDC. The University of São Paulo's Law School also pays homage to the students that died during this period with plaques hung on its arcades.[20]


Geography[edit] Jaraguá Peak is the highest point in the city, at 1,135 metres (3,724 ft).[22] Cantareira State Park, part of the Green Belt Biosphere Reserve São Paulo is located in Southeastern Brazil, in southeastern São Paulo State, approximately halfway between Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. The city is located on a plateau located beyond the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Sea Range" or "Coastal Range"), itself a component of the vast region known as the Brazilian Highlands, with an average elevation of around 799 metres (2,621 ft) above sea level, although being at a distance of only about 70 kilometres (43 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean. The distance is covered by two highways, the Anchieta and the Imigrantes, (see "Transportation" below) that roll down the range, leading to the port city of Santos and the beach resort of Guarujá. Rolling terrain prevails within the urbanized areas of São Paulo except in its northern area, where the Serra da Cantareira Range reaches a higher elevation and a sizable remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The region is seismically stable and no significant seismic activity has ever been recorded.[23] Metropolitan area[edit] Main article: Greater São Paulo Satellite view of Greater São Paulo at night. The nonspecific term "Grande São Paulo" ("Greater São Paulo") covers multiple definitions. The legally defined Região Metropolitana de São Paulo consists of 39 municipalities in total and a population of 21.1 million[24] inhabitants (as of the 2014 National Census[update]). The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo is known as the financial, economic and cultural center of Brazil. The largest municipalities are Guarulhos with a population of more than 1 million people, plus several municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, such as São Bernardo do Campo (811,000 inh.) and Santo André (707,000 inh.) in the ABC Region. The ABC Region in the south of Grande São Paulo is an important location for industrial corporations, such as Volkswagen and Ford Motors.[25] Because São Paulo has urban sprawl, it uses a different definition for its metropolitan area called Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo. Analogous to the BosWash definition, it is one of the largest urban agglomerations in the world, with 32 million inhabitants,[26] behind Tokyo, which includes 4 contiguous legally defined metropolitan regions and 3 microregions. Hydrography[edit] See also: Water management in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo Marginal Tietê, with the Tietê River The Tietê River and its tributary, the Pinheiros River, were once important sources of fresh water and leisure for São Paulo. However, heavy industrial effluents and wastewater discharges in the later 20th century caused the rivers to become heavily polluted. A substantial clean-up program for both rivers is underway, financed through a partnership between local government and international development banks such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. Neither river is navigable in the stretch that flows through the city, although water transportation becomes increasingly important on the Tietê river further downstream (near river Paraná), as the river is part of the River Plate basin.[27] No large natural lakes exist in the region, but the Billings and Guarapiranga reservoirs in the city's southern outskirts are used for power generation, water storage and leisure activities, such as sailing. The original flora consisted mainly of broadleaf evergreens. Non-native species are common, as the mild climate and abundant rainfall permit a multitude of tropical, subtropical and temperate plants to be cultivated, especially the ubiquitous eucalyptus.[28] Billings Reservoir. The north of the municipality contains part of the 7,917 hectares (19,560 acres) Cantareira State Park, created in 1962, which protects a large part of the metropolitan São Paulo water supply.[29] In 2015, São Paulo experienced a major drought, which led several cities in the state to start a rationing system.[30] Climate[edit] The city has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Cwa), according to the Köppen classification.[31] In summer (January through March), the mean low temperature is about 19 °C (66 °F) and the mean high temperatures is near 28 °C (82 °F). In winter, temperatures tend to range between 8 and 21 °C (46 and 70 °F). The record high temperature was 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) on October 17, 2014[32] and the lowest −2 °C (28 °F) on August 2, 1955.[citation needed] Temperature averages are similar to those of Sydney and Shanghai. The Tropic of Capricorn, at about 23°27' S, passes through north of São Paulo and roughly marks the boundary between the tropical and temperate areas of South America. Because of its elevation, however, São Paulo enjoys a temperate climate.[33] Heavy rain and lightning in São Paulo, which has the largest number of lightning incidents amongst Brazilian state capitals.[34] The city experiences four seasons. The winter is mild and sub-dry, and the summer is moderately warm and rainy. Autumn and spring are transitional seasons. Frosts occur sporadically in regions further away from the center, in some winters throughout the city. Regions further away from the center and in cities in the metropolitan area, can reach temperatures next to 0 °C (32 °F), or even lower in the winter. Rainfall is abundant, annually averaging 1,454 millimetres (57.2 in).[35] It is especially common in the warmer months averaging 219 millimetres (8.6 in) and decreases in winter, averaging 47 millimetres (1.9 in). Neither São Paulo nor the nearby coast has ever been hit by a tropical cyclone and tornadic activity is uncommon. During late winter, especially August, the city experiences the phenomenon known as "veranico" or "verãozinho" ("little summer"), which consists of hot and dry weather, sometimes reaching temperatures well above 28 °C (82 °F). On the other hand, relatively cool days during summer are fairly common when persistent winds blow from the ocean. On such occasions daily high temperatures may not surpass 20 °C (68 °F), accompanied by lows often below 15 °C (59 °F), however, summer can be extremely hot when a heat wave hits the city followed by temperatures around 34 °C (93 °F), but in places with greater skyscraper density and less tree cover, the temperature can feel like 39 °C (102 °F), as on Paulista Avenue for example. In the summer of 2012, São Paulo was affected by a heat wave that lasted for 2 weeks with highs going from 29 to 34 °C (84 to 93 °F) on the hottest days. Secondary to deforestation, groundwater pollution, and climate change, São Paulo is increasingly susceptible to drought and water shortages.[36] Sunny day in the People's Park Due to the altitude of the city, there are only few hot nights in São Paulo even in the summer months, with minimum temperatures rarely exceeding 21 °C (70 °F). In winter, however, the strong inflow of cold fronts accompanied by excessive cloudiness and polar air cause very low temperatures, even in the afternoon. Afternoons with maximum temperatures ranging between 13 and 15 °C (55 and 59 °F) are common even during the fall and early spring. During the winter, there have been several recent records of cold afternoons, as on July 24, 2013 in which the maximum temperature was 8 °C (46 °F) and the wind chill hit 0 °C (32 °F) during the afternoon. São Paulo is known for its rapidly changing weather. Locals say that all four seasons can be experienced in one day. In the morning, when winds blow from the ocean, the weather can be cool or sometimes even cold. When the sun hits its peak, the weather can be extremely dry and hot. When the sun sets, the cold wind comes back bringing cool temperatures. This phenomenon happens usually in the winter. Climate data for São Paulo (1961–1990) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 34.2 (93.6) 34.7 (94.5) 33.5 (92.3) 31.4 (88.5) 29.7 (85.5) 28.6 (83.5) 29.3 (84.7) 33 (91) 35.2 (95.4) 34.5 (94.1) 35.3 (95.5) 33.5 (92.3) 35.3 (95.5) Average high °C (°F) 27.3 (81.1) 28 (82) 27.2 (81) 25.1 (77.2) 23 (73) 21.8 (71.2) 21.8 (71.2) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 24.8 (76.6) 25.9 (78.6) 26.3 (79.3) 24.9 (76.8) Daily mean °C (°F) 22.1 (71.8) 22.4 (72.3) 21.8 (71.2) 19.7 (67.5) 17.4 (63.3) 16.3 (61.3) 15.8 (60.4) 17.1 (62.8) 17.9 (64.2) 19 (66) 20.2 (68.4) 21.1 (70) 19.2 (66.6) Average low °C (°F) 18.7 (65.7) 18.8 (65.8) 18.2 (64.8) 16.3 (61.3) 13.8 (56.8) 12.4 (54.3) 11.7 (53.1) 12.8 (55) 13.9 (57) 15.3 (59.5) 16.6 (61.9) 17.7 (63.9) 15.5 (59.9) Record low °C (°F) 11.9 (53.4) 12.4 (54.3) 12 (54) 6.8 (44.2) 3.7 (38.7) 4.2 (39.6) 0.8 (33.4) 3.4 (38.1) 3.5 (38.3) 7 (45) 7 (45) 10.3 (50.5) 1.5 (34.7) Average rainfall mm (inches) 237.4 (9.346) 221.5 (8.72) 160.5 (6.319) 72.6 (2.858) 71.4 (2.811) 50.1 (1.972) 43.9 (1.728) 39.6 (1.559) 70.7 (2.783) 126.9 (4.996) 145.8 (5.74) 200.7 (7.902) 1,441 (56.73) Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 15 14 11 7 6 4 4 4 7 10 11 14 107 Average relative humidity (%) 80 79 80 80 79 78 77 74 77 79 78 80 78.4 Mean monthly sunshine hours 170.6 162.2 167.1 165.8 182.3 172.6 187.1 175.3 152.6 153.9 163 150.8 2,003.3 Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45] Climate data for São Paulo (Horto Florestal, 1961–1990) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 34.6 (94.3) 35.8 (96.4) 33.4 (92.1) 32 (90) 29.5 (85.1) 29.4 (84.9) 29 (84) 33.2 (91.8) 35.2 (95.4) 34.3 (93.7) 34.6 (94.3) 33.9 (93) 35.8 (96.4) Average high °C (°F) 27 (81) 27.8 (82) 27.3 (81.1) 24.9 (76.8) 23 (73) 22 (72) 22 (72) 23.7 (74.7) 24.5 (76.1) 24.7 (76.5) 25.7 (78.3) 26.3 (79.3) 24.91 (76.9) Daily mean °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 21.6 (70.9) 21.1 (70) 18.8 (65.8) 16.7 (62.1) 15.6 (60.1) 15.1 (59.2) 16.4 (61.5) 17.6 (63.7) 18.5 (65.3) 19.5 (67.1) 20.6 (69.1) 18.56 (65.42) Average low °C (°F) 16.6 (61.9) 16.9 (62.4) 16.3 (61.3) 14.1 (57.4) 11.7 (53.1) 10.5 (50.9) 9.7 (49.5) 10.9 (51.6) 12.4 (54.3) 13.7 (56.7) 14.6 (58.3) 16 (61) 13.62 (56.53) Record low °C (°F) 10.3 (50.5) 11.1 (52) 9.6 (49.3) 3.5 (38.3) 0.2 (32.4) −1.8 (28.8) 0.2 (32.4) 0.4 (32.7) 3 (37) 5.7 (42.3) 7 (45) 9.2 (48.6) −1.8 (28.8) Average rainfall mm (inches) 245.6 (9.669) 243.8 (9.598) 159.2 (6.268) 76 (2.99) 59.7 (2.35) 58.7 (2.311) 53.1 (2.091) 39.9 (1.571) 76.2 (3) 162.7 (6.406) 195.7 (7.705) 220.6 (8.685) 1,591.3 (62.65) Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 16 14 11 7 6 5 5 4 7 11 12 15 113 Average relative humidity (%) 81 80.4 80.3 81.2 80.5 79.2 77.4 74.6 76.2 79.3 79.4 80.4 79.2 Source: Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET).[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45]


Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of São Paulo and Demographics of Brazil Race and ethnicity in São Paulo Ethnicity Percentage White   60.6% Pardo (Multiracial)   30.5% Black   6.5% Asian   2.2% Amerindian   0.2% In 2013, São Paulo was the most populous city in Brazil and in South America.[46] According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 11,244,369 people residing in the city of São Paulo.[47] The census found 6,824,668 White people (60.6%), 3,433,218 Pardo (multiracial) people (30.5%), 736,083 Black people (6.5%), 246,244 Asian people (2.2%) and 21,318 Amerindian people (0.2%).[48] In 2010, the city had 2,146,077 opposite-sex couples and 7,532 same-sex couples. The population of São Paulo was 52.6% female and 47.4% male.[48] Immigration[edit] Main article: Immigration to Brazil Italian immigrants arriving in the city, c. 1890. Brazil has the largest Italian population outside Italy, with São Paulo being the most populous city with Italian ancestry in the world.[49] Arab immigrants in the city of São Paulo, 1940s The Liberdade district is a Japantown of São Paulo. São Paulo is considered the most multicultural city in Brazil. Since 1870 to 2010, approximately 2.3 million immigrants arrived in the state, from all parts of the world. The Italian community is one of the strongest, with a presence throughout the city. Of the ten million inhabitants of São Paulo, 60% (six million people) have full or partial Italian ancestry. São Paulo has more descendants of Italians than any other Italian city (the largest city of Italy is Rome, with 2.5 million inhabitants).[50] Even today, Italians are grouped in neighborhoods like Bixiga, Bras and Mooca to promote celebrations and festivals. In the early twentieth century, the Italian and the dialects were spoken as much as the Portuguese in the city, which influenced the formation of the São Paulo dialect of today. Six thousand pizzerias are producing about a million pizzas a day. The Portuguese community is also large, and it is estimated that three million paulistanos have some origin in Portugal. The Jewish colony is more than 60,000 people in São Paulo and is concentrated mainly in Higienópolis and Bom Retiro. From the nineteenth century through the first half of the twentieth century, São Paulo also received German immigrants (in the current neighborhood of Santo Amaro), Spanish and Lithuanian (in the neighborhood Vila Zelina).[51] São Paulo is not only home to the largest Japanese diaspora – over 1.5 million Japanese descendants live in São Paulo – but it also has over 600 Japanese restaurants (20% more than "churrascarias" – Brazilian steakhouses) where more than 12 millions sushis are sold every month. São Paulo City in 1886 Immigrants Percentage of immigrants in foreign born population[52] Italians 47.9% Portuguese 29.3% Germans 9.9% Spaniards 3.2% A French observer, travelling to São Paulo at the time, noted that there was a division of the capitalist class, by nationality (...) Germans, French and Italians shared the dry goods sector with Brazilians. Foodstuffs was generally the province of either Portuguese or Brazilians, except for bakery and pastry which was the domain of the French and Germans. Shoes and tinware were mostly controlled by Italians. However, the larger metallurgical plants were in the hands of the English and the Americans. (...) Italians outnumbered Brazilians two to one in São Paulo.[53] Until 1920, 1,078,437 Italians entered in the State of São Paulo. Of the immigrants who arrived there between 1887 and 1902, 63.5% came from Italy. Between 1888 and 1919, 44.7% of the immigrants were Italians, 19.2% were Spaniards and 15.4% were Portuguese.[54] In 1920, nearly 80% of São Paulo city's population was composed of immigrants and their descendants and Italians made up over half of its male population.[54] At that time, the Governor of São Paulo said that "if the owner of each house in São Paulo display the flag of the country of origin on the roof, from above São Paulo would look like an Italian city". In 1900, a columnist who was absent from São Paulo for 20 years wrote "then São Paulo used to be a genuine Paulista city, today it is an Italian city."[54] São Paulo City Year Italians Percentage of the city[54] 1886 5,717 13% 1893 45,457 35% 1900 75,000 31% 1910 130,000 33% 1916 187,540 37% Research conducted by the University of São Paulo (USP) shows the city's high ethnic diversity: when asked if they are "descendants of foreign immigrants", 81% of the students reported "yes". The main reported ancestries were: Italian (30.5%), Portuguese (23%), Spanish (14%), Japanese (8%), German (5.6%), Brazilian (4.3%), African (2.8%), Arab (2.4%) and Jewish (1.2%).[55] Domestic migration[edit] Since the 19th century people began migrating from northeastern Brazil into São Paulo. This migration grew enormously in the 1930s and remained huge in the next decades. The concentration of land, modernization in rural areas, changes in work relationships and cycles of droughts stimulated migration. Northeastern migrants live mainly in hazardous and unhealthy areas of the city, in cortiços, in slums (favelas) of the metropolis, because they offer cheaper housing. The largest concentration of northeastern migrants was found in the area of Sé/Brás (districts of Brás, Bom Retiro, Cambuci, Pari and Sé). In this area they composed 41% of the population.[56] Panoramic view of Central Zone of São Paulo from Altino Arantes Building [57] The main groups, considering all the metropolitan area, are: 6 million people of Italian descent,[58] 3 million people of Portuguese descent,[59] 1.7 million people of African descent,[60] 1 million people of Arab descent,[61] 665,000 people of Japanese descent,[61] 400,000 people of German descent,[61] 250,000 people of French descent,[61] 150,000 people of Greek descent,[61] 120,000 people of Chinese descent,[61] 120,000–300,000 Bolivian immigrants,[62] 50,000 people of Korean descent,[63] and 40,000 Jews.[64] São Paulo is also receiving waves of immigration from Haiti and from many countries of Africa. Those immigrants are mainly concentrated in Praca da Sé, Glicério and Vale do Anhangabaú [central zone of the city]. Haitians are a group in the city. African immigrants are also a growing group in the city and metropolitan area. Changing demographics of the city of São Paulo Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.[65] Religion[edit] São Paulo Cathedral in Downtown São Paulo Main article: Religion in Brazil Like the cultural variety verifiable in São Paulo, there are several religious manifestations present in the city. Although it has developed on an eminently Catholic social matrix, both due to colonization and immigration – and even today most of the people of São Paulo declare themselves Catholic – it is possible to find in the city dozens of different Protestant denominations, as well as the practice of Islam, Spiritism, among others. Buddhism and Eastern religions also have relevance among the beliefs most practiced by Paulistas. It is estimated that there are more than one hundred thousand Buddhist followers and Hindu. Also considerable are Judaism, Mormonism and Afro-Brazilian religions. According to data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2010 the population of São Paulo was 6,549,775 Roman Catholics (58.2%), 2,887,810 Protestants (22.11%), 531,822 Spiritists (4.73 percent), 101 493 Jehovah's Witnesses (0.9 percent), 75 075 Buddhists (0.66 percent), 50 794 Umbandists (0.45 percent), 43 610 Jews (0.39 percent), 28 673 Catholic Apostolic Brazilians (0.25%), 25,583 eastern religious (0.23%), 18,058 candomblecists (0.16%), 17 321 Mormons (0.15%), 14 894 Orthodox Catholics (0.13%), 9 119 spiritualists (0.08%), 8 277 Muslims (0.07%), 7 139 esoteric (0.06%), 1 829 practiced Indian traditions (0.02%) and 1 008 were Hindu (0.01%). Others 1 056 008 had no religion (9.38%), 149 628 followed other Christian religiosities (1.33%), 55 978 had an undetermined religion or multiple belonging (0.5%), 14 127 did not know (0.13%) And 1,896 reported following other religiosities (0.02%). Temple of Solomon of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God. Metropolitan Orthodox Cathedral of São Paulo. The Catholic Church divides the territory of the municipality of São Paulo into four ecclesiastical circumscriptions: the Archdiocese of São Paulo, the Diocese of Santo Amaro, the Diocese of São Miguel Paulista and the Diocese of Campo Limpo, the last three suffragans of the first. The archive of the archdiocese, called the Metropolitan Archival Dom Duarte Leopoldo e Silva, located in the Ipiranga neighborhood, holds one of the most important documentary heritage in Brazil. The archiepiscopal is the Metropolitan Cathedral of São Paulo (known as Sé Cathedral), located in Praça da Sé, considered one of the five largest Gothic temples in the world. The Catholic Church recognizes as patron saints of the city Saint Paul of Tarsus and Our Lady of Penha of France. The city has the most diverse Protestant or Reformed creeds, such as the Evangelical Community of Our Land, Maranatha Christian Church, Lutheran Church, Presbyterian Church, Methodist Church, Anglican Episcopal Church, Baptist churches, Assembly Church of God, The Seventh-day Adventist Church, the World Church of God's Power, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, the Christian Congregation in Brazil, among others, as well as Christians of various denominations. Source: IBGE 2010.[66] Public security[edit] Training of soldiers of the Military Police of São Paulo State at the Military Police Academy of Barro Branco. According to the 2011 Global Homicide Survey released by the United Nations, in the period between 2004 and 2009 the homicide rate dropped from 20.8 to 10.8 murders per 100,000 inhabitants. The UN pointed to São Paulo as an example of how big cities can reduce crime. Crime rates, such as homicide, have been steadily declining for 8 years. The number of murders in 2007 was 63% lower than in 1999. Carandiru's 9th DP is considered one of the five best police stations in the world and the best in Latin America. In 2008, the city of São Paulo ranked 493th in the list of the most violent cities in Brazil. Among the capitals, it was the fourth less violent, registering, in 2006, homicide rates higher than those of Boa Vista, Palmas and Natal. In a survey on the Adolescent Homicide Index (IHA), released in 2009, São Paulo ranked 151st among 267 cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. In November 2009, the Ministry of Justice and the Brazilian Forum of Public Security published a survey that pointed to São Paulo as the safest Brazilian capital for young people. Between 2000 and 2010, the city of São Paulo reduced its homicide rate by 78%. According to data from the Map of Violence 2011, published by the Sangari Institute and the Ministry of Justice, the city of São Paulo has the lowest homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants among all Brazilian capitals. Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of Brazil Museum of the Portuguese Language. The primary language is Portuguese. The general language from São Paulo General, or Tupi Austral (Southern Tupi), was the Tupi-based trade language of what is now São Vicente, São Paulo, and the upper Tietê River. In the 17th century it was widely spoken in São Paulo and spread to neighboring regions while in Brazil. From 1750 on, following orders from Marquess of Pombal, Portuguese language was introduced through immigration and consequently taught to children in schools. The original Tupi Austral language subsequently lost ground to Portuguese, and eventually became extinct. Due to the large influx of Japanese, German, Spanish, Italian and Arab immigrants etc., the Portuguese idiom spoken in the metropolitan area of São Paulo reflects influences from those languages. The Italian influence in São Paulo accents is evident in the Italian neighborhoods such as Bela Vista, Moóca, Brás and Lapa. Italian mingled with Portuguese and as an old influence, was assimilated or disappeared into spoken language. The local accent with Italian influences became notorious through the songs of Adoniran Barbosa, a Brazilian samba singer born to Italian parents who used to sing using the local accent.[67] Other languages spoken in the city are mainly among the Asian community: the Liberdade neighborhood is home to the largest Japanese population outside Japan. Although today most Japanese-Brazilians speak only Portuguese, some of them are still fluent in Japanese. Some people of Chinese and Korean descent are still able to speak their ancestral languages.[68] In some areas it is still possible to find descendants of immigrants who speak German[69] (especially in the area of Brooklin paulista) and Russian or East European languages (especially in the area of Vila Zelina).[70] In the west zone of São Paulo, specially at Vila Anastácio and Lapa region, there is a Hungarian colony, with three churches (Calvinist, Baptist and Catholic), so on Sundays it is possible to see Hungarians talking to each other on sidewalks. Social challenges[edit] Popular housing in Carandiru neighborhood, São Paulo. Main article: Social issues in Brazil Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been a major economic center in Latin America. During two World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports (from other regions of the state) were critically affected. This led wealthy coffee farmers to invest in industrial activities that turned São Paulo into Brazil's largest industrial hub. Crime rates consistently decreased in the 21st century. The citywide homicide rate was 9.0 in 2011, less than half the 22.3 national rate.[71] Air quality[72] has steadily increased during the modern era. The two major rivers crossing the city, Tietê and Pinheiros, are highly polluted. A major project to clean up these rivers is underway. The Clean City Law or antibillboard, approved in 2007, focused on two main targets: antipublicity and anticommerce. Advertisers estimate that they removed 15,000 billboards and that more than 1,600 signs and 1,300 towering metal panels were dismantled by authorities.[73] São Paulo metropolitan region, adopted vehicle restrictions from 1996 to 1998 to reduce air pollution during wintertime. Since 1997, a similar project was implemented throughout the year in the central area of São Paulo to improve traffic.[74]


Government[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) See also: List of Mayors of São Paulo João Doria, the mayor of São Paulo. As the capital of the state of São Paulo, the city is home to the Bandeirantes Palace (State Government) and the Legislative Assembly. The Executive Branch of the municipality of São Paulo is represented by the mayor and his cabinet of secretaries, following the model proposed by the Federal Constitution. The organic law of the municipality and the current Master Plan of the city, however, determine that the public administration must guarantee to the population effective tools of manifestation of participatory democracy, which causes that the city is divided in regional prefectures, each one led by a Regional Mayor appointed by the Mayor. The Legislative Power is represented by the Municipal Chamber, composed of 55 aldermen elected to four-year posts (in compliance with the provisions of Article 29 of the Constitution, which governs a minimum number of 42 and a maximum of 55 for municipalities with more than five million inhabitants). It is up to the house to draft and vote fundamental laws to the administration and to the Executive, especially the municipal budget (well-known like Law of Budgetary Guidelines). In addition to the legislative process and the work of the secretariats, there are also a number of municipal councils, each dealing with different topics, composed of representatives of the various sectors of organized civil society. The actual performance and representativeness of such councils, however, are sometimes questioned. Matarazzo Building, the São Paulo city hall. View of Praça da Bandeira and the entrance of the Anhangabaú Tunnel, in the Center, with the Anchieta Palace in the background, the seat of Municipal Chamber of São Paulo The following municipal councils are currently active: Municipal Council for Children and Adolescents (CMDCA); of Informatics (WCC); of the Physically Disabled (CMDP); Education (CME); of Housing (CMH); Environment (CADES); of Health (CMS); of Tourism (COMTUR); Human Rights (CMDH); of Culture (CMC); Social Assistance (COMAS) and Drugs and Alcohol (COMUDA). It also belongs to the Prefecture (or is this majority partner in its social capital) a series of companies responsible for various aspects of public services and the economy of São Paulo: São Paulo Turismo S/A (SPTuris): company responsible for organizing large events and promoting the city's tourism. Comapanhia de Engenharia de Tráfego (TSC): subordinated to the Municipal Transportation Department, is responsible for traffic supervision, fines (in cooperation with DETRAN) and maintenance of the city's road system. Companhia Metropolitana de Habitação de São Paulo (COHAB): subordinate to the Department of Housing, is responsible for the implementation of public housing policies, especially the construction of housing developments. Empresa Municipal de Urbanização de São Paulo (EMURB): subordinate to the Planning Department, is responsible for urban works and for the maintenance of public spaces and urban furniture. Companhia de Processamento de Dados de São Paulo (PRODAM): responsible for the electronic infrastructure and information technology of the city hall. São Paulo Transportes Sociedade Anônima (SPTrans): responsible for the operation of the public transport systems managed by the city hall, such as the municipal bus lines. Subdivisions[edit] São Paulo is divided into 32 regional prefectures, each one with a regional administration ("prefeitura regional") divided into several districts ("distritos").[75] The city also has a radial division into nine zones for purpose of traffic control and bus lines, which don't fit into the administrative divisions. These zones are identified by colors in the street signs. The historical core of São Paulo, which includes the inner city and the area of Paulista Avenue, are in the Regional Prefecture of Sé. Most of other economic and tourist facilities of the city are inside an area officially called Centro Expandido (Portuguese for "Broad Centre", or "Broad Downtown"), which includes Sé and several other regional prefectures, and in areas immediately located around it. Subprefectures of São Paulo[76]   Subprefecture Area Population     Subprefecture Area Population 1 Aricanduva/Vila Formosa 21.5 km² 266 838 17 Mooca 35.2 km² 305 436 2 Butantã 56.1 km² 345 943 18 Parelheiros 353.5 km² 110 909 3 Campo Limpo 36.7 km² 508 607 19 Penha 42.8 km² 472 247 4 Capela do Socorro 134.2 km² 561 071 20 Perus 57.2 km² 109 218 5 Casa Verde/Cachoeirinha 26.7 km² 313 176 21 Pinheiros 31.7 km² 270 798 6 Cidade Ademar 30.7 km² 370 759 22 Pirituba/Jaraguá 54.7 km² 390 083 7 Cidade Tiradentes 15 km² 248 762 23 Sé 26.2 km² 373 160 8 Ermelino Matarazzo 15.1 km² 204 315 24 Santana/Tucuruvi 34.7 km² 327 279 9 Freguesia do Ó/Brasilândia 31.5 km² 391 403 25 Jaçanã/Tremembé 64.1 km² 255 435 10 Guaianases 17.8 km² 283 162 26 Santo Amaro 37.5 km² 217 280 11 Ipiranga 37.5 km² 427 585 27 São Mateus 45.8 km² 422 199 12 Itaim Paulista 21.7 km² 358 888 28 São Miguel Paulista 24.3 km² 377 540 13 Itaquera 54.3 km² 488 327 29 Sapopemba 13.4 km² 296 042 14 Jabaquara 14.1 km² 214 200 30 Vila Maria/Vila Guilherme 26.4 km² 302 899 15 Lapa 40.1 km² 270 102 31 Vila Mariana 26.5 km² 311 019 16 M'Boi Mirim 62.1 km² 523 138 32 Vila Prudente 33.3 km² 480 823 International relations[edit] Main article: Sister cities of São Paulo See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Brazil Twin towns – Sister cities São Paulo is twinned with:[77][78] Abidjan, Ivory Coast Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Algiers, Algeria Amman, Jordan[77] Asunción, Paraguay[77] Bamako, Mali Barcelona, Spain Beijing, China[77] Beirut, Lebanon Bucharest, Romania[77] Buenos Aires, Argentina[77] Chicago, United States[77] Cluj-Napoca, Romania[77] Coimbra, Portugal[77] Córdoba, Spain[77] Damascus, Syria[77] Funchal, Portugal[77] Góis, Portugal[77] Hamburg, Germany[77] Havana, Cuba[77] La Paz, Bolivia[77] La Plata, Argentina Leiria, Portugal[77] Lima, Peru[77] Lisbon, Portugal[77][79][80] Luanda, Angola[77] Macau, China[77] Mendoza, Argentina[77] Miami-Dade, United States[81] Milan, Italy[77] Montevideo, Uruguay[77] Naha, Japan[77] Ningbo, China[77] Osaka, Japan[77] Presidente Franco, Paraguay San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain San José, Costa Rica, Costa Rica Santiago, Chile[77] Santiago de Compostela, Spain[77] Seoul, South Korea[77][82][83] Shanghai, China Tel Aviv, Israel[77] Toronto, Ontario, Canada[77] Torreón, México Yerevan, Armenia[77][84] Partner cities São Paulo has the following partner cities: Berlin, Germany Cairo, Egypt Caracas, Venezuela Johannesburg, South Africa Mexico City, Mexico Moscow, Russia New York City, United States Paris, France


Economy[edit] São Paulo Stock Exchange Paulista Avenue at night Commercial buildings in Brooklin Novo, featured the Octávio Frias de Oliveira Bridge and the Centro Empresarial Nações Unidas (background) Brigadeiro Faria Lima Avenue Main articles: Economy of São Paulo and Economy of Brazil São Paulo is considered the "financial capital of Brazil", as it is the location for the headquarters of major corporations and of banks and financial institutions. São Paulo is Brazil's highest GDP city and the 10th largest in the world,[85] using Purchasing power parity.[86] According to data of IBGE, its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 was R$450 billion,[87] approximately US$220 billion, 12.26% of Brazilian GDP and 36% of all production of goods and services of the State of São Paulo.[88] According to PricewaterhouseCoopers average annual economic growth of the city is 4.2%.[89] São Paulo also has a large "informal" economy.[90] In 2005, the city of São Paulo collected R$90 billion in taxes and the city budget was R$15 billion. The city has 1,500 bank branches and 70 shopping malls.[91] As of 2014[update], São Paulo is the third largest exporting municipality in Brazil after Parauapebas, PA and Rio de Janeiro, RJ. In that year São Paulo's exported goods totaled $7.32B (USD) or 3.02% of Brazil's total exports. The top five commodities exported by São Paulo are soybean (21%), raw sugar (19%), coffee (6.5%), sulfate chemical wood pulp (5.6%), and corn (4.4%).[92] The São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) is Brazil's official stock and bond exchange. It is the largest stock exchange in Latin America, trading about R$6 billion (US$3.5 billion) every day.[93] São Paulo's economy is going through a deep transformation. Once a city with a strong industrial character, São Paulo's economy has followed the global trend of shifting to the tertiary sector of the economy, focusing on services. The city is unique among Brazilian cities for its large number of foreign corporations.[94] 63% of all the international companies with business in Brazil have their head offices in São Paulo. São Paulo has the largest concentration of German businesses worldwide[95] and is the largest Swedish industrial hub alongside Gothenburg.[96] São Paulo ranked second after New York in FDi magazine's bi-annual ranking of Cities of the Future 2013/14 in the Americas, and was named the Latin American City of the Future 2013/14, overtaking Santiago de Chile, the first city in the previous ranking. Santiago now ranks second, followed by Rio de Janeiro.[97] The per capita income for the city was R$32,493 in 2008.[98] According to Mercer's 2011 city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, São Paulo is now among the ten most expensive cities in the world, ranking 10th in 2011, up from 21st in 2010 and ahead of London, Paris, Milan and New York City.[99][100] Science and technology[edit] Oscar Freire Street in the Jardins neighbourhood, voted the eighth most luxurious street in the world.[101] Main article: Brazilian science and technology The city of São Paulo is home to research and development facilities and attracts companies due to the presence of regionally renowned universities. Science, technology and innovation is leveraged by the allocation of funds from the state government, mainly carried out by means of the Foundation to Research Support in the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP), one of the main agencies promoting scientific and technological research.[102] Luxury goods[edit] Luxury brands tend to concentrate their business in São Paulo. Because of the lack of department stores and multi-brand boutiques, shopping malls as well as the Jardins district, which is more or less the Brazilian's Rodeo Drive version, attract most of the world's luxurious brands. Most of the international luxury brands can be found in the Iguatemi, Cidade Jardim or JK shopping malls or on the streets of Oscar Freire, Lorena or Haddock Lobo in the Jardins district. They are home of brands such as Cartier, Chanel, Dior, Giorgio Armani, Gucci, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs, Tiffany & Co. Cidade Jardim was opened in São Paulo in 2008, it is a 45,000-square-metre (484,376-square-foot) mall, landscaped with trees and greenery scenario, with a focus on Brazilian brands but also home to international luxury brands such as Hermès, Jimmy Choo, Pucci and Carolina Herrera. Opened in 2012, JK shopping mall has brought to Brazil brands that were not present in the country before such as Goyard, Tory Burch, Llc., Prada, and Miu Miu.[103] The Iguatemi Faria Lima, in Faria Lima Avenue, is Brazil's oldest mall, opened in 1966.[104] The Jardins neighborhood is regarded among the most sophisticated places in town, with upscale restaurants and hotels. The New York Times once compared Oscar Freire Street to Rodeo Drive.[105] In Jardins there are luxury car dealers. One of the world's best restaurants as elected by The World's 50 Best Restaurants Award, D.O.M.,[106] is located there. Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Brazil Municipal Market of São Paulo São Paulo Art Biennial. The second oldest art biennial in the world after the Venice Biennial. Large hotel chains whose target audience is the corporate traveller are in the city. São Paulo is the home of the 75% of the main business fairs of the country. The city also promotes one of the most important fashion weeks in the world, São Paulo Fashion Week, established in 1996 under the name Morumbi Fashion Brasil, is the largest and most important fashion event in Latin America.[107] Besides, the São Paulo Gay Pride Parade, held since 1997 on Paulista Avenue is the event that attracts more tourists to the city.[108] In addition, São Paulo hosts the annual São Paulo Pancake Cook-Off in which chefs from across Brazil and the world participate in competitions based on the cooking of pancakes.[109] Cultural tourism also has relevance to the city, especially when taking into view the international events that take place in the metropolis, such as the São Paulo Art Biennial, that attracted almost 1 million people in 2004.[110] The city has a nightlife that is considered one of the best in the country. There are cinemas, theaters, museums and cultural centers. The Rua Oscar Freire was named one of the eight most luxurious streets in the world, according to the Mystery Shopping International,[111] and São Paulo the 25th "most expensive city" of the planet.[112] According to the International Congress & Convention Association, São Paulo ranks first among the cities that host international events in Americas and the 12th in the world, after the Vienna, Paris, Barcelona, Singapore, Berlin, Budapest, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Seoul, Lisbon and Copenhague.[113] According to a study by MasterCard in 130 cities around the world, São Paulo was the third most visited destination in Latin America (behind Mexico City and Buenos Aires) with 2.4 million foreign travelers, who spent US$2.9 billion in 2013 (the highest among the cities in the region). In 2014, CNN ranked nightlife São Paulo as the fourth best in the world, behind New York City, Berlin and Ibiza, in Spain.[114] The cuisine of the region is a tourist attraction. The city has 62 cuisines across 12,000 restaurants.[115] During the 10th International Congress of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Tourism (Cihat) conducted in 1997, the city received the title of "World Gastronomy Capital" from a commission formed by representatives of 43 nations.[116] Ibirapuera Park panorama


Urban infrastructure[edit] Octávio Frias de Oliveira Bridge aside of Centro Empresarial Nações Unidas. Martinelli Building was the first skyscraper of Latin America and the tallest until 1947. Since the beginning of the 20th century, São Paulo has been one of the main economic center of Latin America. With the First and Second World Wars and the Great Depression, coffee exports to the United States and Europe were heavily affected, forcing the rich coffee growers to invest in the industrial activities that would make São Paulo the largest industrial center in Brazil. The new job vacancies contributed to attract a significant number of immigrants (mainly from Italy)[117] and migrants, especially from the Northeastern states.[118] From a population of only 32.000 people in 1880, São Paulo now has 8.5 million inhabitants in 1980. The rapid population growth has brought many problems for the city. São Paulo is practically all served by the water supply network. The city consumes an average of 221 liters of water/inhabitant/day while the UN recommends the consumption of 110 liters/day. The water loss is 30.8%. However, between 11 and 12.8% of households do not have a sewage system, depositing waste in pits and ditches. Sixty percent of the sewage collected is treated. According to data from IBGE and Eletropaulo, the electricity grid serves almost 100% of households. The fixed telephony network is still precarious, with coverage of 67.2%. Household garbage collection covers all regions of the municipality but is still insufficient, reaching around 94% of the demand in districts such as Parelheiros and Perus. About 80% of the garbage produced daily by Paulistas is exported to other cities, such as Caieiras and Guarulhos.[119] Recycling accounts for about 1% of the 15,000 tonnes of waste produced daily.[119] Urban fabrics[edit] São Paulo has a myriad of urban fabrics. The original nuclei of the city are vertical, characterized by the presence of commercial buildings and services; And the peripheries are generally developed with two to four-story buildings - although such generalization certainly meets with exceptions in the fabric of the metropolis. Compared to other global cities (such as the island cities of New York City and Hong Kong), however, São Paulo is considered a "low-rise building" city. Its tallest buildings rarely reach forty stories, and the average residential building is twenty. Nevertheless, it is the fourth city in the world in quantity of buildings, according to the page specialized in research of data on buildings Emporis Buildings,[120] besides possessing what was considered until 2014 the tallest skyscraper of the country, the Mirante do Vale, also known as Palácio Zarzur Kogan, with 170 meters of height and 51 floors.[121] Such tissue heterogeneity, however, is not as predictable as the generic model can make us imagine. Some central regions of the city began to concentrate indigents, drug trafficking, street vending and prostitution, which encouraged the creation of new socio-economic centralities. The characterization of each region of the city also underwent several changes throughout the 20th century. With the relocation of industries to other cities or states, several areas that once housed factory sheds have become commercial or even residential areas.[122] The constant change of the landscape of São Paulo due to the technological changes of its buildings has been a striking feature of the city, pointed out by scholars. In a period of a century, between the middle of 1870 and 1970 the city of São Paulo was "practically demolished and rebuilt at least three times". These three periods are characterized by the typical constructive processes of their times. Urban planning[edit] Changes in urban fabrics in the region of Pacaembu neighborhood: side by side, vertical areas and low houses The city view from Altino Arantes Building Vale do Anhangabaú, in Downtown São Paulo has a history of actions, projects and plans related to urban planning that can be traced to the governments of Antonio da Silva Prado, Baron Duprat, Washington and Luis Francisco Prestes Maia. However, in general, the city was formed during the 20th century, growing from village to metropolis through a series of informal processes and irregular urban sprawl.[123] Urban growth in São Paulo has followed three patterns since the beginning of the 20th century, according to urban historians: since the late 19th Century and until the 1940s, São Paulo was a condensed city in which different social groups lived in a small urban zone separated by type of housing; from the 1940s to the 1980s, São Paulo followed a model of center-periphery social segregation, in which the upper and middle-classes occupied central and modern areas while the poor moved towards precarious, self-built housing in the periphery; and from the 1980s onward, new transformations have brought the social classes closer together in spatial terms, but separated by walls and security technologies that seek to isolate the richer classes in the name of security.[124] Thus, São Paulo differs considerably from other Brazilian cities such as Belo Horizonte and Goiânia, whose initial expansion followed determinations by a plan, or a city like Brasília, whose master plan had been fully developed prior to construction.[125] The effectiveness of these plans has been seen by some planners and historians as questionable. Some of these scholars argue that such plans were produced exclusively for the benefit of the wealthier strata of the population while the working classes would be relegated to the traditional informal processes. In São Paulo until the mid-1950s, the plans were based on the idea of "demolish and rebuild", including former Mayor Prestes Maia São Paulo's road plan (known as the Avenues Plan) or Saturnino de Brito's plan for the Tietê River. The Plan of the Avenues was implemented during the 1920s and sought to build large avenues connecting the city center with the outskirts. This plan included renewing the commercial city center, leading to real estate speculation and gentrification of several downtown neighborhoods . The plan also led to the expansion of bus services, which would soon replace the trolley as the preliminary transportation system.[126] This contributed to the outwards expansion of São Paulo and the peripherization of poorer residents. Peripheral neighborhoods were usually unregulated and consisted mainly of self-built single-family houses.[124] In 1968 the Urban Development Plan proposed the Basic Plan for Integrated Development of São Paulo, under the administration of Figueiredo Ferraz. The main result was zoning laws. It lasted until 2004 when the Basic Plan was replaced by the current Master Plan.[127] That zoning, adopted in 1972, designated "Z1" areas (residential areas designed for elites) and "Z3" (a "mixed zone" lacking clear definitions about their characteristics). Zoning encouraged the growth of suburbs with minimal control and major speculation.[128] After the 1970s peripheral lot regulation increased and infrastructure in the periphery improved, driving land prices up. The poorest and the newcomers were now unable to purchase their lot and build their house, and were forced to look for a housing alternative. As a result, favelas and precarious tenements (cortiços) appeared.[129] These housing types were often located closer to the center of the city: favelas could sprawl in any terrain that had not previously been utilized (often dangerous or unsanitary) and decaying or abandoned buildings for tenements were abundant inside the city. Favelas went back into the urban perimeter, occupying the small lots that had not yet been occupied by urbanization—alongside polluted rivers, railways, or between bridges.[130] By 1993, 19.8% of São Paulo's population lived in favelas, compared to 5.2% in 1980.[131] Today, 2.1 million Paulistas live in favelas, while this only represents 11% of the total population.[132] Panoramic view of the city at night from Ibirapuera Park


Education[edit] Main article: Education in Brazil The Law School of the University of São Paulo Rectory of the São Paulo State University "George Alexander" Central Library at the Mackenzie Presbyterian University São Paulo has public and private primary and secondary schools and vocational-technical schools. More than nine-tenths of the population are literate and roughly the same proportion of those age 7 to 14 are enrolled in school. There are 578 universities in the state of São Paulo.[133] Educational institutions[edit] The universities and colleges include: Universidade de São Paulo (USP) (University of São Paulo); Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa (Insper-SP) (Insper Institute of Education and Research); INPG Business School; Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing - ESPM) (Superior School of Advertising and Marketing) Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (MACKENZIE-SP) (Mackenzie Presbyterian University) Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP) (Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo) Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo (IFSP) (São Paulo Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology); Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (Unesp) (São Paulo State University Júlio de Mesquita Filho); Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC) (São Paulo Technological College); Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP) (Federal University of São Paulo); Centro Universitário Belas Artes de São Paulo(University of Fine Arts of São Paulo); Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes (UMC) (University of Mogi das Cruzes); Universidade Paulista (UNIP) (Paulista University); Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT) (São Judas Tadeu University/"São Judas University"); Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM-SP) (Superior School of Advertising and Marketing); Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV-SP) (Getúlio Vargas Foundation); Fundação Escola de Comércio Álvares Penteado (FECAP) (School of Commerce Alvares Penteado Foundation); Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado (FAAP) (Armando Alvares Penteado Foundation); Universidade Anhembi Morumbi (Anhembi Morumbi University); Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU) (UMC, United Metropolitan Colleges); Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (Ibmec-SP) (Brazilian Capital Market Institute); Faculdade de Comunicação Social Cásper Líbero (Cásper Líbero Social Communication College); Faculdade Santa Marcelina (FASM) (Santa Marcelina College) Universidade de Santo Amaro (Unisa) e Faculdade de Medicina de Santo Amaro (OSEC)


Health care[edit] Institute of Cancer of São Paulo Albert Einstein Hospital Main articles: Health in Brazil and Rede São Paulo Saudável São Paulo is one of the largest health care hubs in Latin America. Among its hospitals are the Albert Einstein Israelites Hospital, ranked among the best in Latin America[citation needed] and the Hospital das Clínicas, the largest in the region. The private health care sector is very large and most of Brazil's best hospitals are located in the city. As of September 2009, the city of São Paulo had:[134] 32,553 ambulatory clinics, centers and professional offices (physicians, dentists and others); 217 hospitals, with 32,554 beds; 137,745 health care professionals, including 28,316 physicians. Municipal health[edit] The municipal government operates public health facilities across the city's territory, with 770 primary health care units (UBS), ambulatory and emergency clinics and 17 hospitals. The Municipal Secretary of Health has 59,000 employees, including 8,000 physicians and 12,000 nurses. 6,000,000 citizens uses the facilities, which provide drugs at no cost and manage an extensive family health program (PSF – Programa de Saúde da Família). The Rede São Paulo Saudável (Healthy São Paulo Network) is a satellite-based digital TV corporate channel, developed by the Municipal Health Secretary of São Paulo, bringing programs focused on health promotion and health education, which may be watched by citizens seeking health care in its units in the city. The network consists of two studios and a system for transmission of closed digital video in high definition via satellite, with about 1,400 points of reception in all health care units of the municipality of São Paulo.


Transport[edit] Marginal Tietê Marginal Pinheiros Mario Covas Beltway Main articles: Transport in São Paulo and Transport in Brazil Automobiles are the main means to get into the city. In March 2011, more than 7 million vehicles were registered.[135] Heavy traffic is common on the city's main avenues and traffic jams are relatively common on its highways. Highways[edit] The city is crossed by 10 major motorways: Rodovia Presidente Dutra/BR-116 (President Dutra Highway) – connects São Paulo to the east and north-east of the country. Most important connection: Rio de Janeiro. Rodovia Régis Bittencourt/BR-116 (Régis Bittencourt Highway) – connects São Paulo to the south of the country. Most important connections: Curitiba and Porto Alegre. Rodovia Fernão Dias/BR-381 (Fernão Dias Highway) – Connects São Paulo to the north of the country. Most important connection: Belo Horizonte. Rodovia Anchieta/SP-150 (Anchieta Highway) – connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for cargo transportation to Santos Port. Most important connection: Santos. Rodovia dos Imigrantes/SP-150 (Immigrants Highway) – connects São Paulo to the ocean coast. Mainly used for tourism. Most important connections: Santos, São Vicente, Guarujá and Praia Grande. Rodovia Castelo Branco/SP-280 (President Castelo Branco Highway) – connects São Paulo to the west and north-west of the country. Most important connections: Osasco, Sorocaba, Bauru, Jaú, Araçatuba and Campo Grande. Rodovia Raposo Tavares/SP-270 (Raposo Tavares Highway) – connects São Paulo to the west of the country. Most important connections: Cotia, Sorocaba, Presidente Prudente. Rodovia Anhangüera/SP-330 (Anhanguera Highway) – connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country, including its capital city. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto and Brasília. Rodovia dos Bandeirantes/SP-348 (Bandeirantes Highway) – connects São Paulo to the north-west of the country. It is considered the best motorway of Brazil. Most important connections: Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, Piracicaba and São José do Rio Preto. Rodovia Ayrton Senna/SP-70 (Ayrton Senna Highway) – named after Brazilian legendary Formula One driver Ayrton Senna, the motorway connects São Paulo to east locations of the state, as well as the north coast of the state. Most important connections: São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, São José dos Campos and Caraguatatuba. Rodoanel[edit] Main article: Rodoanel Mário Covas Rodoanel Mário Covas (official designation SP-021) is the beltway of the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. Upon its completion, it will have a length of 177 km (110 mi), with a radius of approximately 23 km (14 mi) from the geographical center of the city. It was named after Mário Covas, who was mayor of the city of São Paulo (1983–1985) and a state governor (1994-1998/1998-2001) until his death from cancer. It is a controlled access highway with a speed limit of 100 km/h (62 mph) under normal weather and traffic circumstances. Currently, the west, south and east parts were completed, and the north part, which will close the beltway, is due to 2018.[136] and is being built by DERSA.[137] Airports[edit] The Congonhas Airport serves domestic flights. São Paulo has two main airports, São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU) for international flights and national hub, and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport (IATA: CGH) for domestic and regional flights. Another airport, the Campo de Marte Airport, serves private jets and light aircraft. The three airports together moved more than 58.000.000 passengers in 2015, making São Paulo one of the top 15 busiest in the world, by number of air passenger movements. The region of Greater São Paulo is also served by Viracopos-Campinas International Airport, São José dos Campos Airport and Jundiaí Airport. Congonhas Airport operates flights mainly to Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte and Brasília. In the latest upgrade, twelve boarding bridges were installed to provide more comfort to passengers by eliminating the need to walk in the open to their flights. The terminal area was expanded from 37.3 thousand square metres (0.4 million square feet) to over 70 thousand square metres (0.75 million square feet). This expansion raised capacity to almost 18 million users. Built in the 1930s, it was designed to handle the increasing demand for flights, in the fastest growing city in the world. Located in Campo Belo District, Congonhas Airport is close to the three main city's financial districts: Paulista Avenue, Brigadeiro Faria Lima Avenue and Engenheiro Luís Carlos Berrini Avenue. São Paulo–Guarulhos International, also known as "Cumbica" is 25 km (16 mi) north-east of the city center, in the neighbouring city of Guarulhos. Every day nearly 110.000 people pass through the airport, which connects Brazil to 36 countries around the world. 370 companies operate there, generating more than 53.000 jobs. With capacity to serve 42 million passengers a year, in three terminals, the airport currently handles 40 million users. São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport is the second largest airport in Latin America and Southern Hemisphere.[138] Construction of a third passenger terminal was completed in time to the 2014 World Cup, and raised yearly capacity to 42 million passengers. The project is part of the airport's master plan, which will raise, by the end of 2032, the airport capacity to nearly 60 million passengers. São Paulo International Airport is also the main air cargo hubs in Brazil. The roughly 150 flights a day carry everything from fruits grown in the São Francisco Valley to locally manufactured medicine and electronics devices. The airport's cargo terminal is South America's largest. In 2015, over 503.675 tons were transported from the airport.[139] Both São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport and Congonhas-São Paulo Airport will be connected to the metropolitan rail system by the end of 2018, with lines Line 13 (CPTM) and Line 17 (São Paulo Metro), respectively. Campo de Marte is located in Santana district, the northern zone of São Paulo. The airport handles private flights and air shuttles, including air taxi firms. Opened in 1935, Campo de Marte is the base for the largest helicopter fleet in Brazil and the world's, ahead of New York and Tokyo, with a fleet of more than 3.500 helicopters. This airport is the home base of the State Civil Police Air Tactical Unit, the State Military Police Radio Patrol Unit and the São Paulo Flying Club.[140] From this airport, passengers can take advantage of some 350 remote helipads and heliports to bypass heavy road traffic.[141] Campo de Marte also hosts the Ventura Goodyear Blimp. Railways[edit] Main article: São Paulo Metropolitan Train Company See also: Rail transport in Brazil Luz Station, a subway-railroad station Train of the CPTM The two major São Paulo railway stations are Luz and Julio Prestes in the Luz/Campos Eliseos region. Luz is the seat of the Santos-Jundiaí line which historically transported international immigrants from the Santos port to São Paulo and the coffee plantation lands in the Western region of Campinas. Julio Prestes connected Southwest São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State to São Paulo. Agricultural products were transferred to Luz Station from which they headed to the Atlantic Ocean and overseas. Julio Prestes stopped transporting passengers through the Sorocabana or FEPASA lines and now only has limited suburban service. Due to its acoustics and interior beauty, surrounded by Greek revival columns, part of the rebuilt station was transformed into the São Paulo Hall. Luz Station was built in Britain and assembled in Brazil. It has an underground station and is still active with east and westbound suburban trains that link São Paulo to the Greater São Paulo region to the East and the Campinas Metropolitan region in Jundiaí in the western part of the State. Luz Station is surrounded by important cultural institutions such as the Pinacoteca do Estado, The Museu de Arte Sacra on Tiradentes Avenue and Jardim da Luz, among others. Although poorly maintained by heavy rail services, a high-speed railway service is proposed to link São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.[142] The trains are projected to reach 280 kilometres per hour (170 mph), taking about 90 minutes. Another important project is the "Expresso Bandeirantes," a medium-speed rail service (about 160 km/h) from São Paulo to Campinas, which would reduce the journey time from 90 minutes by car to about 50 minutes, linking São Paulo, Jundiaí, Campinas Airport and Campinas city center. This service is also to connect to the railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos Airport. Work on an express railway service between São Paulo city center and Guarulhos International Airport were announced by the São Paulo state government in 2007.[143] Metro[edit] Main article: São Paulo Metro Train of the Line 4 of the São Paulo Metro, elected the best metro in the Americas.[144] The monorail line 15 subway São Paulo has three rapid transport systems: the underground rail system São Paulo Metro, called "metrô", with six lines; the suburban rail system Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM), has six lines that serve cities in the metropolitan region, in its 260 kilometers; and the fast-lane bus system, called "Passa Rápido," which are street-level, placed on large avenues and connected with the underground or suburban train stations. The city has 379 kilometres (235 mi) of rail operated by three companies. The São Paulo Metro operates 69.0 km (42.9 mi) of underground railway systems (34.6 km (21.5 mi) fully underground)[145] locally known as the Metrô, with 5 lines in operation and 60 stations. Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos (CPTM, or "Paulista Company of Metropolitan Trains") railway add 260.7 km (162.0 mi). The third company is ViaQuatro, a private concessionaire which operates the Line 4 (São Paulo Metro). The underground and railway lines carry some 7 million people on an average weekday together. The projects would expand São Paulo's urban railway system from the current 322 km (200 mi) to more than 500 km (310 mi), surpassing the London Underground.[146] São Paulo has no tram lines, although trams were common in the first half of the 20th century.[147] São Paulo's underground train system was certified by the NBR ISO 9001. The São Paulo Metro reached the mark of 11.5 million passengers per mile of line,[when?] 15% higher than in 2008, when 10 million users were taken per mile. It is the largest concentration of people in a single transport system in the world, according to the company.[148] Buses[edit] Tietê Bus Terminal, the second largest Bus Terminal in the world, after only PABT in New York City.[149] Trolleybus in São Paulo Main article: Trolleybuses in São Paulo Further information: Expresso Tiradentes Bus transport (government and private) is composed of 17,000 buses (including about 290 trolley buses).[150] The traditional system of informal transport (dab vans) was later reorganized and legalized. São Paulo Tietê Bus Terminal is the second largest bus terminal in the world. It serves localities across the nation, with the exception of the states of Amazonas, Roraima and Amapá. Routes to 1,010 cities in five countries (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay) are available. It connects to all regional airports and a ride sharing automobile service to Santos. The Palmeiras-Barra Funda Intermodal Terminal is much smaller and is connected to the Palmeiras-Barra Funda metro and Palmeiras-Barra Funda CPTM stations. It serves the southwestern cities of Sorocaba, Itapetininga, Itu, Botucatu, Bauru, Marília, Jaú, Avaré, Piraju, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, Ipaussu, Chavantes and Ourinhos (on the border with Paraná State). It also serves São José do Rio Preto, Araçatuba and other small towns located on the northwest of São Paulo State. Helicopter arriving in the São Paulo City Hall Buses to São Paulo coast are available at the Jabaquara metro station, which is the final southbound stop on Line 1 (Blue) of the São Paulo Metro. The Litoral bus terminal serves Mongaguá, Praia Grande, São Vicente and Santos on the South Shore and Guarujá and Bertioga on the North Shore. Buses to North Shore cities such as Maresia, Riviera de São Lourenço, Caraguatatuba, Ubatuba and Paraty, in Rio de Janeiro State must be taken at the Tietê Bus Terminal, at Portuguesa-Tietê metro station on Line 1 (Blue). On October 26, 2013, hundreds of people attacked the bus station in São Paulo, setting fire to a bus and destroying cash and ticket machines. At least six people were arrested in the protests.[151] Helicopters[edit] São Paulo has the largest number of helicopters in the world. The second and third positions are of New York City and Tokyo. With 420 helicopters[152] in 2012 and around 2,000 flights per day within the central area, the city is, according to The Guardian, turning into a "real life South-American episode of The Jetsons".[153] In 2016, the ride-sharing company Uber offered a helicopter service on a test basis for one month, using three existing operators in the city.[154] Helicopters enable businessmen and workers to sharply reduce time spent moving around and commuting. Some companies own their helicopters, others lease them and still others use helicopter taxi services. One suburban helicopter shuttle service, located about 15 miles (24 km) from the center of the city in Tamboré, is operated totally by women, including its pilots.


Culture[edit] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Brazil Sala São Paulo, the home of the São Paulo State Symphony. Adoniran Barbosa was a samba singer and composer who became successful during São Paulo's early radio era. Born in 1912 in the town of Valinhos, Barbosa was known as the "composer to the masses", particularly Italian immigrants living in the quarters of Bela Vista, also known as "Bexiga" and Brás, as well as those who lived in the city's many 'cortiços' or tenements. His songs drew from the life of urban workers, the unemployed and those who lived on the edge. His first big hit was "Saudosa Maloca" ("Shanty of Fond Memories" – 1951), wherein three homeless friends recall with nostalgia their improvised shanty home, which was torn down by the landowner to make room for a building. His 1964 Trem das Onze ("The 11 pm Train"), became one of the five best samba songs ever, the protagonist explains to his lover that he cannot stay any longer because he has to catch the last train to the Jaçanã suburb, for his mother will not sleep before he arrives home. Another important musician with a similar style is Paulo Vanzolini. Vanzolini is a PhD in Biology and a part-time professional musician. He composed a song depicting a love murder scene in São Paulo called "Ronda". Ibirapuera Auditorium. Saint Peter Theatre Credicard Hall In the late 1960s, a psychedelic rock band called Os Mutantes became popular. Their success is related to that of other tropicalia musicians. The group were known as very paulistanos in their behaviour and clothing. Os Mutantes released five albums before lead singer Rita Lee departed in 1972 to join another group called Tutti Frutti. Although initially known only in Brazil, Os Mutantes became successful abroad after the 1990s. In 2000, Tecnicolor, an album recorded in the early 1970s in English by the band, was released with artwork designed by Sean Lennon.[155] In the early 1980s, a band called Ultraje a Rigor (Elegant Outrage) emerged. They played a simple and irreverent style of rock. The lyrics depicted the changes in society and culture that Brazilian society was experiencing. A late punk and garage scene became strong in the 1980s, perhaps associated with the gloomy scenario of unemployment during an extended recession. Bands originating from this movement include Ira!, Titãs, Ratos de Porão and Inocentes. In the 1990s, drum and bass arose as another musical movement in São Paulo, with artists such as DJ Marky, DJ Patife, XRS, Drumagick and Fernanda Porto.[156] Many heavy metal bands also originated in São Paulo, such as Angra, Project46, Torture Squad, Korzus and Dr. Sin. Famous electro-pop band Cansei de Ser Sexy, or CSS (Portuguese for "tired of being sexy") also has its origins in the city. Many of the most important classical Brazilian living composers, such as Amaral Vieira, Osvaldo Lacerda and Edson Zampronha, were born and live in São Paulo. Local baritone Paulo Szot has won international acclaim and a Tony Award nomination for his performance in a 2008 revival of South Pacific. The São Paulo State Symphony is one of the world's outstanding orchestras; their artistic director beginning in 2012 is the noted American conductor Marin Alsop. In 1952, Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote his Symphony Number 10 ('Ameríndia') for the 400th anniversary of São Paulo: an allegorical, historical and religious account of the city told through the eyes of its founder Jose de Anchieta.[157] Music halls and concert halls[edit] São Paulo's opera houses are: São Paulo Municipal Theater, Theatro São Pedro and Alfa Theater, for the symphonic concerts there is the Sala São Paulo, the latter being the headquarters of OSESP, an orchestra. The city hosts several music halls. The main ones are: Citibank Hall, HSBC Music Hall, Olympia, Via Funchal, Villa Country, Kezebre Rock Bar, Arena Anhembi and Espaco das Américas. The Sambadrome hosts musical presentations as well. Other facilities include the new Praça das Artes, with the Municipal Conservatory of Music Chamber Hall and others venues, like, Cultura Artistica, Teatro Sérgio Cardoso with a venue for only dance performances and Herzog & DeMeron's Centro Cultural Luz, for Ballet, Opera, theater and concerts, with three huge halls. The auditorium of the Latin-American Cultural Center, The Mozarteum, holds concerts through the year. Free music festivals[edit] Festivals as the Virada Cultural "Cultural Overnight" happen once a year and holds hundreds of attractions spread throughout the city. 2007 Virada Cultural, in Downtown São Paulo Literature[edit] Mário de Andrade Library Library of São Paulo Cultural Center Main article: Literature of Brazil São Paulo was home to the first Jesuit missionaries in Brazil, in the early 16th century. They wrote reports to the Portuguese crown about the newly found land, the native peoples and composed poetry and music for the catechism, creating the first written works from the area. The literary priests included Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta, living in or near the colony then called Piratininga. They also helped to register the Old Tupi language, lexicon and its grammar. In 1922, the Brazilian Modernist Movement, launched in São Paulo, began to achieve cultural independence. Brazil had gone through the same stages of development as the rest of Latin America, but its political and cultural independence came more gradually.[158] Brazilian elite culture was originally strongly tied to Portugal. Gradually writers developed a multi-ethnic body of work that was distinctively Brazilian. The presence of large numbers of former slaves added a distinctive African character to the culture. Subsequent infusions of immigrants of non-Portuguese origin broadened the range of influences. Mário de Andrade and Oswald de Andrade were the prototypical modernists. With the urban poems of "Paulicéia Desvairada" and "Carefree Paulistan land" (1922), Mário de Andrade established the movement in Brazil. His rhapsodic novel Macunaíma (1928), with its abundance of Brazilian folklore, represents the apex of modernism's nationalist prose through its creation of an offbeat native national hero. Oswald de Andrade's experimental poetry, avant-garde prose, particularly the novel Serafim Ponte Grande (1933) and provocative manifestos exemplify the movement's break with tradition. Modernist artists and writers chose the Municipal Theatre of São Paulo to launch their Modernist manifesto. The site happened to be a bastion of European culture with opera and classical music presentations from Germany, France, Austria and Italy. They defied the high society that frequented the venue and who insisted on speaking only foreign languages such as French, behaving as if Brazilian culture did not matter.[159] Theaters[edit] Many historians believe that the first theatrical performance in Brazil was held in São Paulo. The Portuguese Jesuit missionary José de Anchieta (1534–1597) wrote short plays that were performed and watched by the Tupi–Guarani natives. In the second half of the 19th century a cultural, musical and theatrical life emerged. European ethnic groups began holding performances in some of the state's rural cities. The most important period for the art in São Paulo was the 1940s. São Paulo had had a professional company, Teatro Brasileiro de Comédia, (Brazilian Theater of Comedy), along with others. Municipal Theatre of São Paulo During the 1960s, major theater productions in São Paulo and Brazil were presented by two groups. Teatro de Arena began with a group of students from Escola de Arte Dramática (Drama Art School), founded by Alfredo Mesquita, in 1948. In 1958, the group excelled with the play "Eles não usam black tie" by Gianfrancesco Guarnieri which was the first in the history of the Brazilian drama to feature labor workers as protagonists.[160] After the military coup of 1964, plays started focusing on Brazilian history (Zumbi, Tiradentes). Teatro de Arena and Teatro Oficina supported the democratic resistance during the military dictatorship period, marked by its censorship. The Tropicalist movement began there. A number of plays represented historic moments, notably "O Rei da Vela", "Galileu Galilei" (1968), "Na Sela das Cidades" (1969) and "Gracias Señor" (1972). The district of Bixiga concentrates the greatest number of theaters, almost 30 including the theaters that are closed for refurbishing or for other reasons. Some of the most important are Renault, Brigadeiro, Zaccaro, Bibi Ferreira, Maria della Costa, Ruth Escobar, Opera, TBC, Imprensa, Oficina, Àgora, Cacilda Becker, Sérgio Cardoso, do Bixiga, and Bandeirantes. Museums[edit] Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation Ipiranga Museum São Paulo Museum of Art São Paulo is practically a museum in the open air, with neighborhoods and buildings of historical value. The city has museums and art galleries. Among the museums in the city are São Paulo Museum of Art (MASP), the Ipiranga Museum, the Museum of Sacred Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language, the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, among other renowned institutions. It also houses one of the top five zoos in the world, the São Paulo Zoo.[161] Popularly known as "Ipiranga Museum", the first monument built to preserve the memory of the Independence of Brazil, opened on September 7, 1895, with the name of Museu de Ciências Naturais (Natural Science Museum). In 1919, it became a history museum. Reflecting the architectural influence of the Versailles Palace in France, the Ipiranga's collection, with approximately 100,000 pieces, comprises works of art, furniture, clothing and appliances that belonged to those who took part in Brazilian history, such as explorers, rulers and freedom fighters. Its facilities house a library with 100,000 books and the "Centro de Documentação Histórica," Historic Documentation Center, with 40,000 manuscripts. The Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation opened to the public in March 2007. Its headquarters is a 1920s mansion. It houses 1545 works, including paintings by Marc Chagall, Pompeo Batoni, Pierre Gobert and Frans Post, Brazilian modernists Tarsila do Amaral, Di Cavalcanti and Portinari, period furniture, decorative and archaeological pieces. Stretching over 78 thousand square metres (0.84 million square feet), Memorial da América Latina (Latin America's Memorial) was conceived to showcase Latin American countries and their roots and cultures. It is home to the headquarters of Parlamento Latino-Americano – Parlatino (Latin American Parliament). Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Memorial has an exhibition pavilion with permanent exhibition of the continent's craftwork production; a library with books, newspapers, magazines, videos, films and records about the history of Latin America; and an 1,679-seat auditorium. Hospedaria do Imigrante (Immigrant's Hostel) was built in 1886 and opened in 1887. Immigrant's Hostel was built in Brás to welcome the immigrants who arrived in Brazil through the Port of Santos, quarantining those who were sick and helping new arrivals to find work in coffee plantations in Western, Northern and Southwestern São Paulo State and Northern Paraná State. From 1882 to 1978, 2.5 million immigrants of more than 60 nationalities and ethnicities were guests there,[162] all of them duly registered in the museum's books and lists. The hostel hosted approximately 3,000 people on average, but occasionally reached 8,000. The hostel received the last immigrants in 1978.[163] In 1998 the hostel became a museum, where it preserves the immigrants' documentation, memory and objects. Located in one of the few remaining centenarian buildings, the museum occupies part of the former hostel. The museum also restores wooden train wagons from the former São Paulo Railway. Two restored wagons inhabit the museum. One dates from 1914, while a second class passenger car dates from 1931. The museum records the names of all immigrants who were hosted there from 1888 to 1978.[164] Pinacotheca of the State of São Paulo Immigration Museum of the State of São Paulo São Paulo Museum of Image and Sound Occupying an area of 700 square metres (7,535 square feet), the animals shown in the museum are samples of the country's tropical fauna and were prepared (embalmed) more than 50 years ago. The animals are grouped according to their classification: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and some invertebrates such as corals, crustaceans and mollusks. The library specializes in zoology. It has 73,850 works, of which 8,473 are books and 2,364 are newspapers, in addition to theses and maps. MASP has one of world's most important collections of European art. The most important collections cover Italian and French painting schools. The museum was founded by Assis Châteaubriand and is directed by Pietro Maria Bardi. Its current headquarters, opened in 1968, were designed by Lina Bo Bardi. MASP organizes temporary exhibitions in special areas. Brazilian and international exhibitions of contemporary arts, photography, design and architecture take turn during the whole year.[165] The headquarters of the state government has a collection of works by Brazilian artists, such as Portinari, Aldo Bonadei, Djanira, Almeida Júnior, Victor Brecheret, Ernesto de Fiori and Aleijadinho. It also gathers colonial furniture, leather and silver artefacts and European tapestry. In eclectic style, its walls are covered with panels describing the history of São Paulo. Located next to the Luz metro station, the building was projected by architect Ramos de Azevedo in 1895. It was constructed to house an Arts Lyceum. In 1911, it became the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, where it currently hosts a number of art exhibitions. A major exhibition on the bronze statues of French sculptor Auguste Rodin took place in 2001. There is also a permanent exhibition on the "Resistance" movement that took place during military dictatorship in the Republican period, including a reconstructed prison cell where political prisoners were kept. Also called Oca do Ibirapuera, oca means thatched house in Native Brazilian Tupi-Guarani. A white, spaceship-like building sitting in the greens of Ibirapuera Park, Oca is an exhibition place with more than 10 thousand square metres (0.11 million square feet). Modern art, Native Brazilian art, and photographies are some of the topics of past thematic exhibitions. Museu da Imagem e do Som (Image and Sound Museum) preserves music, cinema, photography and graphical arts. MIS has a collection of more than 200,000 images. It has more than 1,600 fiction videotapes, documentaries and music and 12,750 titles recorded in Super 8 and 16 mm film. MIS organizes concerts, cinema and video festivals and photography and graphical arts exhibitions. The Museum of Art of the Parliament of São Paulo is a contemporary art museum housed in the Palácio 9 de Julho, the Legislative Assembly of São Paulo house. The museum is run by the Department of Artistic Heritage of the Legislative Assembly and has paintings, sculpture, prints, ceramics and photographs, exploring the Brazilian contemporary art. The Museu do Futebol is located at the famous soccer stadium Paulo Machado de Carvalho, which was built in 1940 during Getúlio Vargas presidency. The museum shows the history of soccer with a special attention to the memories, emotions and cultural values promoted by the sport during the 20th and 21st centuries in Brazil. The visit also includes fun and interactive activities, 16 rooms from the permanent collection, plus a temporary exposition. Latin America Memorial Media[edit] Globo São Paulo headquarters (left) and Sede do BankBoston building at Marginal Pinheiros highway. São Paulo is home to the two most important daily newspapers in Brazil, Folha de S.Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo. Also, the top three weekly news magazines of the country are based in the city, Veja, Época and ISTOÉ. Two of the five major television networks are based in the city, Bandeirantes and RecordTV, while SBT and RedeTV! are based in Osasco, a city in São Paulo metropolitan area, while TV Globo, the country's most watched TV channel, has a major news bureau and entertainment production center in the city. Many of the major AM and FM radio networks of Brazil are headquartered in São Paulo, such as Jovem Pan, Rádio Mix, Transamérica, BandNews FM, CBN and Band FM. In addition, Gazeta is located in Paulista Avenue. The telephone area code for the city of São Paulo is 11.[166]


Sports[edit] See also: Sport in Brazil Football[edit] Main article: Football in São Paulo Arena Corinthians Pacaembu, city stadium Allianz Parque See also: Football in Brazil, Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, and Campeonato Paulista As in the rest of Brazil, football is the most popular sport. The city's major teams are Palmeiras, Corinthians, and São Paulo. Portuguesa is a medium club and Juventus, Nacional and Barcelona EC are three small clubs. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil was the host nation. The Arena Corinthians was built for the event and hosted six matches, including the opening. Football/soccer teams Club League Venue Established (team) SE Palmeiras Série A Allianz Parque 43,600 (39,660 record) 1914 SC Corinthians Série A Arena Corinthians 48,234 (63,267 record) 1910 São Paulo FC Série A Morumbi Stadium 67,428 (138,032 record) 1930 Portuguesa Série C Canindé Stadium 19,717 (25,000 record) 1920 Juventus Campeonato Paulista Série A2 Rua Javari Stadium 7,200 (9,000 record) 1924 Nacional Campeonato Paulista Série A3 Nicolau Alayon Stadium 9,500 (22,000 record) 1919 Barcelona EC Campeonato Paulista Série B Nicolau Alayon Stadium 9,500 (22,000 record) 2004 Other sports[edit] Saint Silvester Road Race in 2011 The São Silvestre Race takes place every New Year's Eve. It was first held in 1925, when the competitors ran about 8,000 metres (26,000 feet). Since then, the distance raced varied, but is now set at 15 km (9.3 mi). The São Paulo Indy 300 was an IndyCar Series race in Santana that ran annually from 2010 to 2013. The event was removed from the 2014 season calendar. Volleyball, basketball, skateboard and tennis are other major sports. There are several traditional sports clubs in São Paulo that are home for teams in many championships. The most important are Esporte Clube Pinheiros (waterpolo, women's volleyball, swimming, men's basketball and handball), Clube Athletico Paulistano (basketball), Esporte Clube Banespa (volleyball, handball and futsal), Esporte Clube Sírio (basketball), Associação Atlética Hebraica (basketball), São Paulo Athletic Club (rugby union), Pasteur Athlétique Club (rugby union), Rio Branco Rugby Clube (rugby union), Bandeirantes Rugby Clube (rugby union), Clube de Regatas Tietê (multi-sports) and Clube Atlético Ipiranga (multi-sports and former professional football). Also, on Bom Retiro, there is a public baseball stadium, Estádio Mie Nishi. Clube Atlético Monte Líbano is a club that have achieved success in the past in various competitions. Brazilian Grand Prix[edit] Main article: Brazilian Grand Prix Formula One is also one of the most popular sports in Brazil. One of Brazil's most famous sportsmen is three-time Formula One world champion and São Paulo native Ayrton Senna. The Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix is held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos, Socorro. The Grand Prix has been held there from the inaugural in 1973 until 1977, 1979–1980 and continuously since 1990. Four Brazilians have won the Brazilian Grand Prix in Interlagos (all of whom were/are Sāo Paulo natives): Emerson Fittipaldi (1973 and 1974), José Carlos Pace (1975), Ayrton Senna (1991 and 1993) and Felipe Massa (2006 and 2008). In 2007, a new local railway station Autódromo of the Line C (Line 9) of CPTM, was constructed near the circuit to improve access. Autódromo José Carlos Pace, the venue for the Brazilian Grand Prix


See also[edit] Brazil portal Latin America portal Geography portal ABCD Region Japanese cuisine in São Paulo Large Cities Climate Leadership Group Largest cities in the Americas List of municipalities in the state of São Paulo by population OPENCities Caminhada Noturna (night walk)


References[edit] Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of São Paulo Lawrence, Rachel (January 2010). Alyse Dar, ed. Brazil (Seventh ed.). Apa Publications GmbH & Co. / Discovery Channel. pp. 183–204.  Notes[edit] ^ "São Paulo, São Paulo § informações completas" (in Portuguese). ibge.gov.br. Retrieved January 1, 2017.  ^ "Sobre a RMSP" (in Portuguese). Emplasa. Retrieved January 1, 2017.  ^ "Ranking of Brazilian municipalities by HDI" (in Portuguese). United Nations Development Program. Retrieved 2013.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ a b "Position occupied by the biggest Brazilian municipalities by GDP PPP". IBGE. Retrieved 2011.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help) ^ a b http://cidades.ibge.gov.br/xtras/temas.php?lang=&codmun=355030&idtema=162&search=sao-paulo ^ http://www.atlasbrasil.org.br/2013/data/rawData/RadarIDHM_Analise.pdf ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2010". Lboro.ac.uk. September 14, 2011. 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Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "SÃO PAULO (1)". Tramz.com. Retrieved December 1, 2012.  ^ "São Paulo – 2014 soccer world cup host city". Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved May 23, 2015.  ^ Do G1, em São Paulo, com informações do SPTV (November 21, 2007). "Tietê Bus Terminal, the second largest in the world". G1.globo.com. Retrieved April 17, 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Webb, Mary (Ed.) (2009). Jane's Urban Transport Systems 2009–2010, pp. 42/6. Coulsdon (UK): Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2903-6. ^ "Brazil protests: São Paulo bus station attacked". BBC News. October 26, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.  ^ of helicopters in São Paulo (in Portuguese)[dead link] ^ High above São Paulo's choked streets, the rich cruise a new highway The Guardian, June 20, 2008 ^ "Uber takes to Brazilian skies with helicopter service". RT. June 15, 2016. 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Retrieved April 17, 2010.  ^ Histórico da Hospedaria Archived March 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Acervo Histórico-Cultural Archived March 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Masp – São Paulo Museum of Art Archived October 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "DDD São Paulo (SP)" (in Portuguese). Codigos DDD. Retrieved August 12, 2016. 


External links[edit] Find more aboutSão Paulo (city)at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:São Paulo city. Official websites São Paulo Tourism Office home page São Paulo City Hall Web site (in Portuguese) São Paulo Metro (subway) official Web site BM&F Bovespa – São Paulo Stock Exchange Web site Other websites São Paulo in The New York Times Travel Guide s UK House of Commons Trade and Industry Committee report on Brazil São Paulo travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to São Paulo at OpenStreetMap Maplink – São Paulo Street Guide and Maps (in Portuguese) OPENCities Monitor participant Discovering São Paulo Travel Guide to Brazil AboutBrasil/São Paulo – Powerhouse of South America News stories AdBusters, "São Paulo: A City Without Ads". The Times, "Cutting-edge style in São Paulo", by Alex Bello. The Times, "Where cafezinho is the key to commerce". Retrieved December 6, 2007. Guardian Unlimited, "Blog by blog guide to ... São Paulo". The New York Times, "36 Hours in São Paulo". Rich Brazilians Rise Above Rush-Hour Jams. Articles Related to São Paulo v t e State of São Paulo, Brazil Government Governors Senators Transport Highway system List of highways Education Universities Sports Auto racing Autódromo José Carlos Pace Ayrton Senna Football FPF Campeonato Paulista de Futebol Série A2 Série A3 Segunda Divisão Copa Paulista Corinthians Palmeiras Ponte Preta Portuguesa Santos São Paulo Cities of São Paulo by population Capital São Paulo 1,000,000+ Campinas Guarulhos 500,000+ Osasco Ribeirão Preto Santo André São Bernardo do Campo São José dos Campos Sorocaba 200,000+ Americana Araraquara Barueri Bauru Carapicuíba Cotia Diadema Embu das Artes Franca Guarujá Hortolândia Indaiatuba Itapevi Itaquaquecetuba Jacareí Jundiaí Limeira Marília Mauá Mogi das Cruzes Piracicaba Praia Grande Presidente Prudente Santos São Carlos São José do Rio Preto São Vicente Sumaré Suzano Taboão da Serra Taubaté 100,000+ Araçatuba Araras Assis Atibaia Barretos Birigui Botucatu Bragança Paulista Catanduva Cubatão Ferraz de Vasconcelos Francisco Morato Franco da Rocha Guaratinguetá Itapecerica da Serra Itapetininga Itu Jandira Jaú Mogi Guaçu Ourinhos Paulínia Pindamonhangaba Poá Ribeirão Pires Rio Claro Salto Santa Bárbara d'Oeste Santana de Parnaíba São Caetano do Sul Sertãozinho Tatuí Valinhos Várzea Paulista Votorantim Mesoregion Metropolitana de São Paulo Franco da Rocha Caieiras Francisco Morato Franco da Rocha Mairiporã Guarulhos Arujá Guarulhos Santa Isabel Itapecerica da Serra Cotia Embu das Artes Embu-Guaçu Itapecerica da Serra Juquitiba São Lourenço da Serra Taboão da Serra Vargem Grande Paulista Mogi das Cruzes Biritiba-Mirim Ferraz de Vasconcelos Guararema Itaquaquecetuba Mogi das Cruzes Poá Salesópolis Suzano Osasco Barueri Cajamar Carapicuíba Itapevi Jandira Osasco Pirapora do Bom Jesus Santana de Parnaíba Santos Bertioga Cubatão Guarujá Praia Grande Santos São Vicente São Paulo Diadema Mauá Ribeirão Pires Rio Grande da Serra Santo André São Bernardo do Campo São Caetano do Sul São Paulo Southeast Region, Brazil Espírito Santo Minas Gerais São Paulo Rio de Janeiro  Geographic locale Places adjacent to São Paulo Caieiras, Guarulhos and Mairiporã Cajamar, Cotia, Embu, Embu-Guaçu, Itapecerica da Serra, Juquitiba, Osasco, Santana de Parnaíba and Taboão da Serra São Paulo Ferraz de Vasconcelos, Itaquaquecetuba and Poá Itanhaém and São Vicente Diadema, Mauá, Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul Lat. and Long. 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633 v t e Subdivisions of São Paulo Administrative Zones Central East 1 East 2 Southeast West Northeast Northwest South-Central South Subprefectures Aricanduva Butantã Campo Limpo Capela do Socorro Casa Verde Cidade Ademar Cidade Tiradentes Ermelino Matarazzo Freguesia-Brasilândia Guaianases Ipiranga Itaim Paulista Itaquera Jabaquara Jaçanã-Tremembé Lapa M'Boi Mirim Mooca Parelheiros Penha Perus Pinheiros Pirituba-Jaraguá Santana-Tucuruvi Santo Amaro São Mateus São Miguel Paulista Sé Sapopemba Vila Maria-Vila Guilherme Vila Mariana Vila Prudente Districts Água Rasa Alto de Pinheiros Anhanguera Aricanduva Artur Alvim Barra Funda Bela Vista Belém Bom Retiro Brasilândia Brás Butantã Cachoeirinha Cambuci Campo Belo Campo Grande Campo Limpo Cangaíba Capão Redondo Carrão Casa Verde Cidade Ademar Cidade Dutra Cidade Líder Cidade Tiradentes Consolação Cursino Ermelino Matarazzo Freguesia do Ó Grajaú Guaianases Iguatemi Ipiranga Itaim Bibi Itaim Paulista Itaquera Jabaquara Jaçanã Jaguara Jaguaré Jaraguá Jardim Helena Jardim Paulista Jardim São Luís Jardim Ângela José Bonifácio Lajeado Lapa Liberdade Limão Mandaqui Marsilac Moema Mooca Morumbi Parelheiros Pari Parque do Carmo Pedreira Penha Perdizes Perus Pinheiros Pirituba Ponte Rasa Raposo Tavares República Rio Pequeno Sacomã Santa Cecília Santana Santo Amaro São Domingos São Lucas São Mateus São Miguel Paulista São Rafael Saúde Sapopemba Sé Socorro Tatuapé Tremembé Tucuruvi Vila Andrade Vila Curuçá Vila Formosa Vila Guilherme Vila Jacuí Vila Leopoldina Vila Maria Vila Mariana Vila Matilde Vila Medeiros Vila Prudente Vila Sônia v t e Brazil  History Timeline of Brazilian history Indigenous peoples Portuguese Colony (1500–1815) United Kingdom (1815–1822) Empire (1822–1889) Old Republic (1889–1930) Vargas Era (1930–1946) Second Republic (1946–1964) Military rule (1964–1985) New Republic (post 1985) Geography Amazon basin Climate Coastline Conservation Environment Environmental issues Extreme points Islands Largest cities Mountains Pantanal Protected areas Regions Rivers Water resources Wildlife Politics Administrative divisions Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Legal system Law Law enforcement Military National Congress Political parties President Economy Agriculture Car industry Central Bank Economic history Energy Exports Industry Mining Real (currency) Science and technology Stock index Telecommunications Tourism Transport Society Corruption Crime Demographics Education Health 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Santa Lúcia Tabatinga Trabiju São Carlos Analândia Descalvado Dourado Ibaté Ribeirão Bonito São Carlos Assis Assis Assis Borá Campos Novos Paulista Cândido Mota Cruzália Florínia Ibirarema Iepê Lutécia Maracaí Nantes Palmital Paraguaçu Paulista Pedrinhas Paulista Platina Quatá Tarumã Ourinhos Bernardino de Campos Canitar Chavantes Espírito Santo do Turvo Fartura Ipaussu Manduri Óleo Ourinhos Piraju Ribeirão do Sul Salto Grande Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo São Pedro do Turvo Sarutaiá Taguaí Tejupá Timburi Bauru Avaré Águas de Santa Bárbara Arandu Avaré Cerqueira César Iaras Itaí Itatinga Paranapanema Bauru Agudos Arealva Areiópolis Avaí Balbinos Bauru Borebi Cabrália Paulista Duartina Guarantã Iacanga Lençóis Paulista Lucianópolis Paulistânia Pirajuí Piratininga Pongaí Presidente Alves Reginópolis Ubirajara Uru Botucatu Anhembi Bofete Botucatu Conchas Pardinho Pratânia São Manuel Jaú Bariri Barra Bonita Bocaina Boraceia Dois Córregos Igaraçu do Tietê Itaju Itapuí Jaú Macatuba Mineiros do Tietê Pederneiras Lins Cafelândia Getulina Guaiçara Guaimbê Júlio Mesquita Lins Promissão Sabino Campinas Amparo Águas de Lindoia Amparo Lindoia Monte Alegre do Sul Pedra Bela Pinhalzinho Serra Negra Socorro Campinas Americana Campinas Cosmópolis Elias Fausto Holambra Hortolândia Indaiatuba Jaguariúna Monte Mor Nova Odessa Paulínia Pedreira Santa Bárbara d'Oeste Sumaré Valinhos Vinhedo Mogi Mirim Artur Nogueira Engenheiro Coelho Estiva Gerbi Itapira Mogi Guaçu Mogi Mirim Santo Antônio de Posse Pirassununga Aguaí Pirassununga Porto Ferreira Santa Cruz das Palmeiras São João da Boa Vista Águas da Prata Caconde Casa Branca Divinolândia Espírito Santo do Pinhal Itobi Mococa Santo Antônio do Jardim São João da Boa Vista São José do Rio Pardo São Sebastião da Grama Tambaú Tapiratiba Vargem Grande do Sul Itapetininga Capão Bonito Apiaí Barra do Chapéu Capão Bonito Guapiara Iporanga Itaóca Itapirapuã Paulista Ribeira Ribeirão Branco Ribeirão Grande Itapetininga Alambari Angatuba Campina do Monte Alegre Guareí Itapetininga Itapeva Barão de Antonina Bom Sucesso de Itararé Buri Coronel Macedo Itaberá Itapeva Itaporanga Itararé Nova Campina Riversul Taquarituba Taquarivaí Tatuí Boituva Cerquilho Cesário Lange Laranjal Paulista Pereiras Porangaba Quadra Tatuí Torre de Pedra Litoral Sul Paulista Itanhaém Itanhaém Itariri Mongaguá Pedro de Toledo Peruíbe Registro Barra do Turvo Cajati Cananéia Eldorado Iguape Ilha Comprida Jacupiranga Juquiá Miracatu Pariquera-Açu Registro Sete Barras Macro Metropolitana Paulista Bragança Paulista Atibaia Bom Jesus dos Perdões Bragança Paulista Itatiba Jarinu Joanópolis Morungaba Nazaré Paulista Piracaia Tuiuti Vargem Jundiaí Campo Limpo Paulista Itupeva Jundiaí Louveira Várzea Paulista Piedade Ibiúna Piedade Pilar do Sul São Miguel Arcanjo Tapiraí Sorocaba Alumínio Araçariguama Araçoiaba da Serra Cabreúva Capela do Alto Iperó Itu Mairinque Porto Feliz Salto Salto de Pirapora São Roque Sarapuí Sorocaba Votorantim Marília Marília Álvaro de Carvalho Alvinlândia Echaporã Fernão Gália Garça Lupércio Marília Ocauçu Oriente Oscar Bressane Pompeia Vera Cruz Tupã Arco-Íris Bastos Herculândia Iacri Queiroz Quintana Tupã Metropolitana de São Paulo Franco da Rocha Caieiras Francisco Morato Franco da Rocha Mairiporã Guarulhos Arujá Guarulhos Santa Isabel Itapecerica da Serra Cotia Embu-Guaçu Itapecerica da Serra Juquitiba São Lourenço da Serra Taboão da Serra Vargem Grande Paulista Mogi das Cruzes Biritiba-Mirim Ferraz de Vasconcelos Guararema Itaquaquecetuba Mogi das Cruzes Poá Salesópolis Suzano Osasco Barueri Cajamar Carapicuíba Itapevi Jandira Osasco Pirapora do Bom Jesus Santana de Parnaíba Santos Bertioga Cubatão Guarujá Praia Grande Santos São Vicente São Paulo Diadema Mauá Ribeirão Pires Rio Grande da Serra Santo André São Bernardo do Campo São Caetano do Sul São Paulo Piracicaba Limeira Araras Conchal Cordeirópolis Iracemápolis Leme Limeira Santa Cruz da Conceição Santa Gertrudes Piracicaba Águas de São Pedro Capivari Charqueada Jumirim Mombuca Piracicaba Rafard Rio das Pedras Saltinho Santa Maria da Serra São Pedro Tietê Rio Claro Brotas Corumbataí Ipeúna Itirapina Rio Claro Torrinha Presidente Prudente Adamantina Adamantina Flora Rica Flórida Paulista Inúbia Paulista Irapuru Lucélia Mariápolis Osvaldo Cruz Pacaembu Parapuã Pracinha Rinópolis Sagres Salmourão Dracena Dracena Junqueirópolis Monte Castelo Nova Guataporanga Ouro Verde Panorama Pauliceia Santa Mercedes São João do Pau d'Alho Tupi Paulista Presidente Prudente Alfredo Marcondes Álvares Machado Anhumas Caiabu Caiuá Emilianópolis Estrela do Norte Euclides da Cunha Paulista Indiana João Ramalho Marabá Paulista Martinópolis Mirante do Paranapanema Narandiba Piquerobi Pirapozinho Presidente Bernardes Presidente Epitácio Presidente Prudente Presidente Venceslau Rancharia Regente Feijó Ribeirão dos Índios Rosana Sandovalina Santo Anastácio Santo Expedito Taciba Tarabai Teodoro Sampaio Ribeirão Preto Barretos Barretos Colina Colômbia Batatais Altinópolis Batatais Cajuru Cássia dos Coqueiros Santa Cruz da Esperança Santo Antônio da Alegria Franca Cristais Paulista Franca Itirapuã Jeriquara Patrocínio Paulista Pedregulho Restinga Ribeirão Corrente Rifaina São José da Bela Vista Ituverava Aramina Buritizal Guará Igarapava Ituverava Jaboticabal Bebedouro Cândido Rodrigues Fernando Prestes Guariba Jaboticabal Monte Alto Monte Azul Paulista Pirangi Pitangueiras Santa Ernestina Taiaçu Taiúva Taquaral Taquaritinga Terra Roxa Viradouro Vista Alegre do Alto Ribeirão Preto Barrinha Brodowski Cravinhos Dumont Guatapará Jardinópolis Luís Antônio Pontal Pradópolis Ribeirão Preto Santa Rita do Passa Quatro Santa Rosa de Viterbo São Simão Serra Azul Serrana Sertãozinho São Joaquim da Barra Guaíra Ipuã Jaborandi Miguelópolis Morro Agudo Nuporanga Orlândia Sales Oliveira São Joaquim da Barra São José do Rio Preto Auriflama Auriflama Floreal Gastão Vidigal General Salgado Guzolândia Magda Nova Castilho Nova Luzitânia São João de Iracema Catanduva Ariranha Cajobi Catanduva Catiguá Elisiário Embaúba Novais Palmares Paulista Paraíso Pindorama Santa Adélia Severínia Tabapuã Fernandópolis Estrela d'Oeste Fernandópolis Guarani d'Oeste Indiaporã Macedônia Meridiano Mira Estrela Ouroeste Pedranópolis São João das Duas Pontes Turmalina Jales Aparecida d'Oeste Aspásia Dirce Reis Dolcinópolis Jales Marinópolis Mesópolis Nova Canaã Paulista Palmeira d'Oeste Paranapuã Pontalinda Populina Rubinéia Santa Albertina Santa Clara d'Oeste Santa Fé do Sul Santa Rita d'Oeste Santa Salete Santana da Ponte Pensa São Francisco Três Fronteiras Urânia Vitória Brasil Nhandeara Macaubal Monções Monte Aprazível Neves Paulista Nhandeara Nipoã Poloni Sebastianópolis do Sul União Paulista Novo Horizonte Irapuã Itajobi Marapoama Novo Horizonte Sales Urupês São José do Rio Preto Adolfo Altair Bady Bassitt Bálsamo Cedral Guapiaçu Guaraci Ibirá Icém Ipiguá Jaci José Bonifácio Mendonça Mirassol Mirassolândia Nova Aliança Nova Granada Olímpia Onda Verde Orindiúva Palestina Paulo de Faria Planalto Potirendaba São José do Rio Preto Tanabi Ubarana Uchoa Zacarias Votuporanga Álvares Florence Américo de Campos Cardoso Cosmorama Parisi Pontes Gestal Riolândia Valentim Gentil Votuporanga Vale do Paraíba Paulista Bananal Arapeí Areias Bananal São José do Barreiro Silveiras Campos do Jordão Campos do Jordão Monteiro Lobato Santo Antônio do Pinhal São Bento do Sapucaí Caraguatatuba Caraguatatuba Ilhabela São Sebastião Ubatuba Guaratinguetá Aparecida Cachoeira Paulista Canas Cruzeiro Guaratinguetá Lavrinhas Lorena Piquete Potim Queluz Roseira Paraibuna/Paraitinga Cunha Jambeiro Lagoinha Natividade da Serra Paraibuna Redenção da Serra São Luiz do Paraitinga São José dos Campos Caçapava Igaratá Jacareí Pindamonhangaba Santa Branca São José dos Campos Taubaté Tremembé v t e Pan American Games host cities 1951: Buenos Aires 1955: Mexico City 1959: Chicago 1963: São Paulo 1967: Winnipeg 1971: Santiago de Cali 1975: Mexico City 1979: San Juan 1983: Caracas 1987: Indianapolis 1991: Havana 1995: Mar del Plata 1999: Winnipeg 2003: Santo Domingo 2007: Rio de Janeiro 2011: Guadalajara 2015: Toronto 2019: Lima 2023: Santiago v t e World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas     1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon   6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico City 11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York 16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka v t e World's fifty most-populous urban areas Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin) Jakarta (Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila (Metro Manila) Seoul–Incheon (Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou–Foshan (Guangfo) São Paulo Mexico City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima Chengdu Greater London Nagoya (Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley) Quanzhou v t e Visitor attractions in São Paulo Monuments / landmarks Memorial da América Latina Estaiada Bridge Marco Zero Monument to the Independence of Brazil Monument to the Bandeiras Obelisk of São Paulo Torre da TV Bandeirantes Buildings Altino Arantes Building Aricanduva Mall Palácio dos Bandeirantes São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa) Centro Empresarial Nações Unidas Conjunto Nacional Edifício Copan Iguatemi São Paulo Edifício Itália Estação Júlio Prestes Luz Station Martinelli Building Matarazzo Building Municipal Market of São Paulo Pátio do Colégio São Bento Monastery São Paulo Cathedral (Sé) Sítio Morrinhos Temple of Solomon Teatro São Pedro Theatro Municipal Museums / cultural institutions Museu Afro Brasil São Paulo Museum of Sacred Art Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil Instituto Butantan Casa das Rosas Ema Gordon Klabin Cultural Foundation Museu do Futebol Museu da Imigração Centro Cultural Itaú Museum of Image and Sound Museu Lasar Segall Museu Paulista (Ipiranga) Museum of Contemporary Art (MAC) Museum of Modern Art (MAM) Mário de Andrade Library Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP) Oca Pavilion Museum of the Portuguese Language Pinacoteca do Estado Sala São Paulo Centro Cultural São Paulo Carmo Planetarium Professor Aristóteles Orsini Planetarium Stadiums Allianz Parque Anhembi Convention Center Anhembi Sambadrome Canindé Stadium Citibank Hall Arena Corinthians Auditório do Ibirapuera Morumbi Nicolau Alayon Stadium Pacaembu Rua Javari Stadium Via Funchal Neighborhoods / districts Bixiga Bom Retiro Brooklin Central Zone Jardins Liberdade Avenida Brigadeiro Faria Lima Avenida Paulista Rua 25 de Março Rua Augusta Rua Oscar Freire University of São Paulo (USP) Vila Madalena Vila Olímpia Parks / public squares Parque da Aclimação Parque Anhanguera São Paulo Aquarium Beco do Batman Botanical Garden Parque Burle Marx Cantareira State Park Parque do Carmo Consolação Cemetery Horto Florestal Ibirapuera Park Jardim da Luz Parque da Água Branca Parque do Carmo Parque Estadual do Jaraguá Pico do Jaraguá Parque da Juventude Parque do Piqueri Praça Ramos de Azevedo Praça da República Praça Roosevelt Largo de São Francisco Praça da Sé Parque Ecológico do Tietê Parque Trianon Parque Villa-Lobos São Paulo Zoo Vale do Anhangabaú Viaduto do Chá Events Anima Mundi Brazilian Grand Prix Electronic Language International Festival March for Jesus São Silvestre Road Race São Paulo Art Biennial São Paulo Fashion Week São Paulo Gay Pride Parade São Paulo Indy 300 São Paulo International Film Festival São Paulo International Motor Show Virada Cultural Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126223335 ISNI: 0000 0001 2108 298X GND: 4051667-2 SELIBR: 164750 NDL: 00628541 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=São_Paulo&oldid=825918131" Categories: São PauloPopulated places established in 15541554 establishments in 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Sao_Paulo,_Brazil - Photos and All Basic Informations

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