Contents 1 Seabed 2 Islands 3 Free Harbor Fight 4 Breakwater 5 Restoration 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

Seabed[edit] Most of the bay is between 32 and 75 feet (10 and 23 m) deep. The seabed near Long Beach has experienced considerable subsidence as a result of oil extraction in the Wilmington Field from the 1950s onward. Ironically, this helped the Port of Long Beach surpass the Port of Los Angeles as the leading port in the United States for a time in the 1980s and 1990s, since the deeper seafloor meant that Long Beach could accommodate ships with deeper drafts than could Los Angeles. Dredging operations related to the construction of a gigantic new marine terminal at the Port of Los Angeles have since made both sides of the bay accessible to even the largest existing container ships. Concerns regarding subsidence increased until Operation "Big Squirt," a water injection program, halted any progression of sinking land in 1960.[4]

Islands[edit] Natural islands in San Pedro Bay include Terminal Island (actually an augmented mudflat), the site of much of Los Angeles' and Long Beach's port facilities, and Mormon Island, the site of an abortive settlement attempt by San Bernardino-based Mormon pioneers in the 1850s. Land reclamation operations by Los Angeles have considerably enlarged Terminal Island, as well as linking Mormon Island to the mainland. Deadman's Island sat at a landmark at the foot of the Bay, but was removed in 1928 as part of the effort to enlarge the harbor.[5][6][7] Four small artificial islands containing oil wells (the THUMS Islands) are scattered around the bay near Long Beach. The oil drilling equipment itself is masked by tropical landscaping, architectural features and fake high-rise "buildings" in an attempt to improve their appearance from shore. These islands, named Oil Islands Freeman, Grissom, White, and Chaffee, are named for Theodore Freeman, the first United States NASA astronaut to die during flight, and for Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger B. Chaffee, who were killed by a fire during the Apollo 1 mission.[8]

Free Harbor Fight[edit] As Los Angeles developed as an economic and trading hub, the need for a deep harbor became apparent. In the late 1890s, the Southern Pacific Railroad started purchasing large parcels of land in Santa Monica near its terminus, and the Huntington family advocated for a Santa Monica harbor, which would have monopolized Southern Pacific freight. In opposition, the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and a newly formed Harbor League advocated for a harbor to be built in San Pedro, where the Southern Pacific would have competition with Phineas Banning's Los Angeles and Harbor Railroad. The resulting Free Harbor Fight and 1906 annexation of the Harbor Gateway ensured San Pedro would serve as the main port of Los Angeles. It also explains the considerable distance between the harbor and the city's main rail yards, a situation not addressed until the construction of the Alameda Corridor, nearly a century later.[9]

Breakwater[edit] An 8.5-mile-long (13.7 km) breakwater stretches across most of the bay, with two openings to allow ships to enter the port areas behind it. The initial western section of the breakwater, called the San Pedro Breakwater, was constructed between 1899 and 1911 at San Pedro; the Middle breakwater was completed over the next twenty-five years, and the Long Beach breakwater was finished after World War II.[10] The breakwater provided the harbor considerable protection in the 1939 Long Beach Hurricane.

Restoration[edit] The Long Beach breakwater is the target of controversy within the harbor towns and Greater Los Angeles conservationists community; with various environmental groups, including the Long Beach chapter of the Surfrider Foundation, proposing modifying or removing the breakwater to promote better water flows and a more natural coastal environment at the mouth of the Los Angeles River. This restoration ecology based removal is opposed by waterfront property owners and shippers, who consider that the breakwater provides needed protection from storm damage.[11][12] A short documentary addressing the issues surrounding the reconfiguration of the Long Beach breakwater is available.[13]

See also[edit] Port of Los Angeles Terminal Island Port of Los Angeles Long Wharf Santa Monica

References[edit] ^ Why Did a 1542 Spanish Voyage Refer to San Pedro Bay as the 'Bay of the Smoke'? by Nathan Masters, March 28, 2013 ^ ^, Early Views of San Pedro and Wilmington ^ White, Michael D. The Port of Long Beach, p. 89. ^ Laura Pulido; Laura Barraclough; Wendy Cheng (24 March 2012). A People's Guide to Los Angeles. University of California Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-520-95334-5. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^ Mark Denger. "Historic California Posts: Naval Air Station, Terminal Island". Retrieved August 16, 2012.  ^ "LA Port Plan Makes Terminal Island Preservation a Key Goal". National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved January 19, 2014.  ^ Tetsuden Kashima (1997). Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. University of Washington Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-295-97558-0. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  ^, Cabrillo's Legacy, History ^, Port History: From Swamp To International Trade Hub, By Jonathan Van Dyke, Staff Writer, June 22, 2011 ^ Scauzillo, Steve "Making waves: Can a change in the breakwater bring back surf to Long Beach?" Long Beach Press Telegram Environment. 25 August 2013 ^ City of Long Beach "Breakwater Reconnaissance Study" webpage accessed 22 November 2013 ^ "Mother Wants Her Beauty Back"

Further reading[edit] Fries, Amos A. (October 1907). "San Pedro Harbor". Out West. Los Angeles: Out West Magazine Company. XXXVII (4): 301–351. Retrieved 2010-06-27.  Coordinates: 33°44′00″N 118°12′03″W / 33.73333°N 118.20083°W / 33.73333; -118.20083 v t e Greater Los Angeles Area Central city Los Angeles Counties Los Angeles Orange Riverside San Bernardino Ventura Satellite cities Long Beach Riverside San Bernardino Cities >200k Anaheim Fontana Glendale Huntington Beach Irvine Long Beach Moreno Valley Oxnard Riverside San Bernardino Santa Ana Cities and towns 100k−200k Burbank Corona Costa Mesa Downey East Los Angeles El Monte Fullerton Garden Grove Inglewood Lancaster Murrieta Norwalk Ontario Orange Palmdale Pasadena Pomona Rancho Cucamonga Rialto Santa Clarita Simi Valley Temecula Thousand Oaks Torrance Ventura Victorville West Covina Area regions Los Angeles metropolitan area Antelope Valley Central Los Angeles Coachella Valley Colorado Desert Conejo Valley Downtown Los Angeles East Los Angeles Gateway Cities Greater Hollywood Harbor Area Inland Empire Mojave Desert Northwest Los Angeles Palos Verdes Peninsula Pomona Valley San Bernardino Valley San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Valley Santa Ana Valley Santa Clarita Valley Simi Valley South Bay South Los Angeles Victor Valley Westside Los Angeles Landforms Los Angeles Basin Baldwin Hills (range) Catalina Island Channel Islands Chino Hills Hollywood Hills Oxnard Plain Palos Verdes Hills Puente Hills San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Mountains San Gabriel Valley San Jacinto Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Santa Monica Mountains Santa Susana Mountains Sierra Pelona Mountains Simi Hills Verdugo Mountains Bodies of water Los Angeles River Aliso Creek Arroyo Calabasas Arroyo Seco Ballona Creek Bell Creek Big Bear Lake Coyote Creek Lake Arrowhead Lake Gregory Lake Perris Lake Piru Los Angeles Aqueduct Malibu Creek Mojave River Pacific Ocean Pyramid Lake Rio Hondo San Gabriel River San Juan Creek San Pedro Bay Santa Ana River Santa Clara River Santa Margarita River Santa Monica Bay Tujunga Wash Retrieved from "" Categories: Bays of CaliforniaPorts and harbors of CaliforniaBodies of water of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaBodies of water of Orange County, CaliforniaLos Angeles Harbor RegionSan Pedro, Los AngelesGeography of Los AngelesGeography of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaGeography of Long Beach, CaliforniaHistory of Los AngelesHistory of Long Beach, CaliforniaTerminal IslandHidden categories: Coordinates on Wikidata

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EnlargePacific OceanCaliforniaUnited StatesPort Of Los AngelesPort Of Long BeachPortShanghaiSingaporeHong KongShenzhenSan Pedro, Los AngelesSubsidenceWilmington Oil FieldContainer ShipTerminal IslandMudflatSan Bernardino, CaliforniaLand ReclamationDeadman's Island (San Pedro)Oil WellTHUMS IslandsTheodore FreemanUnited StatesNASAAstronautGus GrissomEd White (astronaut)Roger B. ChaffeeApollo 1Free Harbor FightAlameda CorridorBreakwater (structure)San Pedro, Los AngelesLong Beach, CaliforniaWorld War II1939 California Tropical StormGreater Los Angeles AreaConservation MovementSurfrider FoundationLos Angeles RiverRestoration EcologyPort Of Los AngelesTerminal IslandLong Wharf (Santa Monica)International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-520-95334-5National Trust For Historic PreservationInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-295-97558-0Geographic Coordinate SystemTemplate:Greater Los Angeles AreaTemplate Talk:Greater Los Angeles AreaGreater Los Angeles AreaLos AngelesLos Angeles County, CaliforniaOrange County, CaliforniaRiverside County, CaliforniaSan Bernardino County, CaliforniaVentura County, CaliforniaSatellite TownLong Beach, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaAnaheim, CaliforniaFontana, CaliforniaGlendale, CaliforniaHuntington Beach, CaliforniaIrvine, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaMoreno Valley, CaliforniaOxnard, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaSanta Ana, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaCorona, CaliforniaCosta Mesa, CaliforniaDowney, CaliforniaEast Los Angeles, CaliforniaEl Monte, CaliforniaFullerton, CaliforniaGarden Grove, CaliforniaInglewood, CaliforniaLancaster, CaliforniaMurrieta, CaliforniaNorwalk, CaliforniaOntario, CaliforniaOrange, CaliforniaPalmdale, CaliforniaPasadena, CaliforniaPomona, CaliforniaRancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaRialto, CaliforniaSanta Clarita, CaliforniaSimi Valley, CaliforniaTemecula, CaliforniaThousand Oaks, CaliforniaTorrance, CaliforniaVentura, CaliforniaVictorville, CaliforniaWest Covina, CaliforniaLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaAntelope ValleyCentral Los AngelesCoachella ValleyColorado DesertConejo ValleyDowntown Los AngelesEast Los Angeles (region)Gateway CitiesGreater Hollywood, Los AngelesHarbor AreaInland EmpireMojave DesertNorthwest Los AngelesPalos Verdes PeninsulaPomona ValleySan Bernardino ValleySan Fernando ValleySan Gabriel ValleySanta Ana ValleySanta Clarita ValleySimi Valley, CaliforniaSouth Bay, Los AngelesSouth Los AngelesVictor ValleyWestside (Los Angeles County)Los Angeles BasinBaldwin Hills (mountain Range)Santa Catalina Island (California)Channel Islands Of CaliforniaChino HillsHollywood HillsOxnard PlainPalos Verdes HillsPuente HillsSan Fernando ValleySan Gabriel MountainsSan Gabriel ValleySan Jacinto MountainsSanta Ana MountainsSanta Monica MountainsSanta Susana MountainsSierra Pelona MountainsSimi HillsVerdugo MountainsLos Angeles RiverAliso Creek (Orange County)Arroyo CalabasasArroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)Ballona CreekBell Creek (Southern California)Big Bear LakeCoyote Creek (San Gabriel River)Lake Arrowhead ReservoirLake Gregory (California)Lake PerrisLake PiruLos Angeles AqueductMalibu CreekMojave RiverPacific OceanPyramid Lake (Los Angeles County, California)Rio Hondo (California)San Gabriel River (California)San Juan CreekSanta Ana RiverSanta Clara River (California)Santa Margarita RiverSanta Monica BayTujunga WashHelp:CategoryCategory:Bays Of CaliforniaCategory:Ports And Harbors Of CaliforniaCategory:Bodies Of Water Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Bodies Of Water Of Orange County, CaliforniaCategory:Los Angeles Harbor RegionCategory:San Pedro, Los AngelesCategory:Geography Of Los AngelesCategory:Geography Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Geography Of Long Beach, CaliforniaCategory:History Of Los AngelesCategory:History Of Long Beach, CaliforniaCategory:Terminal IslandCategory:Coordinates On WikidataDiscussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

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