Contents 1 History 2 Mission industries 3 Mission bells 4 Visitors 5 Matrimonial Investigation Records of the San Gabriel Mission 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] Mission San Gabriel was founded on September 8, 1771 by Fray Angel Francisico de Sonera and Fray Pedro Benito Cambon. The planned site for the Mission was along the banks of the Río de los Temblores (the River of the Earthquakes—the Santa Ana River). The priests chose an alternate site on a fertile plain located directly alongside the Rio Hondo in the Whittier Narrows.[12] The site of the Misión Vieja (or "Old Mission") is located near the intersection of San Gabriel Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue. In 1776, a flash flood destroyed much of the crops and ruined the Mission complex, which was subsequently relocated five miles closer to the mountains in present-day San Gabriel (the native settlement of 'Iisanchanga). The Mission is the base from which the pueblo that became the city of Los Angeles was sent. On December 9, 1812 (the "Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin"), a series of massive earthquakes shook Southern California. The 1812 Wrightwood earthquake caused the three-bell campanario, located adjacent to the chapel's east façade, to collapse. A larger, six-bell structure was subsequently constructed at the far end of the capilla. While no pictorial record exists to document what the original structure looked like, architectural historian Rexford Newcomb deduced the design and published a depiction in his 1916 work The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta (upper) California. Legend has it that the founding expedition was confronted by a large group of native Tongva peoples whose intention was to drive the strangers away. One of the priests laid a painting of "Our Lady of Sorrows" on the ground for all to see, whereupon the natives, designated by the settlers as the Gabrieliños, immediately made peace with the missionaries, because they were so moved by the painting's beauty.[1] Today the 300-year-old work hangs in front of and slightly to the left of the old high altar and reredos in the Mission's sanctuary. A large stone cross stands in the center of the campo santo (cemetery), first consecrated in 1778 and then again on January 29, 1939 by the Los Angeles Archbishop John Cantwell. It serves as the final resting place for some 6,000 "neophytes;" a small stone marker denotes the gravesite of José de Los Santos, the last American Indian to be buried on the grounds, at the age of 101 in February 1921. Also interred at the Mission are the bodies of numerous Franciscan priests who died during their time of service, as well as the remains of Reverend Raymond Catalan, C.M.F., who undertook the restoration of the Mission's gardens. Entombed at the foot of the altar are the remains of eight Franciscan priests (listed in order of interment): Miguel Sánchez, Antonio Cruzado, Francisco Dumetz, Roman Ulibarri, Joaquin P. Nuez, Gerónimo Boscana, José Bernardo Sánchez, and Blas Ordaz. Buried among the priests is centenarian Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné, the "keeper of the keys" under Spanish rule; her grave is marked by a bench dedicated in her memory. Mission San Gabriel Arcángel c. 1900. The trail in the foreground is part of the original El Camino Real. Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834, making it the most prolific in the mission chain. In its heyday it furnished food and supplies to settlements and other missions throughout California. A majority of the Mission structures fell into ruins after it was secularized in November 1834. The once-extensive vineyards were falling to decay, with fences broken down and animals roaming freely through it.[13] The Mission's chapel functioned as a parish church for the City of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908, when the Claretian Missionaries came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the Mission. In 1874, tracks were laid for Southern Pacific Railroad near the mission. In 2012, artifacts from the mission era were found when the tracks were lowered into a trench known as the Alameda Corridor-East.[14] On October 1, 1987 the Whittier Narrows earthquake damaged the property. A significant portion of the original complex has since been restored.

Mission industries[edit] The goal of the missions was to become self-sufficient in relatively short order. Farming was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the missions, the native-Americans had developed a complex, self-sufficient culture. The missionaries believed the native Tongva people were inferior and in need of conversion to Christianity. The mission priests established what they thought of as a manual training school: to teach the Indians their style of agriculture, the mechanical arts, and the raising and care of livestock. The missions, utilizing the labor of the neophytes, produced everything they used and consumed. After 1811, the mission Indians could be said to sustain the entire military and civil government of California.[15] "The names of the rancherias associated with San Gabriel Mission were: Acuragna, Alyeupkigna, Awigna, Azucsagna, Cahuenga, Chokishgna, Chowigna, Cucomogna, Hahaulogna, Harasgna, Houtgna, Hutucgna, Isanthcogna, Maugna, Nacaugna, Pascegna, Pasinogna, Pimocagna, Pubugna, Sibagna, Sisitcanogna, Sonagna, Suangna, Tibahagna, Toviscanga, Toybipet, Yangna."[16] To efficiently manage its extensive lands, Mission San Gabriel established several outlying sub-missions, known as asistencias. Several of these became or were included in land grants following the Mexican secularization of the missions in the 1830s, including: Rancho Santa Ana del Chino Rancho La Puente San Bernardino de Sena Estancia Rancho Santa Anita In 1816, the Mission built a grist mill on a nearby creek. El Molino Viejo still stands, now preserved as a museum and historic landmark. Other mission industries included cowhide tanning/exporting and tallow-rendering (for making soap and for export), lime kilns, tile making, cloth weaving for blankets and clothing, and adobe bricks.

Mission bells[edit] Bells were important to daily life at any mission. They were rung to mark mealtimes, to call the Mission residents to work and to religious services, to mark births and funerals, to signal the approach of a ship or returning missionary, and at other times; novices were instructed in the intricate rituals associated with the ringing of the mission bells.The mission bells were also used to tell time.

Visitors[edit] Today visitors can tour the church, museum and grounds. The adobe museum building was built in 1812 and was originally used for sleeping quarters and book storage.[17] Exhibits include mission relics, books and religious artifacts. The grounds feature operations from the original mission complex, including indoor and outdoor kitchens, winery, water cisterns, soap and candle vats, tanning vats for preparing cattle hides, and a cemetery. There is also a gift shop. A streetcar of the Pacific Electric Railway makes a stop at Mission San Gabriel Arcángel c. 1905.

Matrimonial Investigation Records of the San Gabriel Mission[edit] As part of the William McPherson Collection in the Special Collections at Claremont Colleges’ Honnold/Mudd Library, the Matrimonial Investigation Records of the San Gabriel Mission are a valuable resource for research on the pre-statehood activities of the Mission.[18] William McPherson was a rancher, scholar, and collector from Orange County, California who donated his extensive collection of mission documents, primarily from the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, to Special Collections in 1964.[18][19] The matrimonial records span 1788–1861 and are notarized interviews with couples wanting to marry in the Roman Catholic Church, performed to establish the couples’ freedom to marry.[18] The collection includes 165 investigations, with 173 men and 170 women.[18] Because the donated records are fragile, they are no longer available to be photocopied. The California Digital Library has an online guide available to search the collection.

See also[edit] Spanish missions in California Mission San Francisco Solano (California) Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles Asistencia El Molino Viejo San Bernardino Asistencia USNS Mission San Gabriel (AO-124) – a Mission Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné Hugo Reid San Gabriel Mission High School Henninger Flats

Notes[edit] ^ a b Leffingwell, p. 43 ^ a b c d Krell, p. 113 ^ Ruscin, p. 41 ^ Yenne, p. 48 ^ Ruscin, p. 196 ^ Forbes, p. 202 ^ Engelhardt, San Diego Mission, pp. v, 228 "The military district of San Diego embraced the Missions of San Diego, San Luis Rey, San Juan Capistrano, and San Gabriel..." ^ Ruscin, p. 195 ^ a b c Krell, p. 315: as of December 31, 1832; information adapted from Engelhardt's Missions and Missionaries of California. ^ "San Gabriel Arcángel". California Missions. Archived from the original on 2009-03-27. Retrieved 14 March 2009.  ^ Robert A. Bellezza. Missions of Los Angeles.  ^ McCawley, p 189 ^ Pasadena Star News ^ Pool, Bob (February 6, 2012). "At a planned train trench, an archaeological treasure trove". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 July 2017.  ^ Earnhardt 1922, p. 211 ^ "History of San Gabriel Arcangel Mission". Access Genealogy. Retrieved 2014-03-15.  ^ "Mission, Museum, Grounds, Gardens, and Gift Shop", San Gabriel Mission ^ a b c d Claremont Colleges Digital Library. Claremont Colleges Digital Library. ^ Special Collections. William McPherson Collection.

References[edit] Baer, Kurt (1958). Architecture of the California Missions. University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA.  Engelhardt, Zephyrin, O.F.M. (1920). San Diego Mission. James H. Barry Company, San Francisco, CA. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Engelhardt, Zephyrin, O.F.M. (1922). San Juan Capistrano Mission. Standard Printing Co., Los Angeles, CA. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Engelhardt, Zephyrin (1931). Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. Franciscan Herald Press, Chicago, IL.  Forbes, Alexander (1839). California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co., Cornhill, London.  Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar (eds.) (2007). California Prehistory: Colonization, Culture, and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Krell, Dorothy (ed.) (1979). The California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-376-05172-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Leffingwell, Randy (2005). California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions. Voyageur Press, Inc., Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5.  McCawley, William (2006). The First Angelinos: The Gabrielino Indians of Los Angeles. Malki Museum Press and Ballena Press, Banning and Novato, CA. ISBN 0-9651016-1-4.  Newcomb, Rexford (1973). The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta California. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. ISBN 0-486-21740-X.  Paddison, Joshua (ed.) (1999). A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Ruscin, Terry (1999). Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8.  Wright, R. (1950). California's Missions. Hubert A. and Martha H. Lowman, Arroyo Grande, CA.  Yenne, Bill (2004). The Missions of California. Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8.  Young, S. & Levick, M. (1988). The Missions of California. Chronicle Books LLC, San Francisco, CA. ISBN 0-8118-3694-0. 

External links[edit] San Gabriel Mission Parish Elevation and Site Layout sketches of the Mission proper Listing, drawings, and photographs at the Historic American Buildings Survey Official website of the Gabrieleno/Tongva Tribal Council of San Gabriel San Gabriel Mission High Details of the Mission and photos Mission's Fan Page on Facebook Matrimonial Investigation Records of the San Gabriel Mission at Claremont Colleges Digital Library Howser, Huell (December 8, 2000). "California Missions (102)". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.  Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. v t e Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles v t e Bishops of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles Bishop of Two Californias Francisco García Diego y Moreno Bishop of Monterey Joseph Sadoc Alemany Bishops of Monterey-Los Angeles Thaddeus Amat y Brusi Francisco Mora y Borrell George Thomas Montgomery Thomas James Conaty John Joseph Cantwell Bishop of Los Angeles-San Diego John Joseph Cantwell Archbishops of Los Angeles John Joseph Cantwell James Francis Cardinal McIntyre Timothy Cardinal Manning Roger Cardinal Mahony José Horacio Gómez Auxiliary bishops, current Thomas John Curry Gerald Eugene Wilkerson Edward W. Clark Alexander Salazar Joseph Brennan David O'Connell Robert Barron Auxiliary bishops, former Juan Alfredo Arzube Alden John Bell Stephen Blaire Joseph Patrick Dougherty Carl Anthony Fisher William Robert Johnson William Levada Joseph Thomas McGucken Donald William Montrose Manuel Duran Moreno Armando Xavier Ochoa Sylvester Donovan Ryan Joseph Martin Sartoris Thaddeus Anthony Shubsda John J. Ward Gabino Zavala George Patrick Ziemann Oscar Azarcon Solis Priests who became bishops Michael Patrick Driscoll Justin Francis Rigali Catholicism portal v t e Churches in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles Archdiocese Cathedral Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Cathedral, former Cathedral of Saint Vibiana Our Lady of the Angels Pastoral Region Deanery 13 (Westside) Corpus Christi Catholic Church, Pacific Palisades St. Monica Catholic Church, Santa Monica St. Augustine Catholic Church, Culver City St. Martin of Tours Catholic Church, Brentwood St. Timothy Catholic Church, Los Angeles Church of the Good Shepherd, Beverly Hills St. Ambrose Church, West Hollywood Saint Victor Catholic Church, West Hollywood Deanery 14 (Central LA/Hollywood) Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church, Hollywood Cathedral Chapel, Los Angeles Christ the King Catholic Church, Los Angeles St. Basil Catholic Church, Wilshire St. Brendan Catholic Church, Los Angeles Deanery 15 (Downtown/South) Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles Precious Blood Catholic Church,Los Angeles St. Cecilia Catholic Church, Los Angeles St. Patrick Catholic Church, Los Angeles St. Thomas the Apostle Catholic Church, Los Angeles St. Vincent de Paul Church, Los Angeles Deanery 16 (South LA/Inglewood): St. John Chrysostom Church, Inglewood St. Odilia Church, Los Angeles Ascension Catholic Church, Los Angeles Spanish Mission La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles Note: This is not a Spanish Mission, but rather, a parish church. 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Notre Dame Academy, Los Angeles (Girls) St. Bernard High School, Playa del Rey St. Mary's Academy, Inglewood (Girls) St. Monica Catholic High School, Santa Monica Verbum Dei High School, Watts (Boys) High schools, closed Daniel Murphy High School, Los Angeles San Fernando Pastoral Region Universities and Colleges: High schools Bellarmine-Jefferson High School, Burbank Bishop Alemany High School, Mission Hills Chaminade High School, West Hills Crespi Carmelite High School, Encino Flintridge Sacred Heart Academy, La Cañada Flintridge Holy Family High School, Glendale Louisville High School, Woodland Hills Notre Dame High School, Sherman Oaks Paraclete High School, Lancaster Providence High School, Burbank St. Francis High School, La Cañada Flintridge St. Genevieve High School, Panorama City San Gabriel Pastoral Region Universities and Colleges: High schools Ramona Convent Secondary School, Alhambra St. Lucy's Priory High School, Glendora Bishop Amat Memorial High School, La Puente Damien High School, La Verne Salesian High School, Los Angeles Cantwell-Sacred Heart of Mary High School, Montebello La Salle High School, Pasadena Mayfield Senior School, Pasadena St. Monica Academy, Pasadena Pomona Catholic High School, Pomona San Gabriel Mission High School, San Gabriel Alverno High School, Sierra Madre San Pedro Pastoral Region Universities and Colleges Marymount College, Palos Verdes High schools St. John Bosco High School, Bellflower Queen of Angels Academy, Compton St. Pius X / St. Matthias Academy, Downey Junipero Serra High School, Gardena St. Joseph High School, Lakewood St. Anthony High School, Long Beach Don Bosco High School, Rosemead Mary Star of the Sea High School, San Pedro St. Paul High School, Santa Fe Springs Bishop Montgomery High School, Torrance Santa Barbara Pastoral Region Universities and Colleges St. John's Seminary, Camarillo Thomas Aquinas College, Santa Paula High schools Bishop Garcia Diego High School, Santa Barbara La Reina High School, Thousand Oaks St. Bonaventure High School, Ventura St. Joseph High School, Santa Maria Santa Clara High School, Oxnard Villanova Preparatory School, Ojai v t e Hospitals and Cemeteries in the Archdiocese of Los Angeles Our Lady of the Angels Pastoral Region Hospitals Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica Cemeteries Crypt Mausoleum of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City San Fernando Pastoral Region Hospitals Northridge Hospital Medical Center, Northridge Providence Holy Cross Medical Center, Mission Hills Cemeteries San Fernando Mission Cemetery, San Fernando San Gabriel Pastoral Region Hospitals: Cemeteries Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles San Pedro Pastoral Region Hospitals: Cemeteries: Santa Barbara Pastoral Region Hospitals: Cemeteries: Catholicism portal v t e Franciscan Missions in California San Diego de Alcalá (1769) San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo (1770) San Antonio de Padua (1771) San Gabriel Arcángel (1771) San Luis Obispo 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Mission San Gabriel Arcángel1812 Wrightwood EarthquakeMission San Gabriel Arcángel Is Located In The Los Angeles Metropolitan AreaSan Gabriel, CaliforniaGeographic Coordinate SystemPatron SaintGabriel (archangel)Wikipedia:Citation NeededJunípero SerraSpanish Missions In CaliforniaNative Americans In The United StatesTongva PeopleBaptismSecularizationCatholic ChurchRoman Catholic Archdiocese Of Los AngelesNational Register Of Historic PlacesCalifornia Historical LandmarkRoman CatholicMission (station)San Gabriel, CaliforniaSpainFranciscanBlessed Virgin MarySpanish Missions In CaliforniaGabriel (archangel)Antonio CruzadoCórdoba, SpainIslamic ArchitectureSanta Ana RiverRio Hondo (California)Pueblo De Los AngelesLos AngelesEarthquake1812 Wrightwood EarthquakeRexford NewcombTongva PeopleReredosSanctuaryCemeteryJohn Joseph CantwellFranciscanFrancisco DumetzGerónimo BoscanaJosé Bernardo SánchezEulalia Perez De Guillén MarinéEnlargeEl Camino Real (California)BaptismSecularizationParishClaretian MissionariesSouthern PacificAlameda Corridor1987 Whittier Narrows EarthquakeFarmingIndustryTongvaRancheriaAcuragna, CaliforniaAlyeupkigna, CaliforniaAwigna, CaliforniaAzucsagna, CaliforniaCahuenga, CaliforniaChokishgna, CaliforniaChowigna, CaliforniaCucamonga (former Settlement), CaliforniaHarasgna, CaliforniaIsanthcogna, CaliforniaMaugna, CaliforniaNacaugna, CaliforniaPasinogna, CaliforniaPimocagna, CaliforniaPubugna, CaliforniaSibagna, CaliforniaSisitcanogna, CaliforniaSonagna, CaliforniaSuangna, CaliforniaToviseanga, CaliforniaHistory Of Hispanic And Latino AmericansRancho Santa Ana Del ChinoRancho La PuenteSan Bernardino De Sena EstanciaRancho Santa AnitaGrist MillEl Molino ViejoLime KilnAdobeEnlargeStreetcarPacific Electric RailwayClaremont CollegesOrange County, CaliforniaCalifornia Digital LibrarySpanish Missions In CaliforniaMission San Francisco Solano (California)Nuestra Señora Reina De Los Angeles AsistenciaEl Molino ViejoSan Bernardino AsistenciaUSNS Mission San Gabriel (AO-124)USNS Mission Buenaventura (AO‑111)Oiler (ship)World War IIEulalia Perez De Guillén MarinéHugo ReidSan Gabriel Mission High SchoolHenninger FlatsLos Angeles TimesZephyrin EngelhardtCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-7591-0872-2Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-376-05172-8Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-89658-492-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-9651016-1-4International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-486-21740-XInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-890771-13-9Category:CS1 Maint: Extra Text: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-932653-30-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-59223-319-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-8118-3694-0Historic American Buildings SurveyHuell HowserChapman UniversityTemplate:Roman Catholic Archdiocese Of Los AngelesTemplate Talk:Roman Catholic Archdiocese Of Los AngelesRoman Catholic Archdiocese Of Los AngelesTemplate:Ordinaries Of The Archdiocese Of Los AngelesTemplate Talk:Ordinaries Of The Archdiocese Of Los AngelesFrancisco García Diego Y MorenoJoseph Sadoc AlemanyThaddeus Amat Y BrusiFrancisco Mora Y BorrellGeorge Thomas MontgomeryThomas James ConatyJohn Joseph CantwellJohn Joseph CantwellJohn Joseph CantwellJames Francis McIntyreTimothy ManningRoger MahonyJosé Horacio GómezThomas John CurryGerald Eugene WilkersonEdward William ClarkAlexander SalazarJoseph Vincent BrennanDavid G. O'ConnellRobert Barron (bishop)Juan Alfredo ArzubeAlden John BellStephen BlaireJoseph Patrick DoughertyCarl Anthony FisherWilliam Robert JohnsonWilliam LevadaJoseph Thomas McGuckenDonald MontroseManuel Duran MorenoArmando Xavier OchoaSylvester Donovan RyanJoseph Martin SartorisThaddeus Anthony ShubsdaJohn Ward (Auxiliary Bishop Of Los Angeles)Gabino ZavalaGeorge Patrick ZiemannOscar A. 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