Contents 1 Geography 2 Habitat 3 Government and political representation 3.1 Representation 3.2 Politics 3.3 Services 4 History 4.1 Pre-California statehood 4.2 California statehood and beyond 4.3 20th century 4.4 21st century 5 Parks and recreation 5.1 Small garden parks and missions 5.2 Recreation areas 5.3 Mountain open-space parks 6 Municipalities and neighborhoods 6.1 Incorporated cities (independent) 6.2 Unincorporated communities 6.3 City of Los Angeles neighborhoods of the San Fernando Valley 7 Economy 7.1 Adult entertainment 7.2 Utilities and infrastructure 8 Transportation 8.1 Automobiles 8.2 Rapid transit 8.3 Rail and air 9 Education 10 Culture 11 Museums 12 Convention center 13 Performing arts venues 14 Amusement parks 15 Healthcare 16 Valley independence and secession 16.1 Independence movements 16.2 District renamings 17 Demographics 18 Property values 19 See also 20 References 21 Further reading 22 External links

Geography[edit] The San Fernando Valley is about 260 square miles (670 km2)[1] bound by the Santa Susana Mountains to the northwest, the Simi Hills to the west, the Santa Monica Mountains and Chalk Hills to the south, the Verdugo Mountains to the east, and the San Gabriel Mountains to the northeast. The northern Sierra Pelona Mountains, northwestern Topatopa Mountains, southern Santa Ana Mountains, and Downtown Los Angeles skyscrapers can be seen from higher neighborhoods, passes, and parks in the San Fernando Valley. The Los Angeles River begins at the confluence of Calabasas Creek (Arroyo Calabasas) and Bell Creek (Escorpión Creek), between Canoga Park High School and Owensmouth Ave. (just north of Vanowen Street) in Canoga Park. These creeks' headwaters are in the Santa Monica Calabasas foothills, the Simi Hills' Hidden Hills, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, and Santa Susana Pass Park lands. The river flows eastward along the southern regions of the Valley. One of the river's two unpaved sections can be found at the Sepulveda Basin. A seasonal river, the Tujunga Wash, drains much of the western facing San Gabriel Mountains and passes into and then through the Hansen Dam Recreation Center in Lake View Terrace. It flows south along the Verdugo Mountains through the eastern communities of the valley to join the Los Angeles River in Studio City. Other notable tributaries of the river include Dayton Creek, Caballero Creek, Bull Creek, Pacoima Wash, and Verdugo Wash. The elevation of the floor of the valley varies from about 600 ft (180 m) to 1,200 ft (370 m) above sea level. Most of the San Fernando Valley is within the jurisdiction of the city of Los Angeles, although a few other incorporated cities are located within the valley as well: Burbank and Glendale are in the southeast corner of the valley, Hidden Hills and Calabasas are in the southwest corner, and San Fernando, which is completely surrounded by Los Angeles, is in the northeast valley. Universal City, an enclave in the southern part of the valley, is unincorporated land housing the Universal Studios filming lot and theme park. Mulholland Drive, which runs along the ridgeline of the Santa Monica Mountains, marks the boundary between the valley and the communities of Hollywood and the Los Angeles Westside.

Habitat[edit] The valley's natural habitat is a "temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome" of grassland, oak savanna, and chaparral shrub forest types of plant community habitats, along with lush riparian plants along the river, creeks, and springs. In this Mediterranean climate, post-1790s European agriculture for the mission's support consisted of grapes, figs, olives, and general garden crops.[2]

Government and political representation[edit] The West Valley Regional Branch of the Los Angeles Public Library, in Reseda The San Fernando Valley contains five incorporated cities—Glendale, Burbank, San Fernando, Hidden Hills, and Calabasas—and part of a sixth, Los Angeles, which governs a majority of the valley. The unincorporated communities (Census-designated places) are governed by the County of Los Angeles. Representation[edit] The Los Angeles city section of the valley is divided into seven city council districts: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12. Of the 95 neighborhood councils in the city, 34 are in the valley. The valley is represented in the California State Legislature by seven members of the State Assembly and five members of the State Senate. The valley is divided into three congressional districts. It is represented in Congress by senior figures,[3] including Representative Brad Sherman (D), Representative Ted Lieu (D), and Representative Tony Cardenas (D). In the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, it is represented by two supervisorial districts, with the western portion represented by Sheila Kuehl and the eastern portion by Michael D. Antonovich, who lives in Glendale. Politics[edit] The San Fernando Valley, for the most part, tends to support Democrats in state and national elections. This is especially true in the southern areas which include Sherman Oaks and the city of Burbank.[citation needed] Services[edit] The Los Angeles satellite administrative center for the valley, The Civic Center Van Nuys, is in Van Nuys. The area in and around the Van Nuys branch of Los Angeles City Hall is home to a police station, municipal and superior courts and Los Angeles city and county administrative offices. Northridge is home to California State University, Northridge (originally named San Fernando Valley State College). Many branches of the Los Angeles Public Library are located in the valley. For independent libraries see "Incorporated Cities (independent)" in the "Municipalities and districts" list below. Los Angeles Police Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, and independent valley city departments. Los Angeles Fire Department, Los Angeles County Fire Department, Burbank Police Department, and independent valley city departments. City of Los Angeles Neighborhood Councils Panorama of San Fernando Valley from Universal Studios

History[edit] Main article: History of the San Fernando Valley Mission San Fernando: in a circa 1900 postcard Pre-California statehood[edit] The Tongva, later known as the Gabrieleño Mission Indians after colonization, and the Tataviam to the north and Chumash to the west, had lived and thrived in the valley and its arroyos for over 8,000 years.[4] They had numerous settlements, and trading and hunting camps, before the Spanish arrived in 1769 to settle in the Valley.[5] The first Spanish land grant in the San Fernando Valley (or El Valle de Santa Catalina de Bononia de los Encinos[6]) was called "Rancho Encino" (present-day Mission Hills on the Camino Viejo before Newhall Pass), in the northern part of the San Fernando Valley. Juan Francisco Reyes built an adobe dwelling beside a Tongva village or rancheria at natural springs, but the land was soon taken from him so a mission could be built there.[7] Mission San Fernando Rey de España was established in 1797 as the 17th of the 21 missions.[8] The land trade granted Juan Francisco Reyes the similarly named Rancho Los Encinos, also beside springs (Los Encinos State Historic Park in present-day Encino). Later the Mexican land grants of Rancho El Escorpión (West Hills), Rancho Providencia and Rancho Cahuenga (Burbank), and Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando (rest of valley) covered the San Fernando Valley.[citation needed] The Treaty of Cahuenga, ending the Mexican–American War fighting in Alta California, was signed in 1847 by Californios and Americans at Campo de Cahuenga, the Verdugo Family adobe at the entrance to the Cahuenga Pass in the southeast San Fernando Valley (North Hollywood). The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the entire war. California statehood and beyond[edit] In 1874, dry wheat farming was introduced by J. B. Lankershim and Isaac Van Nuys, which became very productive for their San Fernando Homestead Association that owned the southern half of the valley. In 1876 they sent the very first wheat shipment from both San Pedro Harbor and from the United States to Europe.[9] 20th century[edit] Aqueduct Main article: Los Angeles Aqueduct Crowds gather to see the first water reaching the valley via the new aqueduct Through the late-19th-century court decision Los Angeles v. Pomeroy, Los Angeles had won the rights to all surface flow water atop an aquifer beneath the valley, without it being within the city limits.[10] San Fernando Valley farmers offered to buy the surplus aqueduct water, but the federal legislation that enabled the construction of the aqueduct prohibited Los Angeles from selling the water outside of the city limits.[11] This induced several independent towns surrounding Los Angeles to vote on and approve annexation to the city so they could connect to the municipal water system. These rural areas became part of Los Angeles in 1915.[12] The Los Angeles Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by Harry Chandler, Hobart Johnstone Whitley, president of the company,[12] Henry E. Huntington, extended his Pacific Electric Railway (Red Cars) through the Valley to Owensmouth (now Canoga Park) and laid out plans for roads and the towns of Lankershim (now North Hollywood) and Van Nuys.[citation needed] The rural areas were annexed by Los Angeles in 1915.[13] The growing towns voted for annexation—for example: Owensmouth (Canoga Park) in 1915,[14] Laurel Canyon and Lankershim in 1923,[15]:45 Sunland in 1926,[15]:29 La Tuna Canyon in 1926, and the incorporated city of Tujunga in an eight-year process lasting from 1927 to 1935.[16] These annexations more than doubled the area of the city. The aqueduct water shifted farming in the area from dry crop, such as wheat, to irrigated crops, such as corn, beans, squash, and cotton; orchards of apricots, persimmons, and walnuts; and major citrus groves of oranges and lemons.[13] They continued until the next increment of development converted land use, with post-war suburbanization leaving only a few enclaves, such as the "open-air museum" groves at the Orcutt Ranch Park and CSUN campus. Developments Six valley cities incorporated independently from Los Angeles: Glendale in 1906, Burbank and San Fernando in 1911, Hidden Hills in 1961, and Calabasas in 1991. Universal City remains an unincorporated enclave that is home to Universal Studios theme park and Universal CityWalk later in the century. Other unincorporated areas in the valley are Bell Canyon. The advent of three new industries in the early 20th century—motion pictures, automobiles, and aircraft—also spurred urbanization and population growth. World War II production and the subsequent postwar boom accelerated this growth so that between 1945 and 1960, the valley's population had quintupled.[17] Los Angeles continued to consolidate its territories in the San Fernando Valley by annexing the former Rancho El Escorpión for Canoga Park-West Hills in 1959, and the huge historic "Porter Ranch" at the foot of the Santa Susana Mountains for the new planned developments in Porter Ranch in 1965.[citation needed] The additions expanded the Los Angeles portion of San Fernando Valley from the original 169 square miles (438 km2) to 224 square miles (580 km2) today. Northridge earthquake Main article: 1994 Northridge earthquake The 1994 Northridge earthquake struck on January 17 and measured 6.7 on the Moment magnitude scale. It produced the largest ground motions ever recorded in an urban environment and was the first earthquake that had its hypocenter located directly under a U.S. city since the Long Beach earthquake of 1933.[18] It caused the greatest damage in the United States since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[19] Although given the name "Northridge", the epicenter was located in the community of Reseda, between Arminta and Ingomar streets, just west of Reseda Boulevard.[20] The death toll was 57 and more than 1,500 people were seriously injured. A few days after the earthquake, 9,000 homes and businesses were still without electricity; 20,000 were without gas; and more than 48,500 had little or no water. About 12,500 structures were moderately to severely damaged, which left thousands of people temporarily homeless. Of the 66,546 buildings inspected, 6% were severely damaged (red tagged) and 17% were moderately damaged (yellow tagged). In addition, damage to several major freeways serving Los Angeles choked the traffic system in the days following the earthquake. Major freeway damage occurred as far away as 25 miles (40 km) from the epicenter. Collapses and other severe damage forced closure of portions of 11 major roads to downtown Los Angeles.[21] This was the second time in 23 years that the San Fernando Valley had been affected by a strong earthquake. On February 9, 1971, a magnitude-6.5 event struck about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of the epicenter of the 1994 event. The 1971 earthquake caused 58 fatalities and about 2,000 injuries. At the time, the 1971 San Fernando earthquake was the most destructive event to affect greater Los Angeles since the magnitude-6.3 Long Beach earthquake of 1933.[22] 21st century[edit] Contemporary era By the late 1990s the San Fernando Valley had become more urban and more ethnically diverse with rising poverty and crime. In 2002, the valley tried to secede from the city of Los Angeles and become its own incorporated city to escape Los Angeles' perceived poverty, crime, gang activity, urban decay, and poorly maintained infrastructure. Since that unsuccessful secession attempt, a new Van Nuys municipal building was built in 2003; the Metro Orange Line opened in October 2005; 35 new public schools had opened up by 2012, and the valley's ethnic majority is now Hispanic, edging out Whites by 0.8%. By 2017, numerous urban development projects began in the valley, mainly in the LA City neighborhoods of North Hollywood, Panorama City, and Woodland Hills. These projects started with the first few in Woodland Hills and the NoHo West project in North Hollywood began groundbreaking and construction on April 6, 2017.

Parks and recreation[edit] The San Fernando Valley is home to numerous neighborhood city parks, recreation areas and large Regional Open Space preserves. Many preserves are maintained as public parkland by the National Park Service's Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, the California State Parks, and local county and municipal parks districts. Small garden parks and missions[edit] The Japanese Garden The gardens at Adobes The Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center The Leonis Adobe The Andrés Pico adobe Los Encinos State Historic Park Mission San Fernando Recreation areas[edit] Griffith Park, located at the southeastern end of the valley in the Hollywood Hills Sepulveda Dam recreation area Hansen Dam recreation area Los Angeles River, with parks of various sizes along the part of the river located in the valley Mountain open-space parks[edit] Victory Trailhead to the Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve, West Hills Backbone Trail System Bell Canyon Park Brand Park Chatsworth Park South Deukmejian Wilderness Park El Escorpión Park Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail La Tuna Park Laurel Canyon Park Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park O'Melveny Park above Granada Hills Rocky Peak Park Sage Ranch Park (located in Simi Valley) Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park Topanga State Park Upper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space Preserve Verdugo Mountains Open Space Preserve Wilacre Park

Municipalities and neighborhoods[edit] Communities of the Valley as delineated by the Los Angeles Times[23] Incorporated cities (independent)[edit] Los Angeles Burbank Calabasas Glendale Hidden Hills San Fernando Unincorporated communities[edit] Bell Canyon Calabasas Highlands Kagel Canyon Universal City West Chatsworth City of Los Angeles neighborhoods of the San Fernando Valley[edit] Arleta Cahuenga Pass Canoga Park Chatsworth Encino Granada Hills La Tuna Canyon Lake Balboa Lake View Terrace Mission Hills NoHo Arts District North Hills North Hollywood Northridge Pacoima Panorama City Porter Ranch Reseda Shadow Hills+ Sherman Oaks Studio City Sun Valley Sunland-Tujunga+ Sylmar Tarzana Toluca Lake Valley Glen Valley Village Van Nuys Warner Center West Hills Winnetka Woodland Hills + These communities are also included in the Crescenta Valley.

Economy[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Valley is home to numerous companies, the most well-known of which work in motion pictures, music recording, and television production. The former movie ranches were branches of original studios now consisting of CBS Studio Center, NBCUniversal, The Walt Disney Company (and its ABC television network), and Warner Bros. The valley was previously known for advances in aerospace technology and nuclear research by companies such as Lockheed, Rocketdyne and its Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Atomics International, Litton Industries, Marquardt, and TRW's predecessor Thompson Ramo Wooldridge. Adult entertainment[edit] The valley became the pioneering region for producing adult films in the 1970s and grew to become home to a multibillion-dollar pornography industry, earning the monikers "Porn Valley",[24][25] "Silicone Valley" (in contrast to Silicon Valley, nickname for the Santa Clara Valley),[26][27][28][29][30][31] and "San Pornando Valley".[32][33] The leading trade paper for the industry, AVN magazine, is based in the Northwest Valley, as were a majority of U.S. adult video and magazine distributors. The Paul Thomas Anderson film, Boogie Nights explores these aspects of the valley. According to the HBO series Pornucopia, at one time, nearly 90% of all legally distributed pornographic films made in the United States were either filmed in or produced by studios based in the San Fernando Valley. The pornography industry began to decline by the mid-2000s, due, for the most part, to the growing amount of free content on the Internet which undercut consumers' willingness to pay. In 2007, industry insiders estimated that revenue for most adult production and distribution companies had declined 30% to 50% and the number of new films made had fallen sharply.[34] Utilities and infrastructure[edit] Most of the utilities in the valley are served by public municipal governments, primarily the cities of Los Angeles, Burbank, and Glendale, while there are only two private-owned utilities for gas and electricity in the valley as well. Southern California Edison has their overhead power lines going through the city of Burbank and through the Los Angeles city neighborhoods of Sylmar, Mission Hills, Arleta, North Hollywood, Studio City, Woodland Hills, Granada Hills, Porter Ranch, and Chatsworth as well. The valley is served by the following utility companies. Electricity Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (serves the entire Los Angeles city section of the valley which is two-thirds of the land area) Burbank Water and Power Southern California Edison (serves the cities of San Fernando and Hidden Hills)[35] Glendale Water and Power Natural gas Southern California Gas Company Water Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (serves the entire Los Angeles city section of the valley which is two-thirds of the land area) Burbank Water and Power City of San Fernando Metropolitan Water District Glendale Water and Power Phone service AT&T Frontier Communications Cable television Charter Communications (Spectrum) Sanitation City of Los Angeles City of San Fernando (Republic Services, Inc.) City of Burbank City of Glendale

Transportation[edit] Victory Boulevard in Van Nuys, lined with low-rise commercial establishments, is typical of the broad, straight boulevards in the San Fernando Valley. Automobiles[edit] The automobile still remains the dominant form of transportation in the valley. Major freeways cross the Valley, including Interstate 405 – San Diego Freeway; U.S. Route 101 – Ventura Freeway / Hollywood Freeway; State Route 118 – Reagan Freeway; State Route 170 – Hollywood Freeway; Interstate 210 – Foothill Freeway; and Interstate 5 – Golden State Freeway. Most of the major thoroughfares run on a cartographic grid: notable streets include Sepulveda Boulevard, Ventura Boulevard, Laurel Canyon Boulevard, San Fernando Road, Victory Boulevard, Reseda Boulevard, Riverside Drive, Mulholland Drive, and State Route 27 – Topanga Canyon Boulevard. Rapid transit[edit] Subway, dedicated transitway, and express and local buses, provided by many agencies, serve the San Fernando Valley. Some of the former rights-of-way of the Pacific Electric Railway, which first accelerated population growth in the Valley,[36] have been repurposed for busways and light rail lines. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates two Metro Red Line subway stations in the Valley, which are located at Universal City and North Hollywood, which connect it directly to Hollywood and Downtown Los Angeles. With transfers, they connect the Valley to the entire Metro regional light rail and subway network. Connections are available to Mid-Wilshire, San Gabriel Valley, LAX adjacent, and Long Beach termini. The Red Line's two Valley subway stations provide access to national travel through Bob Hope Airport and Amtrak and regional travel through Metrolink, Metro Rapid, Metro Local, and the Metro Orange Line. The Orange Line busway uses a dedicated transitway route running the east-west length of the Valley connecting the North Hollywood Red Line Station to the Warner Center Transit Hub in Woodland Hills and then heads north through Canoga Park to the Chatsworth Metrolink train station.[37] Rail and air[edit] Metrolink commuter rail has two Valley lines, the Antelope Valley Line and Ventura County Line, which connect the Valley and beyond to downtown Los Angeles and south, becoming one line at the Burbank station. Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner long-distance rail line has stops at Burbank Airport station, Van Nuys, and Chatsworth Station, before proceeding on to Ventura County, Santa Barbara, and Northern California or Union Station and San Diego. The California High-Speed Rail Authority is planning two stations in the Valley, one in downtown Burbank and the other in Sylmar, with an initial section of the railroad possibly opening in 2029. The Valley's two major airports are Bob Hope Airport and the Van Nuys Airport. The Van Nuys – Airport FlyAway Terminal provides non-stop scheduled shuttle service to LAX and back to the Valley, with parking.

Education[edit] Public schools in the San Fernando Valley are served by three unified school districts; Los Angeles Unified School District, the Glendale Unified School District and the Burbank Unified School District. There are four community colleges in the valley; Los Angeles Valley College in Valley Glen, Los Angeles Mission College in Sylmar, Los Angeles Pierce College in Woodland Hills and Glendale Community College in the College Hills neighborhood of Glendale. All except Glendale College are served by the Los Angeles Community College District. The only state university in the San Fernando Valley is; California State University Northridge in Northridge. In 1994 there were 180,000 PK-12 students attending Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) campuses in the Valley. During the same year, about 45,000 PK-12 students, or one in five of all such students, attended the over 200 private schools in the Valley.[38]

Culture[edit] Cultural assets in the San Fernando Valley include: The Great Wall of Los Angeles – A 2,754-foot-long mural designed by Judy Baca and painted on the sides of the Tujunga Wash, depicting the history of California.

Museums[edit] The San Fernando Valley only has three museums in the valley. One in Sylmar, Los Angeles and one in Glendale. The Museum of Neon Art (MONA) – Glendale museum dedicated to signs and fine art pieces that incorporate neon lighting into their designs. The Nethercutt Collection – Museum in Sylmar best known for its collection of classic automobiles, also has collections of mechanical musical instruments and antique furniture. Valley Relics Museum - Museum in Chatsworth dedicated to the history and pop culture of the San Fernando Valley.

Convention center[edit] The San Fernando Valley has a convention center located in the city of Burbank, east of the Burbank Airport.

Performing arts venues[edit] The San Fernando Valley has three performing arts venues. One in the Northridge neighborhood of Los Angeles, one in Glendale, and one in Burbank. The Alex Theatre – Originally constructed in 1925 and later redesigned, the center of arts and culture for the city of Glendale. The Starlight Bowl – A 5,000-capacity amphitheater built in 1950, located in Burbank. The Valley Performing Arts Center – Located on the CSUN campus, features a 1,700-seat concert hall.

Amusement parks[edit] The San Fernando Valley once had an amusement park in the Van Nuys neighborhood of Los Angeles which was Busch Gardens which was located near the widely known Budweiser factory in the middle of the valley, but torn down in the late 1970s and early 1980s due to declining business and opposition from nearby residents. As of now, The only amusement park in the San Fernando Valley is Universal Studios Hollywood in unincorporated Universal City.

Healthcare[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are two Kaiser Permanente hospitals in the San Fernando Valley, one in Panorama City and one in Woodland Hills serving the valley. Also, there are two Providence hospitals in Burbank and Mission Hills. Besides Kaiser Permanente and Providence hospitals, most of the valley is served by non-profit hospitals such as; Valley Presbyterian Hospital in Van Nuys, Northridge Hospital Medical Center in Northridge, Olive View – UCLA Medical Center in Sylmar, Encino Hospital Medical Center in Encino, and Sherman Oaks Hospital in Sherman Oaks.

Valley independence and secession[edit] Independence movements[edit] The Valley attempted to secede in the 1970s, but the state passed a law barring city formation without the approval of the City Council. In 1997, Assemblymen Bob Hertzberg and Tom McClintock helped pass a bill that would make it easier for the Valley to secede by removing the City Council veto. AB 62 was signed into law by Governor Pete Wilson. Meanwhile, a grassroots movement to split the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and create new San Fernando Valley-based school districts became the focal point of the desire to leave the city. Though the state rejected the idea of Valley-based districts, it remained an important rallying point for Hertzberg's mayoral campaign, which proved unsuccessful.[39] Measure F In 2002, the San Fernando Valley portion of Los Angeles again seriously campaigned to secede from the rest of the city and become its own new independent and incorporated city. The movement gained some momentum, as many San Fernando Valley residents within city limits felt they were not receiving Los Angeles city services on par with the rest of the city and their tax contributions. Before secession could come out for a vote, the Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO) studied the fiscal viability of the new city and decided that the new city must mitigate any fiscal loss incurred by the rest of Los Angeles. LAFCO concluded that a new San Fernando Valley city would be financially viable, but would need to mitigate the $60.8 million that the remaining portion of Los Angeles would lose in revenues. Secessionists took this figure as evidence that the Valley gave more money to Los Angeles than it received back in services. This triggered a petition drive led by Valley VOTE[40] to put secession on the ballot. Measures F (the proposed new SFV city) and H (the proposed new Hollywood City, which was on the same ballot) not only decided whether the valley became a city, but voters also got to pick a new name for it. The proposed names on the ballot were San Fernando Valley, Rancho San Fernando, Mission Valley, Valley City, and Camelot. (There was already a separate City of San Fernando in the San Fernando Valley, so that option was not available.) Along with Measures F and H, elections were held for fourteen council members and a mayor. "Valley City" was the chosen name for the proposed SFV city. Valley politicians such as State Senator Richard Alarcón and City Council President Alex Padilla opposed the initiatives. The leader of the LAUSD breakup and former congresswoman and busing opponent Bobbi Fiedler also campaigned against secession. Supporters pointed out that the Valley suffered from many of the same problems of poverty, crime, drug and gang activity as the rest of the city. Measure F did not receive the necessary votes to pass for the Valley to secede. The proposal passed with a slight majority in the Valley, but was defeated by the rest of Los Angeles due to a heavily funded campaign against it led by then-Los Angeles mayor James Hahn. Republican Assemblyman Keith Richman of Northridge was voted in as mayor of the stillborn city, which according to vote returns would have been named San Fernando Valley. Richman and other activists behind the secession movement attempted to redirect their civic energies toward influencing Los Angeles city politics, but their efforts largely fizzled. Hertzberg's 2005 mayoral campaign, which received heavy support in the Valley, nonetheless finished in third place (only a few percentage points behind incumbent Mayor Hahn), and no secession supporters were elected to positions on the Los Angeles City Council. Had the measure passed, the southern portion of the city would have remained as the city of Los Angeles, with about 2.1 million people. The northern Valley portion would have created a new municipality of 211 square miles (546 km2) with about 1.3 million residents. If secession had passed, the new City of San Fernando Valley would have been the seventh most populous city in the United States, after New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, Houston, Philadelphia, and Phoenix. Also, it would've been a new "twin cities" metropolitan area just like the twin cities metropolitan areas of, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, or Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. District renamings[edit] The NoHo Arts District was established and the name chosen as a reference for its location in North Hollywood and as a play off New York City's arts-centered SoHo District. According to the San Fernando Guide, the change helped develop a "primarily lower to middle-class suburb into … a collection of art and a home for the artists who ply their trade in the galleries, theaters and dance studios in this small annex."[41] According to the Lake Balboa Neighborhood Council, from 2002 through November 2007 there was a debate about the official recognition of Lake Balboa as a community by the City of Los Angeles. New community names were not sanctioned by the city until January 2006, when the city adopted a formal community-naming process (City of Los Angeles Council File Number 02 -0196). On November 2, 2007, the City Council of Los Angeles approved a motion renaming a larger portion of Van Nuys to Lake Balboa.[42]

Demographics[edit] Mission San Fernando Rey de España gardens The residents of the San Fernando Valley are predominantly Latino and White. As of 2012 the population of the San Fernando Valley was 1.77 million. Of the population 41.0% were non-Hispanic white, 41.8% were Hispanic or Latino, 4.6% were African Americans and 12.7% were Asian.[43] According to the 2010 United States Census, The largest city located entirely in the valley is Glendale. The most populous districts of Los Angeles in the Valley are North Hollywood and Van Nuys. Burbank and the two districts named each have more than 100,000 residents. Glendale has more than 196,000 residents. Despite the San Fernando Valley's reputation for sprawling, low-density development, the valley communities of Panorama City, North Hollywood, Van Nuys, Reseda, Canoga Park, and Northridge, all in Los Angeles, have numerous apartment complexes and contain some of the densest census tracts in Los Angeles. Asian Americans make up 10% of the population and live throughout the valley, but are most numerous in the Los Angeles communities of Chatsworth, Panorama City, North Hollywood, Reseda, Canoga Park, Northridge, Porter Ranch and Granada Hills. Unlike the San Gabriel Valley, whose Asian American population is predominantly Chinese, the San Fernando Valley's Asian American population is mostly Filipino and Korean with smaller concentrations of Thai, Vietnamese, and Indian. In contrast to the San Gabriel Valley, the population of Asian Americans is much smaller in the San Fernando Valley. Another large ethnic element of the populace is the Iranian community, with 200,000 people living mainly in west San Fernando Valley communities such as Tarzana, Calabasas, Woodland Hills, Encino, and Sherman Oaks. The valley is also home to a large Jewish community, with a large part of its population in the North Hollywood and Valley Village areas. African Americans compose 3.8% of the Valley's population, living mainly in the Los Angeles sections of Lake View Terrace, Pacoima, Reseda, North Hollywood, Van Nuys, and Northridge. The San Fernando Valley has a significant population below the poverty level. About 30 percent of Valley households in 2009 earned less than $35,000 a year, including 10 percent who made less than $15,000 a year.[44] The Pacoima district, once considered the hub of suburban blight and of having the highest poverty rate, is no longer such. Other San Fernando Valley neighborhoods such as North Hollywood, Panorama City, and Arleta now have poverty rates which are higher.[45] In general, the areas with lower poverty rates have become fewer and more scattered, while many of the now affluent communities have become compartmented, having their own private, planned and gated communities. Many of these tend to be on or near the borders of the Valley in the foothill regions.[46]

Property values[edit] In August 2005, the median price of an average one-family home in the San Fernando Valley reached $600,000. In 1997, it was only $155,000. In the summer of 2003, it reached $400,000 and by July 2005, it had reached $578,500. From July to August (one month) 2005, it rose by $100,000. A cooling off was noted in 2006, when between November 2005 and November 2006, median prices rose by the smallest amount of any 12-month period since mid-1997. Indeed, November prices were lower than October prices, and sales for November had fallen 19.1% compared to a year earlier.[47] The United States housing market correction affected the San Fernando Valley in 2007–2009, making housing significantly more affordable in the area: the median sales price fell from $660,000 at the peak in May 2007, to $500,000 by March 2008,[48] stabilizing in 2009 at around $330,000–$340,000.[49] The San Fernando Valley is home to one of the most expensive housing markets in the country. The median home value as of July 2014 is $536,000, the highest in the region in 8 years. [50]

See also[edit] Los Angeles portal Places CSUN Botanic Garden Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills), movie location Nestor Studios, valley ranch Providencia Ranch, Oak Crest – Universal Bison 101 Movies Rancho El Escorpión Rancho Ex-Mission San Fernando Rancho Los Encinos Rancho Providencia, first movie town (1912) Universal City, the two valley ranch locations Information Geography of Los Angeles County History of the San Fernando Valley to 1915 List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley Los Angeles Times suburban sections Adjacent regions Conejo Valley Crescenta Valley San Gabriel Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Clara River Valley Simi Valley Sociological Valley girl

References[edit] ^ "San Fernando Valley". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2009-08-31.  ^ L. C. Holmes (1917). Soil survey of the San Fernando Valley area, California. Government Printing Office. p. 12. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ ^ "Prehistoric milling site found in California". USA Today. March 4, 2006. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ Jake Klein (1 June 2003). Then & Now: San Fernando Valley. Gibbs Smith. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-58685-229-0. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Michael Crosby (3 June 2009). Encino. Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7385-6991-8. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Historic Spots in California. Historic Spots in California: The Southern Counties. Stanford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-8047-1614-7. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ California Mission Series; Vol VI. California Mission Series, Vol VI: Mission San Miguel, Mission San Fernando Rey, Mission San Luis Rey. Stanford University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8047-1875-2. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Jackson Mayers; Nick Massaro (1976). The San Fernando Valley. John D. McIntyre. p. 67. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ Harold Edgar Thomas (1970). Water Laws and Concepts. U.S. Geological Survey. p. 10. Retrieved 6 May 2013.  ^ Bearchell, Charles, and Larry D. Fried, The San Fernando Valley Then and Now, Windsor Publications, 1988, ISBN 0-89781-285-9 ^ a b Davis, Margaret Leslie (1993). Rivers in the Desert. p. 92. ISBN 1-58586-137-5. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ a b George L. Henderson (1 February 2003). California and the Fictions of Capital. Temple University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-59213-198-3. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Judith R. Raftery (1992). Land of Fair Promise: Politics and Reform in Los Angeles Schools 1885 – 1941. Stanford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8047-1930-8. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ a b Marc Wanamaker (27 June 2011). San Fernando Valley. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7157-7. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ Winston Winford Crouch; Beatrice Dinerman (1963). Southern California Metropolis: A Study of Government for a Metropolitan Area. University of California Press. p. 156. GGKEY:DB4Q1TGU95T. Retrieved 7 May 2013.  ^ Kotkin, Joel; Ozuna, Erika. "The Changing Face of the San Fernando Valley" (PDF). Pepperdine University. Pepperdine University. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ "Significant Earthquakes and Faults, Northridge Earthquake". Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ David J. Wald; et al. "The Slip History of the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake Determined from Strong Ground Motion, Teleseismic, GPS, and Leveling Data". Bulletin of the Seismic Society of America. 86. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ ^ "The January 17, 1994 Northridge, CA Earthquake". EQE. March 1994. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ "San Fernando Earthquake". Southern California Earthquake Data Center. Retrieved October 14, 2013.  ^ "The San Fernando Valley Map". Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ "Louis Theroux: Twilight of the Porn Stars". 10 June 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ Helen Sheumaker; Shirley Teresa Wajda (2008). Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life. ABC-CLIO. p. 406. ISBN 978-1-57607-647-7. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ Johnstone, Mark; Holzman, Leslie Aboud (2002). Epicenter: San Francisco Bay Area Art Now. Chronicle Books. p. 234. ISBN 0811835413. [...] the San Fernando Valley, also known as The Valley [...] Although San Fernando Valley in this context is snidely referred to as Silicone Valley and the Valley of Sin [...] CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Gardetta, Dave (December 1998), Los Angeles Magazine, p. 142  ^ Ed Pilkington (13 October 2010). "US porn industry thrown into crisis after actor tests positive for HIV". The Guardian. The San Fernando valley has become the focal point of the porn industry since the 1970s. It has been dubbed the San Pornando valley and Silicone Valley, a play on the prevalence on artificially enhanced breasts.  ^ "Economic crisis affects the adult entertainment industry". TV-Novosti. 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2013-12-29. [...] the San Fernando Valley is known jokingly as the "San Porn-ando Valley" or "Silicone Valley."  ^ Derudder, Ben (2012). International Handbook of Globalization and World Cities. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 301. [...] the acknowledged centre of porn has, since the 1970s, been San Fernando (or Silicone Valley, as it is sometimes dubbed), which currently accounts for around two-thirds of listed ault entertainment production studios [...]  ^ Altman, Dennis (2010). Global Sex. University of Chicago Press. p. 117. Most of the U.S. pornography industry is centered in Los Angeles's San Fernando Valley north of Hollywood, so much so that one area is known locally as Silicone Valley.  ^ J. D. Lasica (18 April 2005). Darknet: Hollywood's war against the digital generation. Wiley. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-471-68334-6. Retrieved 8 August 2012.  ^ CHAN, SUE. "San Fernando's Open Secret". CBS News. Retrieved 29 January 2014.  ^ Ben Fritz (August 10, 2009). "Tough times in the porn industry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ "SCE Service Territory Cities" (PDF). Retrieved April 6, 2014.  ^ Blake Gumprecht (1 March 2001). The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8018-6642-5. Retrieved 9 August 2012.  ^ "Orangeline Extension". Retrieved August 9, 2012.  ^ "Choosing A Campus : A Guide To the Largest Private Schools in the Valley." Los Angeles Times. November 30, 1994. Valley Briefing. Retrieved on March 23, 2014. ^ Ayres Jr., B. Drummond (May 29, 1996). "Los Angeles, Long Fragmented, Faces Threat of Secession by the San Fernando Valley". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ Valley VOTE. Valley VOTE. Retrieved on 2010-12-07. ^ "San Fernando Valley Neighborhoods". San Fernando Valley Guide. Retrieved June 20, 2013.  ^ "Lake Balboa Neighborhood Council Newsletter" (PDF). Retrieved June 21, 2013.  ^ "American Fact-Finder results for San Fernando Valley CCD, Los Angeles County, California". Retrieved January 25, 2014.  ^ "Record numbers of poor in nation – with more in San Fernando Valley seeking assistance". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved December 18, 2013.  ^ Team, Development. "Percentage of Population Below Poverty Level in California by City". Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "San Fernando, California (CA) poverty rate data - information about poor and low income residents living in this city". Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "SFV Economy watch". San Fernando Valley Economic Research Center. California State University, Northridge.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ California Home Sale Activity by City Chart.DQNews. Retrieved on 2010-12-07. ^ "Valley Home Prices Hit Eight Year High". San Fernando Valley Blog Journal. San Fernando Valley Blog Journal. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 

Further reading[edit] Barraclough, Laura (2011). Making the San Fernando Valley: Rural Landscapes, Urban Development, and White Privilege.  Cooper, Martin (2010). North of Mulholland.  Coscia, David (2011). Pacific Electric and the Growth of the San Fernando Valley. Shade Tree Books. ISBN 1-57864-735-5.  Klein, Jake (2003). Then and Now: San Fernando Valley. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 1-58685-229-9.  Mayers, Jackson (1976). The San Fernando Valley. John D. McIntyre, Walnut, CA.  Roderick, Kevin (2001). The San Fernando Valley: America's Suburb. Los Angeles Times Books. ISBN 978-1-883792-55-8. 

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Fernando Valley. San Fernando Valley travel guide from Wikivoyage CSUN Digital Library: San Fernando Valley online Archives: vintage photos-maps-histories. CSUN: San Fernando Valley Statistics website CSUN San Fernando Valley Economic Research Center website Places adjacent to San Fernando Valley Simi Valley & Santa Susana Pass & Rocky Peak Santa Susana Mountains & CA 118 – Tejon Pass – Santa Clarita San Gabriel Mountains & I-210 Simi Hills San Fernando Valley Verdugo Mountains & I-5 Santa Monica Mountains Santa Monica Mountains Ventura Freeway Griffith Park v t e San Fernando Valley Major Cities Los Angeles Glendale Burbank Cities and towns 25k–100k Calabasas Cities and towns 10k–25k San Fernando Cities under 10k Hidden Hills Neighborhoods and unincorporated communities Communities in the San Fernando Valley San Fernando Valley (SFV) topics Buildings in the SFV Films set in the SFV History of the SFV Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the SFV Parks in the SFV People from the SFV Transportation in the SFV Universities and colleges in the SFV v t e City of Los Angeles Topics History Timeline Transportation Culture Landmarks Historic sites Skyscrapers Demographics Crime Sports Media Music Notable people Lists Government Flag Mayors City Council (President) Other elected officials Airport DWP Fire Department Police Public schools Libraries Port Transportation LA Regions Crescenta Valley Downtown Eastside Harbor Area Greater Hollywood Northeast LA Northwest LA San Fernando Valley South LA Westside Wilshire Mid-City West Mid-Wilshire v t e Greater Los Angeles Area Central city Los Angeles Counties Los Angeles Orange Riverside San Bernardino Ventura Satellite cities Long Beach Riverside San Bernardino Cities >200k Anaheim Fontana Glendale Huntington Beach Irvine Long Beach Moreno Valley Oxnard Riverside San Bernardino Santa Ana Cities and towns 100k−200k Burbank Corona Costa Mesa Downey East Los Angeles El Monte Fullerton Garden Grove Inglewood Lancaster Murrieta Norwalk Ontario Orange Palmdale Pasadena Pomona Rancho Cucamonga Rialto Santa Clarita Simi Valley Temecula Thousand Oaks Torrance Ventura Victorville West Covina Area regions Los Angeles metropolitan area Antelope Valley Central Los Angeles Coachella Valley Colorado Desert Conejo Valley Downtown Los Angeles East Los Angeles Gateway Cities Greater Hollywood Harbor Area Inland Empire Mojave Desert Northwest Los Angeles Palos Verdes Peninsula Pomona Valley San Bernardino Valley San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Valley Santa Ana Valley Santa Clarita Valley Simi Valley South Bay South Los Angeles Victor Valley Westside Los Angeles Landforms Los Angeles Basin Baldwin Hills (range) Catalina Island Channel Islands Chino Hills Hollywood Hills Oxnard Plain Palos Verdes Hills Puente Hills San Fernando Valley San Gabriel Mountains San Gabriel Valley San Jacinto Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Santa Monica Mountains Santa Susana Mountains Sierra Pelona Mountains Simi Hills Verdugo Mountains Bodies of water Los Angeles River Aliso Creek Arroyo Calabasas Arroyo Seco Ballona Creek Bell Creek Big Bear Lake Coyote Creek Lake Arrowhead Lake Gregory Lake Perris Lake Piru Los Angeles Aqueduct Malibu Creek Mojave River Pacific Ocean Pyramid Lake Rio Hondo San Gabriel River San Juan Creek San Pedro Bay Santa Ana River Santa Clara River Santa Margarita River Santa Monica Bay Tujunga Wash v t e  State of California Sacramento (capital) Topics Culture Food Music Myth Sports Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography Climate Ecology Flora Fauna Government Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics Congressional delegations Elections People Protected areas State Parks State Historic Landmarks Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles Regions Antelope Valley Big Sur California Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country Metro regions Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana Counties Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba Most populous cities Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim Retrieved from "" Categories: San Fernando ValleyValleys of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaGeography of the San Fernando ValleyLos Angeles County, California regionsSeparatism in the United StatesValleys of CaliforniaHidden categories: CS1 maint: Uses authors parameterAll articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from October 2017Coordinates on WikidataAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2014Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014Articles with unsourced statements from October 2014Pages using div col with deprecated parametersArticles needing additional references from July 2014All articles needing additional referencesArticles needing additional references from August 2014

Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version In other projects Wikimedia CommonsWikivoyage Languages العربيةБългарскиCatalàCebuanoCymraegDanskDeutschEmiliàn e rumagnòlEspañolفارسیFrançaisGalego한국어IlokanoItalianoעבריתLatinaNederlands日本語NorskPolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsSimple EnglishSvenskaTürkçe中文 Edit links This page was last edited on 2 February 2018, at 06:03. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.700","walltime":"0.860","ppvisitednodes":{"value":5531,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":222015,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":17589,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":16,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":6,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 660.913 1 -total"," 41.74% 275.838 1 Template:Reflist"," 15.72% 103.865 24 Template:Cite_book"," 13.05% 86.259 1 Template:Infobox_valley"," 12.93% 85.464 18 Template:Cite_web"," 12.20% 80.618 1 Template:Infobox"," 7.87% 51.997 4 Template:Citation_needed"," 7.49% 49.524 5 Template:Fix"," 5.22% 34.487 5 Template:Navbox"," 4.63% 30.572 9 Template:Convert"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.321","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":10344909,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1274","timestamp":"20180217213256","ttl":1900800,"transientcontent":false}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":101,"wgHostname":"mw1275"});});

San_Fernando_Valley - Photos and All Basic Informations

San_Fernando_Valley More Links

San Fernando Valley (film)Woodland Hills, Los AngelesCaliforniaSanta Susana MountainsSimi HillsSanta Monica MountainsChalk HillsVerdugo MountainsSan Gabriel MountainsGeographic Coordinate SystemGeographic Coordinate SystemLos AngelesGlendale, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaLos Angeles County, CaliforniaUnited StatesTransverse RangesLos Angeles BasinLos AngelesMunicipal CorporationGlendale, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaAgoura Hills, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaSanta Susana MountainsSimi HillsSanta Monica MountainsChalk HillsVerdugo MountainsSan Gabriel MountainsSierra Pelona MountainsTopatopa MountainsSanta Ana MountainsDowntown Los AngelesLos Angeles RiverArroyo CalabasasBell Creek (Southern California)Canoga Park High SchoolCanoga Park, Los AngelesRiver SourceCalabasas, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaSanta Susana Field LaboratorySanta Susana Pass State Historic ParkSepulveda BasinTujunga WashHansen DamStudio City, Los AngelesBull Creek (Los Angeles County)Pacoima WashVerdugo WashSea LevelLos AngelesBurbank, CaliforniaGlendale, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaUniversal City, CaliforniaUniversal StudiosMulholland DriveHollywoodWestside (Los Angeles County)Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, And ShrublandsBiomeGrasslandCalifornia Oak WoodlandChaparralPlant CommunityHabitatRiparian ZoneMediterranean ClimateGrapeCommon FigOliveEnlargeLos Angeles Public LibraryReseda, Los AngelesMunicipal CorporationGlendale, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaLos AngelesCensus-designated PlaceLos Angeles County, CaliforniaCalifornia State LegislatureCalifornia State AssemblyCalifornia State SenateBrad ShermanTed LieuTony CardenasLos Angeles County Board Of SupervisorsSheila KuehlMichael D. AntonovichDemocratic Party (United States)Sherman Oaks, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaWikipedia:Citation NeededVan Nuys, Los AngelesCalifornia State University, NorthridgeLos Angeles Public LibraryLos Angeles Police DepartmentLos Angeles County Sheriff's DepartmentLos Angeles Fire DepartmentLos Angeles County Fire DepartmentBurbank Police Department (California)Neighborhood Councils Of Los AngelesPanorama Of San Fernando Valley From Universal StudiosFile:San Fernando Valley Panorama.jpgHistory Of The San Fernando ValleyEnlargeTongva PeopleGabrieleñoMission IndiansTataviam PeopleChumash PeopleCategory:Former Native American Populated Places In CaliforniaSpanish Colonization Of The AmericasRanchos Of CaliforniaMission Hills, Los AngelesNewhall PassJuan Francisco Reyes (soldier)AdobeCategory:Tongva SettlementsRancheriaSpring (hydrology)Spanish Missions In CaliforniaMission San Fernando Rey De EspañaRancho Los EncinosLos Encinos State Historic ParkEncino, Los AngelesRanchos Of CaliforniaRancho El EscorpiónWest Hills, Los AngelesRancho ProvidenciaRancho CahuengaBurbank, CaliforniaRancho Ex-Mission San FernandoWikipedia:Citation NeededTreaty Of CahuengaMexican–American WarAlta CaliforniaCalifornioCampo De CahuengaCahuenga PassNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesTreaty Of Guadalupe HidalgoDryland FarmingJames Boon LankershimIsaac Newton Van NuysSan Pedro HarborUnited StatesEuropeLos Angeles AqueductEnlargeAquiferHarry ChandlerHobart Johnstone WhitleyHenry E. HuntingtonPacific Electric RailwayOwensmouthNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesWikipedia:Citation NeededCanoga Park, Los AngelesLaurel Canyon, Los AngelesNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesSunland-Tujunga, Los AngelesSun Valley, Los AngelesSunland-Tujunga, Los AngelesApricotPersimmonWalnutUrban SprawlOrcutt Ranch Horticulture CenterCalifornia State University, NorthridgeGlendale, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaUniversal City, CaliforniaUniversal StudiosUniversal CityWalkBell Canyon, CaliforniaWorld War IIRancho El EscorpiónWest Hills, Los AngelesSanta Susana MountainsPorter Ranch, Los AngelesWikipedia:Citation Needed1994 Northridge EarthquakeNorthridge, Los AngelesMoment Magnitude Scale1933 Long Beach Earthquake1906 San Francisco EarthquakeReseda, Los Angeles1971 San Fernando EarthquakeUrban DecayNature ReserveSanta Monica Mountains National Recreation AreaList Of California State ParksThe Japanese GardenOrcutt Ranch Horticulture CenterLeonis AdobeRómulo Pico AdobeLos Encinos State Historic ParkMission San FernandoGriffith ParkHollywood HillsSepulveda DamHansen DamLos Angeles RiverEnlargeUpper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space PreserveWest Hills, Los AngelesBackbone TrailBell Canyon ParkEl Escorpión ParkJuan Bautista De Anza National Historic TrailMarvin Braude Mulholland Gateway ParkO'Melveny ParkRocky PeakSage Ranch ParkSimi ValleySanta Susana Pass State Historic ParkTopanga State ParkUpper Las Virgenes Canyon Open Space PreserveEnlargeLos AngelesBurbank, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaGlendale, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaBell Canyon, CaliforniaKagel Canyon, CaliforniaUniversal City, CaliforniaArleta, Los AngelesCahuenga PassCanoga Park, Los AngelesChatsworth, Los AngelesEncino, Los AngelesGranada Hills, Los AngelesLa Tuna Canyon, Los Angeles, CaliforniaLake Balboa, Los AngelesLake View Terrace, Los AngelesMission Hills, Los AngelesNoHo Arts District, Los AngelesNorth Hills, Los AngelesNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesNorthridge, Los AngelesPacoima, Los AngelesPanorama City, Los AngelesPorter Ranch, Los AngelesReseda, Los AngelesShadow Hills, Los AngelesSherman Oaks, Los AngelesStudio City, Los AngelesSun Valley, Los AngelesSunland-Tujunga, Los AngelesSylmar, Los AngelesTarzana, Los AngelesToluca Lake, Los AngelesValley Glen, Los AngelesValley Village, Los AngelesVan Nuys, Los AngelesWarner Center, Los AngelesWest Hills, Los AngelesWinnetka, Los AngelesWoodland Hills, Los AngelesCrescenta ValleyWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Help:Maintenance Template RemovalMovie RanchCBSNBCUniversalThe Walt Disney CompanyAmerican Broadcasting CompanyWarner Bros.AerospaceNuclear ResearchLockheed CorporationPratt & Whitney RocketdyneSanta Susana Field LaboratoryAtomics InternationalLitton IndustriesMarquardt CorporationTRW Inc.Pornography In The United StatesSilicon ValleyAVN (magazine)Boogie NightsPornucopiaBurbank, CaliforniaSouthern California EdisonLos Angeles Department Of Water And PowerLos AngelesSouthern California EdisonSouthern California Gas CompanyLos Angeles Department Of Water And PowerLos AngelesMetropolitan Water DistrictAT&TFrontier CommunicationsCharter CommunicationsEnlargeVictory Boulevard (Los Angeles)FreewayInterstate 405 (California)U.S. Route 101 In CaliforniaCalifornia State Route 118California State Route 170Interstate 210 (California)Interstate 5 In CaliforniaSepulveda BoulevardVentura BoulevardLaurel Canyon BoulevardSan Fernando RoadVictory Boulevard (Los Angeles)Reseda BoulevardRiverside Drive (Los Angeles)Mulholland DriveCalifornia State Route 27Rapid TransitBus Rapid TransitRight-of-way (transportation)Pacific Electric RailwayLos Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation AuthorityRed Line (Los Angeles Metro)Universal City, CaliforniaHollywoodDowntown Los AngelesLos Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation AuthorityMid-WilshireSan Gabriel ValleyLAXLong Beach, CaliforniaBob Hope AirportAmtrakMetrolink (Southern California)Metro RapidMetro LocalOrange Line (Los Angeles Metro)North Hollywood (Los Angeles Metro Station)Warner Center Transit HubWoodland Hills, Los AngelesCanoga Park, Los AngelesChatsworth, Los AngelesMetrolink (Southern California)Metrolink (Southern California)Commuter RailAntelope Valley LineVentura County LineAmtrakPacific SurflinerBurbank-Bob Hope Airport (Metrolink Station)Chatsworth StationVentura County, CaliforniaSanta Barbara, CaliforniaNorthern CaliforniaUnion Station (Los Angeles)San DiegoCalifornia High-Speed Rail AuthorityBurbank, CaliforniaSylmar, Los AngelesBob Hope AirportVan Nuys AirportLos Angeles Unified School DistrictGlendale Unified School DistrictBurbank Unified School DistrictLos Angeles Valley CollegeLos Angeles Mission CollegeLos Angeles Pierce CollegeGlendale Community College (California)Los Angeles Community College DistrictCalifornia State University NorthridgeLos Angeles Unified School DistrictGreat Wall Of Los AngelesJudy BacaMuseum Of Neon ArtNethercutt CollectionAlex TheatreStarlight Bowl (Burbank, California)Valley Performing Arts CenterUniversal Studios HollywoodWikipedia:Citing SourcesWikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Introduction To Referencing With Wiki Markup/1Wikipedia:VerifiabilityHelp:Maintenance Template RemovalPanorama City, Los AngelesWoodland Hills, Los AngelesValley Presbyterian HospitalNorthridge Hospital Medical CenterOlive View – UCLA Medical CenterEncino Hospital Medical CenterSherman Oaks HospitalRobert HertzbergTom McClintockPete WilsonLos Angeles Unified School DistrictSecessionLocal Agency Formation CommissionSan Fernando, CaliforniaRichard AlarcónAlex PadillaBobbi FiedlerJames HahnKeith RichmanList Of United States Cities By PopulationNew York CityChicagoLos AngelesHoustonPhiladelphiaPhoenix, ArizonaSoHoLake Balboa, Los AngelesEnlargeMission San Fernando Rey De EspañaNon-Hispanic WhitesHispanic And Latino AmericansAfrican AmericanAsian American2010 United States CensusGlendale, CaliforniaNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesVan Nuys, Los AngelesBurbank, CaliforniaPanorama City, Los AngelesReseda, Los AngelesCanoga Park, Los AngelesNorthridge, Los AngelesAsian AmericanChatsworth, Los AngelesPanorama City, Los AngelesNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesReseda, Los AngelesCanoga Park, Los AngelesNorthridge, Los AngelesPorter Ranch, Los AngelesGranada Hills, Los AngelesSan Gabriel ValleyIranian PeoplesTarzana, Los AngelesCalabasas, CaliforniaWoodland Hills, Los AngelesEncino, Los AngelesSherman Oaks, Los AngelesAmerican JewsAfrican AmericanLake View Terrace, Los AngelesPacoima, Los Angeles, CaliforniaReseda, Los AngelesNorth Hollywood, Los AngelesVan Nuys, Los AngelesNorthridge, Los AngelesMedianUnited States Housing Market CorrectionPortal:Los AngelesCalifornia State University Northridge Botanic GardenForest Lawn Memorial Park (Hollywood Hills)Nestor StudiosProvidencia RanchRancho El EscorpiónRancho Ex-Mission San FernandoRancho Los EncinosRancho ProvidenciaUniversal City, CaliforniaCategory:Geography Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaHistory Of The San Fernando Valley To 1915List Of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments In The San Fernando ValleyLos Angeles Times Suburban SectionsConejo ValleyCrescenta ValleySan Gabriel ValleySanta Clarita ValleySanta Clara River ValleySimi ValleyValley GirlUSA TodayInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-58685-229-0International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7385-6991-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8047-1614-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8047-1875-2International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-89781-285-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-58586-137-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-59213-198-3International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8047-1930-8International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-7385-7157-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-57607-647-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0811835413Category:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterThe GuardianInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-471-68334-6International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-0-8018-6642-5Los Angeles TimesThe New York TimesLos Angeles Daily NewsCalifornia State University, NorthridgeWikipedia:Link RotInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-57864-735-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-58685-229-9International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-883792-55-8Voy:San Fernando ValleySimi Valley, CaliforniaSanta Susana PassRocky PeakSanta Susana MountainsCalifornia State Route 118Tejon PassSanta Clarita, CaliforniaSan Gabriel MountainsInterstate 210 (California)Simi HillsVerdugo MountainsInterstate 5Santa Monica MountainsSanta Monica MountainsVentura FreewayGriffith ParkTemplate:San Fernando ValleyTemplate Talk:San Fernando ValleyLos AngelesGlendale, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaCalabasas, CaliforniaSan Fernando, CaliforniaHidden Hills, CaliforniaCategory:Communities In The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Buildings And Structures In The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Films Set In The San Fernando ValleyHistory Of The San Fernando ValleyList Of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments In The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Parks In The San Fernando ValleyCategory:People From The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Transportation In The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Universities And Colleges In The San Fernando ValleyTemplate:Los AngelesTemplate Talk:Los AngelesLos AngelesHistory Of Los AngelesTimeline Of Los AngelesTransportation In Los AngelesArts And Culture Of Los AngelesList Of Sites Of Interest In The Los Angeles AreaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In Los AngelesList Of Tallest Buildings In Los AngelesDemographics Of Los AngelesCrime In Los AngelesSports In Los AngelesMedia In Los AngelesMusic Of Los AngelesList Of People From Los AngelesLists Of Los Angeles TopicsFlag Of Los AngelesMayor Of Los AngelesLos Angeles City CouncilPresident Of The Los Angeles City CouncilList Of Elected Officials In Los AngelesLos Angeles International AirportLos Angeles Department Of Water And PowerLos Angeles Fire DepartmentLos Angeles Police DepartmentLos Angeles Unified School DistrictLos Angeles Public LibraryPort Of Los AngelesLos Angeles Department Of TransportationList Of Districts And Neighborhoods Of Los AngelesCrescenta ValleyDowntown Los AngelesEast Los Angeles (region)Harbor AreaGreater Hollywood, Los AngelesNortheast Los AngelesNorthwest Los AngelesSouth Los AngelesWestside (Los Angeles County)Wilshire, Los AngelesMid-City West, Los AngelesMid-Wilshire, Los AngelesTemplate:Greater Los Angeles AreaTemplate Talk:Greater Los Angeles AreaGreater Los Angeles AreaLos AngelesLos Angeles County, CaliforniaOrange County, CaliforniaRiverside County, CaliforniaSan Bernardino County, CaliforniaVentura County, CaliforniaSatellite TownLong Beach, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaAnaheim, CaliforniaFontana, CaliforniaGlendale, CaliforniaHuntington Beach, CaliforniaIrvine, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaMoreno Valley, CaliforniaOxnard, CaliforniaRiverside, CaliforniaSan Bernardino, CaliforniaSanta Ana, CaliforniaBurbank, CaliforniaCorona, CaliforniaCosta Mesa, CaliforniaDowney, CaliforniaEast Los Angeles, CaliforniaEl Monte, CaliforniaFullerton, CaliforniaGarden Grove, CaliforniaInglewood, CaliforniaLancaster, CaliforniaMurrieta, CaliforniaNorwalk, CaliforniaOntario, CaliforniaOrange, CaliforniaPalmdale, CaliforniaPasadena, CaliforniaPomona, CaliforniaRancho Cucamonga, CaliforniaRialto, CaliforniaSanta Clarita, CaliforniaSimi Valley, CaliforniaTemecula, CaliforniaThousand Oaks, CaliforniaTorrance, CaliforniaVentura, CaliforniaVictorville, CaliforniaWest Covina, CaliforniaLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaAntelope ValleyCentral Los AngelesCoachella ValleyColorado DesertConejo ValleyDowntown Los AngelesEast Los Angeles (region)Gateway CitiesGreater Hollywood, Los AngelesHarbor AreaInland EmpireMojave DesertNorthwest Los AngelesPalos Verdes PeninsulaPomona ValleySan Bernardino ValleySan Gabriel ValleySanta Ana ValleySanta Clarita ValleySimi Valley, CaliforniaSouth Bay, Los AngelesSouth Los AngelesVictor ValleyWestside (Los Angeles County)Los Angeles BasinBaldwin Hills (mountain Range)Santa Catalina Island (California)Channel Islands Of CaliforniaChino HillsHollywood HillsOxnard PlainPalos Verdes HillsPuente HillsSan Gabriel MountainsSan Gabriel ValleySan Jacinto MountainsSanta Ana MountainsSanta Monica MountainsSanta Susana MountainsSierra Pelona MountainsSimi HillsVerdugo MountainsLos Angeles RiverAliso Creek (Orange County)Arroyo CalabasasArroyo Seco (Los Angeles County)Ballona CreekBell Creek (Southern California)Big Bear LakeCoyote Creek (San Gabriel River)Lake Arrowhead ReservoirLake Gregory (California)Lake PerrisLake PiruLos Angeles AqueductMalibu CreekMojave RiverPacific OceanPyramid Lake (Los Angeles County, California)Rio Hondo (California)San Gabriel River (California)San Juan CreekSan Pedro Bay (California)Santa Ana RiverSanta Clara River (California)Santa Margarita RiverSanta Monica BayTujunga WashTemplate:CaliforniaTemplate Talk:CaliforniaU.S. StateCaliforniaSacramento, CaliforniaOutline Of CaliforniaCulture Of CaliforniaCuisine Of CaliforniaMusic Of CaliforniaCalifornia SoundSports In CaliforniaDemographics Of CaliforniaList Of Earthquakes In CaliforniaEconomy Of CaliforniaEducation In CaliforniaEnvironment Of CaliforniaGeography Of CaliforniaClimate Of CaliforniaEcology Of CaliforniaCalifornia Floristic ProvinceFauna Of CaliforniaGovernment Of CaliforniaCalifornia State CapitolDistricts In CaliforniaGovernor Of CaliforniaCalifornia State LegislatureSupreme Court Of CaliforniaHealthcare In CaliforniaHistory Of CaliforniaLaw Of CaliforniaList Of National Historic Landmarks In CaliforniaList Of National Natural Landmarks In CaliforniaNational Register Of Historic Places Listings In CaliforniaPolitics Of CaliforniaUnited States Congressional Delegations From CaliforniaElections In CaliforniaList Of People From CaliforniaCalifornia Protected AreasList Of California State ParksList Of California Historical LandmarksList Of California State SymbolsTransportation In CaliforniaWater In CaliforniaIndex Of California-related ArticlesList Of Regions Of CaliforniaAntelope ValleyBig SurCalifornia Coast RangesCascade RangeCentral CaliforniaCentral Coast (California)Central Valley (California)Channel Islands Of CaliforniaCoachella ValleyCoastal CaliforniaConejo ValleyCucamonga ValleyDeath ValleyEast Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)East County, San DiegoEastern CaliforniaEmerald TriangleGold CountryGreat BasinSan Bernardino ValleyInland EmpireKlamath BasinLake TahoeGreater Los Angeles AreaLos Angeles BasinLost CoastMojave DesertMountain Empire, San DiegoNorth Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)North Coast (California)North County (San Diego Area)Northern CaliforniaOwens ValleyOxnard PlainPeninsular RangesPomona ValleySacramento ValleySalinas ValleySan Francisco Bay AreaSan Francisco PeninsulaSan Gabriel ValleySan Joaquin ValleySanta Clara ValleySanta Clara River ValleySanta Clarita ValleySanta Ynez ValleyShasta CascadeSierra Nevada (U.S.)Silicon ValleySouth Bay, Los AngelesSouth Bay, San DiegoSouth Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)South Coast (California)Southern Border Region (California)Southern CaliforniaTransverse RangesTri-ValleyVictor ValleyWine Country (California)Metropolitan Statistical AreaMetropolitan FresnoLos Angeles Metropolitan AreaSacramento Metropolitan AreaInland EmpireSan Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical AreaSan Diego–TijuanaList Of Counties In CaliforniaAlameda County, CaliforniaAlpine County, CaliforniaAmador County, CaliforniaButte County, CaliforniaCalaveras County, CaliforniaColusa County, CaliforniaContra Costa County, CaliforniaDel Norte County, CaliforniaEl Dorado County, CaliforniaFresno County, CaliforniaGlenn County, CaliforniaHumboldt County, CaliforniaImperial County, CaliforniaInyo County, CaliforniaKern County, CaliforniaKings County, CaliforniaLake County, CaliforniaLassen County, CaliforniaLos Angeles County, CaliforniaMadera County, CaliforniaMarin County, CaliforniaMariposa County, CaliforniaMendocino County, CaliforniaMerced County, CaliforniaModoc County, CaliforniaMono County, CaliforniaMonterey County, CaliforniaNapa County, CaliforniaNevada County, CaliforniaOrange County, CaliforniaPlacer County, CaliforniaPlumas County, CaliforniaRiverside County, CaliforniaSacramento County, CaliforniaSan Benito County, CaliforniaSan Bernardino County, CaliforniaSan Diego County, CaliforniaSan FranciscoSan Joaquin County, CaliforniaSan Luis Obispo County, CaliforniaSan Mateo County, CaliforniaSanta Barbara County, CaliforniaSanta Clara County, CaliforniaSanta Cruz County, CaliforniaShasta County, CaliforniaSierra County, CaliforniaSiskiyou County, CaliforniaSolano County, CaliforniaSonoma County, CaliforniaStanislaus County, CaliforniaSutter County, CaliforniaTehama County, CaliforniaTrinity County, CaliforniaTulare County, CaliforniaTuolumne County, CaliforniaVentura County, CaliforniaYolo County, CaliforniaYuba County, CaliforniaList Of Cities And Towns In CaliforniaLos AngelesSan DiegoSan Jose, CaliforniaSan FranciscoFresno, CaliforniaSacramento, CaliforniaLong Beach, CaliforniaOakland, CaliforniaBakersfield, CaliforniaAnaheim, CaliforniaHelp:CategoryCategory:San Fernando ValleyCategory:Valleys Of Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCategory:Geography Of The San Fernando ValleyCategory:Los Angeles County, California RegionsCategory:Separatism In The United StatesCategory:Valleys Of CaliforniaCategory:CS1 Maint: Uses Authors ParameterCategory:All Articles With Dead External LinksCategory:Articles With Dead External Links From October 2017Category:Coordinates On WikidataCategory:All Articles With Unsourced StatementsCategory:Articles With Unsourced Statements From December 2014Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From November 2014Category:Articles With Unsourced Statements From October 2014Category:Pages Using Div Col With Deprecated ParametersCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From July 2014Category:All Articles Needing Additional ReferencesCategory:Articles Needing Additional References From August 2014Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer

view link view link view link view link view link