Contents 1 In the United States 1.1 Origin of term in California municipalities 1.1.1 San Francisco 1.1.2 Berkeley 1.1.3 West Hollywood 1.2 Statewide 1.2.1 California 1.2.2 Colorado 1.2.3 District of Columbia 1.2.4 Hawaii 1.2.5 Maine 1.2.6 Maryland 1.2.7 Nevada 1.2.8 New Jersey 1.2.9 Oregon 1.2.10 Washington 1.2.11 Wisconsin 1.2.12 Other states 1.3 Local level 1.4 United States Military 2 In Europe 3 In Oceania 3.1 Australia 3.2 New Zealand 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


In the United States[edit] Main article: Domestic partnership in the United States Legal status of same-sex unions Marriage Performed Argentina Australia Austria* Belgium Brazil Canada Colombia Denmark Finland France Germany Iceland Ireland Luxembourg Malta Mexico: · 12 states & CDMX Netherlands1 New Zealand2 Norway Portugal South Africa Spain Sweden United Kingdom3 United States4 Uruguay Recognized Armenia5 Estonia5 Israel5 Mexico6 Netherlands: · AW, CW, SX7 Civil unions and registered partnerships Andorra Austria Chile Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Ecuador Estonia* Greece Hungary Italy Liechtenstein Mexico: · Tlaxcala Netherlands: · Aruba Slovenia Switzerland Taiwan8 United Kingdom: · Northern Ireland · Jersey Unregistered cohabitation Costa Rica Israel San Marino United Kingdom: · Cayman Islands See also Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country Not performed in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten Neither performed nor recognized in Niue, Tokelau and the Cook Islands Neither performed nor recognized in Northern Ireland and in several dependencies: Jersey, Sark and six of the fourteen overseas territories Neither performed nor recognized in American Samoa and many tribal jurisdictions with the exception of federal recognition benefits For some purposes, from all jurisdictions where same-sex marriage is legal When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage When performed in the Netherlands proper Registration schemes open in all jurisdictions except Hualien County, Penghu County, Taitung County and Yunlin County * Not yet in effect LGBT portal v t e State laws regarding same-sex unions similar to marriage in the United States1   Domestic partnerships or civil unions granting state privileges of marriage2   Domestic partnerships granting limited/enumerated privileges3   No same-sex unions similar to marriage   Same-sex and opposite-sex unions similar to marriage banned 1Not recognized by the federal government. However, same-sex marriage is legal nationwide (excluding some territories and Native American tribal jurisdictions) and is recognized by the federal government. Same-sex unions similar to marriage are provided at the local level in many jurisdictions. 2Domestic partnerships in Washington are only available when at least one of the partners is 62 years of age or older. 3Domestic partnerships in Wisconsin will only be available through April 1, 2018. Laws regarding same-sex partnerships similar to marriage by state, county, and local level in the United States1   Same-sex unions similar to marriage2   Domestic partnership granting limited/enumerated privileges   State grants benefits to state employees   Same-sex unions not provided 1Not recognized by the federal government. However, same-sex marriage is legal nationwide (excluding some territories and Native American tribal jurisdictions) and is recognized by the federal government. 2Domestic partnerships in Washington are only available when at least one of the partners is 62 years of age or older. Origin of term in California municipalities[edit] In August 1979, gay rights activist Tom Brougham proposed a new category of relationship called "domestic partnership".[1] Initially, the requirements were that only two people who resided together and were qualified to marry except that they were the same gender. Additional requirements were later added for the partners to maintain mutual financial responsibility and for both to be at least eighteen years old and able to enter into a legal contract.[2] San Francisco[edit] In 1982, Brougham's definition was modified by Supervisor Harry Britt, a gay man appointed to replace Harvey Milk. Britt's version was adopted and passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, but Dianne Feinstein, mayor of San Francisco at the time, came under intense pressure from the Catholic Church and vetoed the bill.[3] In 1989, a domestic partnership law was adopted in San Francisco.[4] However, voters repealed the domestic partnership law by initiative; a modified version was reinstated by another voter initiative, 1990's Proposition K, also written by Britt.[5][6] Currently, the city still offers a domestic partnership status separate and differing in benefits from that offered by the state; city residents can apply for both.[7] According to the San Francisco Human Rights Commission, "In 1982, the term 'domestic partner' was first used in a lawsuit filed by San Francisco Human Rights Commission employee Larry Brinkin. Mr. Brinkin, then an employee of Southern Pacific Railway, had recently suffered the loss of his partner of eleven years. When he was denied the three days of paid bereavement leave given to married employees, he filed suit with the assistance of the ACLU. Mr. Brinkin lost his case. Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary, the judge agreed with his employer's claim that there was no way to know if his relationship was legitimate."[8] Berkeley[edit] Main article: Domestic Partner Task Force In 1983, the City Council of Berkeley, California, under the leadership of Mayor Gus Newport, ordered their Human Relations and Welfare Commission to develop a domestic partnership proposal. The Commission appointed its Vice-Chair, Leland Traiman, a gay activist, to head the Domestic Partner Task Force and draft a policy. Working with Tom Brougham, members of the East Bay Lesbian/Gay Democratic Club, and attorney Matt Coles, the Domestic Partner Task Force drafted what has become the template for domestic partner/civil union policies around the world. The City of Berkeley's Human Relations and Welfare Commission held a public hearing early in 1984 on "Examining the Use of Marriage to Determine Benefits and Liabilities in Berkeley and the Alternatives." A policy was adopted by the Commission and presented to the City Council. A copy was sent to the Berkeley School Board. In July 1984 the City Council voted down the proposal citing financial concerns. On August 1, 1984, the Berkeley School Board enacted the policy by a 4 to 1 vote. The school board motion was made by board member and community activist Ethel Manheimer.[9] In November 1984, all the city council members up for election who had voted against the policy lost reelection. Progressives from the Berkeley Citizens' Action (BCA) slate who replaced them had voiced strong support for a domestic partner policy. The East Bay Lesbian/Gay Democratic Club had worked hard to elect the BCA Slate. This was the first time domestic partners was a campaign issue. At the first meeting of the new City Council in December 1984, the Berkeley City Council enacted a policy extending employee benefits to unmarried couples of any gender. The first couple to file for benefits under Berkeley's sex-neutral policy were Brougham and his partner Barry Warren. However, the City Council did not create a registry for domestic partners until 1991. On October 11 of that year, 28 lesbian and gay male couples and one heterosexual couple registered their partnerships. The registry and benefits were also extended to non-resident couples that same year. West Hollywood[edit] In 1985, West Hollywood city council member John Heilman successfully introduced domestic partner legislation for city residents and employees that was passed by the city council and created the first domestic partnership registry.[1] Statewide[edit] California[edit] Main article: Domestic partnership in California California created the first state-level domestic partnership in the United States in 1999. It is available to same-sex couples of any age (provided both parties are age 18 or older) and to opposite-sex couples where at least one party is age 62 or older. On September 4, 2003 the California legislature passed an expanded domestic partnership bill, extending all of the state legal rights and responsibilities of marriage to people in state domestic partnerships. California's comprehensive domestic partner legislation was the first same-sex couples policy in the United States created by a legislature without a court order. The legislation became effective January 1, 2005. Pre-existing municipal and county domestic partnership ordinances remain in force unless repealed by their local governments. Thus, residents of San Francisco, West Hollywood, and a few other locations may choose between a local domestic partnership, a California domestic partnership, or marriage. Nothing in either the 1999 or 2003 domestic partnership legislation applies to any of the municipal or county domestic partnership ordinances, whose scopes are extremely limited and are not portable outside of the jurisdiction that issued them. The State of California has developed an Online Self-Help Center that provides resources and information to assist domestic partners in many areas, including filing domestic partnerships, dissolving domestic partnerships,parenting issues, tax issues, and more. Colorado[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Colorado Since July 1, 2009 unmarried couples have been legally able to enter a designated beneficiary agreement which will grant them limited rights.[10] A law on civil unions went into effect on May 1, 2013. District of Columbia[edit] Main article: Same-sex marriage in the District of Columbia Washington, D.C., has recognized domestic partnerships since 1992. However, Congress prohibited the District from spending any local funds to implement the law. The prohibition was lifted in the federal appropriations act for the District for the 2002 fiscal year. Domestic partnership in the District is open to both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. All couples registered as domestic partners are entitled to the same rights as family members to visit their domestic partners in the hospital and to make decisions concerning the treatment of a domestic partner's remains after the partner's death. The measure also grants District of Columbia government employees rights to a number of benefits. Domestic partners are eligible for health care insurance coverage, can use annual leave or unpaid leave for the birth or adoption of a dependent child or to care for a domestic partner or a partner's dependents, and can make funeral arrangements for a deceased partner. The Domestic Partnership Equality Amendment Act of 2006, D.C. Law 16-79, came into effect on April 4, 2006. This act provides that in almost all cases a domestic partner will have the same rights as a spouse regarding inheritance, probate, guardianship, and other rights traditionally accorded to spouses.[11] D.C. Council on May 6, 2008 approved the addition of 39 new provisions to the city's domestic partners law, bringing the law to a point where same-sex couples who register as domestic partners will receive most, but not quite all, of the rights and benefits of marriage under District law.[12] Hawaii[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Hawaii Reciprocal beneficiary registration was enacted in 1997. The law took effect on 1 June 1997. Maine[edit] Main article: Domestic partnership in Maine In April 2004 the legislature passed a domestic partnership bill. The law, which provides same-sex individuals with inheritance rights over their partners' property and guardianship over their deceased partner, went into effect on July 30, 2004. On May 6, 2009, Maine's legislature and governor enacted a law to legalize same-sex marriage, but on November 3, 2009, that law was repealed by voters.[13][14] Maine legalized same-sex marriage in December 2012.[15] Maryland[edit] Main article: Same-sex marriage in Maryland Since July 1, 2008, unmarried couples have been able to enter a designated unregistered beneficiary agreement which will grant them limited rights such as the right to visit one another in the hospital, the right to share a room in a nursing home, and the right to make funeral decisions.[16] A law on same-sex marriage went into effect on January 1, 2013. Nevada[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Nevada In Nevada domestic partnerships are granted all the benefits, rights, obligations and/or responsibilities of marriage (for both opposite-sex couples and same-sex couples over 18) and these have become legally available since 1 October 2009. The act specifically excludes requiring any entity to provide health benefits to domestic partners. In addition, due to vagueness in the verbiage of the act, most companies and entities within Nevada refuse to acknowledge or afford any major benefits or rights to registered domestic partners, leaving legal action as the only avenue to garner individual rights. New Jersey[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in New Jersey Domestic partnerships in New Jersey have been available since July 30, 2004 for same-sex couples, and for opposite-sex couples in which one person is above the age of 62. However, on October 25, 2006, the Supreme Court of New Jersey ruled that under the New Jersey state constitution, the state could not deny the benefits of marriage to same-sex couples, although the court left it up to the legislature whether to call such relationships marriage or to use a different term. Complying with the court's ruling, on December 14, 2006, the New Jersey Legislature passed a bill establishing civil unions for same-sex couples, which was signed into law by the governor on December 21 and came into effect on February 19, 2007. Oregon[edit] Main article: Domestic partnership in Oregon The governor of Oregon, Ted Kulongoski, signed a domestic partnership bill into law on May 9, 2007. Called the Oregon Family Fairness Act, the law would provide several major rights to same-sex couples that were previously only given to married couples, including the ability to file jointly on insurance forms, hospital visitation rights, and rights relating to the deceased partner. The law's initial implementation was delayed by a federal Court, but the injunction was lifted on February 1, 2008 and the law went into effect on February 4.[17] Washington[edit] Main article: Domestic partnership in Washington state In the state of Washington, Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law legislation allowing limited domestic partnership on April 21, 2007. The law, which took effect July 22, 2007 and expanded to all areas except for marriage in 2008 and 2009, permits same-sex couples (as well as heterosexual couples when one individual is at least age 62) to register in a domestic partnership registry that allows couples hospital visitation rights, the ability to authorize autopsies and organ donations, and inheritance rights when there is no will.[18] This follows the 1998 passage of a bill by the Washington State legislature that defined marriage as being between a man and a woman; this legislation was upheld by the Washington State Supreme Court in 2006.[19] Washington State Senate Report Same-sex marriage was legalized in Washington with effect from December 6, 2012. As a result, the domestic partnership law was amended so that from June 30, 2014, domestic partnerships will be available only when at least one of the partners is sixty-two years of age or older.[20] Wisconsin[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Wisconsin Wisconsin was the first state in the Midwest to legislatively enact same-sex unions. Out of about thirty states that have bans on same-sex marriage and civil unions, Wisconsin was the first (and only) to enact domestic partnerships.[21] On March 5, 2009 Wisconsin Governor Jim Doyle proposed legislation for same-sex partnerships in Wisconsin. In June 2009, the Wisconsin State Assembly and Senate both passed the biennial state budget which includes domestic partnership protections for the state's same-sex couples.[22][23] On June 29, 2009, Governor Jim Doyle signed the budget, giving final approval to limited domestic partnership benefits for same-sex couples living in Wisconsin.[24] On July 23, 2009, three members of Wisconsin Family Action filed a petition for an original action in the Wisconsin Supreme Court, seeking a declaration that the domestic partner registry is unconstitutional under the state's Marriage Protection Amendment.[25] The law went into effect on August 3, 2009. November 4, 2009: The Wisconsin Supreme Court rejected Appling v. Doyle, Wisconsin Family Action's legal challenge to domestic partnerships.[26] May 13, 2011: Governor Scott Walker asked to withdraw the state's defense of the domestic partnership registry.[27] June 20, 2011: Dane County Judge Dan Moeser ruled that the domestic partnership registry does not violate the state constitution, finding that the state "does not recognize domestic partnership in a way that even remotely resembles how the state recognizes marriage".[28] Other states[edit] Main article: Cohabitation in the United States Many states recognize through their judicial systems cohabitation agreements and common law partner agreements concluded between two partners in a relationship.These are de facto domestic partnerships that protect both parties and allow for shared property and court recognition of their relationships.[29] Sometimes adult adoption by gay couples creates a de jure domestic partnership in all 50 states.[30] Local level[edit] Main article: Cities and counties in the United States offering a domestic partnership registry United States Military[edit] On February 11, 2013, Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta submitted a memorandum (subject: Extending Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic Partners of Military Members) that outlined benefits that would be made available to service members in domestic partnerships.[31] The newly listed benefits available to gay and lesbian service members was to include: Dependant ID Cards Commissary privileges Exchange privileges Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) privileges Surveys of Military Families Quadrennial Quality of Life Review Emergency Leave Emergency Leave of Absence Youth Sponsorship Program Youth Programs Family Center Programs Sexual Assault Counselling Program Joint Duty Assignments Exemption from Hostile-Fire Areas Transportation to and from certain places of employment and on military installations, as well as primary and secondary school for dependants Authority of Service Secretary to Transport Remains of a Dependant Disability and Death Compensation: Dependants of Members Held as Captives Payments to Missing Persons Space-Available Travel on DoD Aircraft Child Care Legal Assistance Implementation of the plan was cancelled once the Supreme Court handed down its opinion in United States v. Windsor.


In Europe[edit] In France since 1968, article 515-81 of Code civil defines domestic partnership (in French: concubinage or concubinage notoire[32]) as a de facto union between two persons, of different sex or of same sex, characterised by a stable and continuous cohabitation and partnership. The French fiscal administration takes it into account in the calculation of the solidarity tax on wealth but not for other purposes. All children enjoy equal right whether within or outside wedlock. Since 1999 French law also provides for a civil solidarity pact (in French: pacte civil de solidarité, or PACS), a contractual form of civil union between two adults bringing additional rights and responsibilities, but less so than marriage. Hungary has domestic partnerships, whereas most other nations in Europe recognize some form of civil unions, also called a registered partnership, or civil partnership for same-sex partners, which afford rights similar to marriage to LGBT couples. Croatia also had domestic partnerships until June 2014 when Croatian parliament passed a law allowing civil partnerships for same-sex couples giving them all rights except adoption rights. In Hungary, since 1995[33] domestic partnership in the form of unregistered cohabitation offers a limited set of rights compared to marriage in a Civil Code (more in the field of health and pension; but no inheritance), although a growing number of Hungarian couples, both opposite-sex couples and same-sex couples choose this kind of partnership instead of marriage. In April 2009, the Hungarian Parliament passed a Registration Partnership Act 2009 with a vote of 199–159, which provides a registered partnership for same-sex couples with all the benefits and entitlements of marriage (except for marriage itself, adoption, IVF access, taking a partner's surname, parentage and surrogacy). The law was passed in December 2007 by a vote of 110–78, but the Constitutional Court of Hungary was "deeply concerned" that the law was a duplication of opposite-sex marriage benefits and entitlements, so same-sex couples only registration was chosen. Some politicians of the Alliance of Free Democrats and Hungarian Socialist Party parties have argued for the introduction of marriage for same-sex couples. The Registration Partnership Act 2009 came into effect from July 1, 2009.[34]


In Oceania[edit] Australia[edit] Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Australia See also: Recognition of same-sex unions in Tasmania Since 9 January, 2018 same-sex marriage became legal throughout Australia. Since 1 July, 2009, Australia also recognises de facto relationships for all couples of any sex. Australian Capital Territory (domestic relationship status provided from 1994 and Civil relationship provided since 2008).[35] Commonwealth (federal Government of Australia provides both a de facto and registered relationship since 2009). New South Wales (de facto status provided since 1999, expanded further in 2002, 2005 and 2008) [2]. Norfolk Island (de facto status provided from 2006). Northern Territory (de facto status provided since 2003). Queensland (de facto status provided since 1999, expanded further in 2002).[36] South Australia (domestic relationship status provided since 2007). Tasmania (de facto status provided from 2003, "Registry system/Significant Relationships" provided since 2004) Recognition of same-sex unions in Tasmania Victoria (domestic relationship status provided since 2001 and a "registry system" has been provided since 2008). Western Australia (de facto status provided since 2002). New Zealand[edit] In 2001, the Property (Relationships) Act 1976 was extended to offer partners in unregistered "de facto" relationships similar rights to those of married couples. A de facto relationship is defined as a relationship between two persons living as a couple, who are not married or in a civil union. This applies to both heterosexual and same sex couples.[37] Since 2013, same-sex marriage is legally recognised and performed within New Zealand and still includes unregistered "de facto" relationships similar rights to those of married couples.


See also[edit] LGBT portal Civil union Free union Common-law marriage Same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage in California


References[edit] ^ a b "A Brief History of Domestic Partnerships" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-16. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ admin, on May 26th, 2010% (2010-05-26). "Domestic-Partners". Divorce Law CA. Archived from the original on 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-06-11. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Turner, Wallace (10 December 1982). "Partnership law vetoed on coast". New York Times.  ^ Bishop, Katherine (1989-05-31). "San Francisco Grants Recognition To Couples Who Aren't Married". New York Times.  ^ Bailey, Robert (1998). Gay Politics, Urban Politics. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-231-09663-8.  ^ Reinhold, Robert (1990-10-30). "Campaign Trail; 2 Candidates Who Beat Death Itself". New York Times.  ^ "Filing a Domestic Partnership Agreement". San Francisco Office of the City Clerk. Archived from the original on 2008-11-14. Retrieved 2008-11-19.  ^ "Two Year Report on the San Francisco Equal Rights Ordinance" (PDF). Sfgov.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-03-10. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ Garofoli, Joe (December 12, 2012). "Ethel Manheimer, Berkeley activist, dies". SFGate. Retrieved December 16, 2012.  ^ "Ritter signs bill that will help gay couples". The Denver Post. Associated Press. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2009-04-10.  ^ Enter your Company or Top-Level Office. "DOH: Vital Records – Domestic Partnership FAQ". Dchealth.dc.gov. Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ D.C. Council expands DP law – Washington Blade[dead link] ^ Susan M. Cover (4 November 2009). "Mainers vote down gay marriage law". Portland Press Herald. Archived from the original on November 7, 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009. The measure is repealed in a close vote, 53–47 percent  ^ EqualityMaine – Maine's Domestic Partner Law Archived March 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sharp, David (December 29, 2012). "Gay marriage law goes into effect in Maine". Associated Press. Retrieved April 13, 2013.  ^ "Maryland Marriage/Relationship Recognition Law". HRC. Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "Oregon governor signs gay rights bills". Retrieved 2015-07-10.  ^ La Corte, Rachel (April 21, 2007). "Gregoire signs domestic partnership measure into law". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2007.  ^ Johnson, Tracy (July 25, 2006). "State's high court upholds ban on gay marriage". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved April 23, 2007.  ^ 26.60.030 Requirements. ^ Journal Sentinel: [1] Accessed June 9, 2012 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2009-06-18.  ^ George, Michael (2009-06-24). "All-Nighter: Assembly Passes Budget | Today's TMJ4 – Milwaukee, Wisconsin News, Weather, Sports, WTMJ | Local News". Todaystmj4.com. Archived from the original on 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "Basic Decency in Wisconsin « Human Rights Campaign". HRC Back Story. 2009-06-30. Archived from the original on 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "Wisconsin Family Action: Asks State Supreme Court to declare Gov. Doyle's statewide, same-sex domestic partnership registry unconstitutional". WisPolitics.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-27. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "Wisconsin Supreme Court Rejects Case Seeking to Strip Away Domestic Partnership Protections" (press release), Fair Wisconsin, Nov. 4, 2009. ^ The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/wis-gov-walker-tells-judge-he-wants-to-stop-defending-domestic-partner-registry-law-in-court/2011/05/16/AFbsBD5G_story.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link] ^ Judge rules Wisconsin same sex registry is constitutional ^ Dickler, Jessica. "Prenups aren't just for married couples anymore". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2016-04-13.  ^ "Adult Adoption: A New Legal Tool for Lesbians and gay men". Golden Gate University. Retrieved 2012-03-30.  ^ "MEMORANDUM FOR SECRETARIES OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS ACTING UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR PERSONNEL AND READINESS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ The current meaning of the French concubinage therefore tends to stray away from the polygamous context or from female inferiority context of the English word concubinage (See English definitions on dictionary.com) ^ "14/1995. (III. 13.) AB hatαrozat". Net.jogtar.hu. Retrieved 2014-04-05.  ^ "Gay and Lesbian Marriage, Partnership or Unions Worldwide". UK Gay News. Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ "DOMESTIC RELATIONSHIPS ACT 1994 (NO 28 OF 1994)". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 2010-07-01.  ^ http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/ACTS/2002/02AC074.pdf ^ "Property (Relationships) Act 1976". New Zealand Legislation, Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 


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