Contents 1 History 2 Constitution 3 Government structure 4 Area of authority 5 International recognition and membership 6 Proposed Western Sahara Authority 7 National holidays 7.1 Islamic dates 8 See also 9 References 10 External links


History[edit] Main article: History of Western Sahara Following the Spanish evacuation of Spanish Sahara, Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania signed the Madrid Accords on November 14, 1975, leading to both Morocco and Mauritania moving in to annex the territory of Western Sahara. On 26 February 1976, Spain informed the United Nations that as of that date it had terminated its presence in Western Sahara and relinquished its responsibilities, leaving no Administering Power.[7] Neither Morocco nor Mauritania gained international recognition, and war ensued with the independence-seeking Polisario Front. The United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, and maintains that the people of Western Sahara have a right to "self-determination and independence."[8] The creation of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed on February 27, 1976, as the Polisario declared the need for a new entity to fill what they considered a political void left by the departing Spanish colonizers. While the claimed capital is the former Western Sahara capital El-Aaiún, in Moroccan-controlled territory, the proclamation was made in the government-in-exile's provisional capital, Bir Lehlou, which remained in Polisario-held territory under the 1991 cease-fire (see Settlement Plan). On February 27, 2008, the provisional capital was formally moved to Tifariti.[9][10] Day-to-day business, however, is conducted in the Tindouf refugee camps in Algeria, which house most of the Sahrawi exile community.


Constitution[edit] Main article: Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic A new 1999 Constitution of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic took a form similar to the parliamentary constitutions of many European states, but with some paragraphs suspended until the achievement of "full independence". Among key points, the head of state is constitutionally the Secretary General of the Polisario Front during what is referred to as the "pre-independence phase," with provision in the constitution that on independence, Polisario is supposed to be dismantled or separated completely from the government structure. Provisions are detailed for a transitory phase beginning with independence, in which the present SADR is supposed to act as Western Sahara's government, ending with a constitutional reform and eventual establishment of a state along the lines specified in the constitution. The broad guidelines laid down for an eventual Western Saharan state in the constitution include eventual multi-party democracy with a market economy. The constitution also defines Sahrawis as a Muslim, African and Arab people.[11] The Constitution also declares a commitment to the principles of human rights and to the concept of a Greater Maghreb, as a regional variant of Pan-Arabism.


Government structure[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Since August 1982, the highest office of the republic is the President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a post held by the secretary-general of the Polisario, presently Brahim Ghali,[12] who appoints the Prime Minister, presently Abdelkader Taleb Oumar. The SADR's government structure consists of a Council of Ministers (a cabinet led by the Prime Minister), a judicial branch (with judges appointed by the President) and the parliamentary Sahrawi National Council (SNC, present speaker is Kathri Aduh). Since its inception in 1976, the various constitutional revisions have transformed the republic from an ad hoc managerial structure into something approaching an actual governing apparatus. From the late 1980s the parliament began to take steps to institute a division of powers and disentangle the republic's structures from those of the Polisario party, although without clear effect to date. Its various ministries are responsible for a variety of services and functions. The judiciary, complete with trial courts, appeals courts and a supreme court, operates in the same areas. As a government-in-exile, many branches of government do not fully function, and has affected the constitutional roles of the institutions. Institutions parallel to government structures also have arisen within the Polisario Front, which is fused with the SADR's governing apparatus, and with operational competences overlapping between these party and governmental institutions and offices. A 2012 report mentioned the existence of the Sahrawi Bar Association.[13] In 2016, the bar association (going by the name Union of Sahrawi Lawyers) issued a report calling for the implementation of political and civil rights.[14] Unfortunately, there is no clear indication as to certain demographic groups, such as women, have fared in the legal field. The SNC is weak in its legislative role, having been instituted as a mainly consultative and consensus-building institution, but it has strengthened its theoretical legislative and controlling powers during later constitutional revisions. Among other things, it has added a ban on the death penalty to the constitution, and brought down the government in 1999 through a vote of no-confidence. The composition of the Sahrawi National Council is as follows: e • d Composition of the Sahrawi National Council Party Seats Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro 53 Total 53


Area of authority[edit] The SADR acted as a government administration in the Sahrawi refugee camps located in the Tindouf Province of western Algeria. It is headquartered in Camp Rabouni, south of Tindouf, although some official events have taken place in towns in the Free Zone, including the provisional capitals, first Bir Lehlou until 2008, then Tifariti. The government of the SADR claims sovereignty over all of the Western Sahara territory, but has control only within the Free Zone. Several foreign aid agencies, including the UN High Commission for Refugees, and nongovernmental organizations are continually active in the camps.


International recognition and membership[edit] Main articles: Political status of Western Sahara, International recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic As of 2017, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has been recognized by 85 states. Of these, 39 have since "frozen" or "withdrawn" recognition for a number of reasons. A total of 40 UN states maintain diplomatic relations with the SADR, while a further 7 also recognise the state. Sahrawi embassies exist in 18 states. Although it is not recognised by the United Nations, the SADR has held full membership of the African Union (AU, formerly the Organisation of African Unity, OAU) since 1982. Morocco withdrew from the OAU in protest during 1984 and was the only African United Nations member not a member of the AU since South Africa's admittance in 1994 until it was readmitted on 30 January 2017.[15] The SADR participates as guest on meetings of the Non-Aligned Movement[16][17] or the New Asian–African Strategic Partnership,[18][19] over Moroccan objections to SADR participation.[20] On the other hand, Morocco's claim to Western Sahara is supported by the Arab League.[21][22] Ways to show Western Sahara in maps The SADR also participated in a conference of the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of the Latin American and the Caribbean (COPPPAL), 2006,[23] the SADR ambassador to Nicaragua participated in the opening conference of the Central American Parliament, 2010,[24] and SADR delegation participated in meeting of COPPPAL and International Conference of Asian Political Parties in Mexico City, 2012.[25] On 27 February 2011, the 35th anniversary of the proclamation of SADR was held in Tifariti, Western Sahara. Delegations, including parliamentarians, ambassadors, NGOs and activists from many countries participated in this event.[26][27] The SADR is not a member of the Arab League, nor of the Arab Maghreb Union, both of which include Morocco as a full member.


Proposed Western Sahara Authority[edit] Commemoration of the 30th independence day in Tifariti, Liberated Territories, Western Sahara Under the Baker Plan created by James Baker, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's personal envoy to Western Sahara, the SADR would have been replaced with a five-year transitional Western Sahara Authority (WSA), a non-sovereign autonomous region supervised by Morocco, to be followed by a referendum on independence. It was endorsed by the UN in 2003. However, as Morocco has declined to participate, the plan appears dead.[citation needed] In April 2007, the government of Morocco suggested that a self-governing entity, through the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS), should govern the territory with some degree of autonomy for Western Sahara. The project was presented to the United Nations Security Council in mid-April 2007. A stalemate over the Moroccan proposal led the UN in an April 2007 "Report of the UN Secretary-General" to ask the parties to enter into direct and unconditional negotiations to reach a mutually accepted political solution.[28]


National holidays[edit] A mosque in Dakhla. The Spanish actress Verónica Forqué at the Sahara Film Festival. Date Name Original event / Notes February 27 Independence Day Proclamation of the SADR in Bir Lehlou, 1976 May 10 Foundation of the Polisario Front Founded 1973 May 20 May 20 Revolution Start of the armed struggle against Spain in 1973 June 5 Day of the Disappeared Remembering missing Sahrawis June 9 Day of the Martyrs Day on which El-Ouali died in 1976 June 17 Zemla Intifada Harakat Tahrir riots in El-Aaiun, 1970 October 12 Day of National Unity Celebrating the Ain Ben Tili Conference, 1975 Islamic dates[edit] Dates kept according to the lunar Islamic calendar. Date Name Observance Dhul Hijja 10 Eid al-Adha Sacrifice feast Shawwal 1 Eid al-Fitr End of Ramadan Rabi' al-awwal 12 Mawlid Birth of Muhammad


See also[edit] Western Sahara portal Africa portal Geography portal Outline of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic International recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Moroccan Wall List of cities in Western Sahara Elections in Western Sahara Politics of Western Sahara Polisario Front Political status of Western Sahara


References[edit] ^ "Como saharauis queremos conservar el español". Lavozdegalicia.es. 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2015-01-28.  ^ "EL ESPAñOL EN LOS CAMPAMENTOS DE REFUGIADOS SAHARAUIS (TINDUF, ALGERIA)" (PDF). Cvc.cervantes.es. Retrieved 2015-05-20.  ^ Until complete independence. Article 32 of the SADR constitution states: The Polisario is the sole political formation allowed for Sahrawis to exercise politics until complete independence SADR. "Constitution of the SADR". Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2011.  ^ "Resources". ICANN.org. Retrieved 2015-05-20.  ^ "Cuadro de zonas de división del Sáhara Occidental" (PDF) (in Spanish). Suevia2008.googlepages.com. Retrieved 2015-05-20.  ^ "Countries That Aren't Really Countries" (HTML). PediaPress. Retrieved 2017-10-11.  ^ "Letter dated 29 January 2002 from the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs, the Legal Counsel, addressed to the President of the Security Council". United Nations. 2002-01-29. Retrieved 2016-09-17.  ^ "A/RES/34/37. Question of Western Sahara" (PDF). General Assembly—Thirty-fourth Session. United Nations. 1979. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ "SAHARA OCCIDENTAL - Actualités 2008, février". February 2008. Retrieved 2016-09-17.  ^ "Sahara Info" (PDF). March 2008. Retrieved 2016-09-17.  ^ Article 6 of the Sahrawi constitution. Article 2 prescribes that “Islam is the state religion and source of law”. ^ Zunes S; Mundy J (2010). Western Sahara: War, Nationalism, and Conflict Irresolution Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 3 August 2016. ^ "REPORT OF THE FACT-FINDING MISSION TO THE SAHRAWI ARAB DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC" (PDF). African Commission on Human & Peoples’ Rights. September 2012.  ^ "تقرير موازي بمناسبة استعراض التقرير السادس للملكة المغربية حول تنفيذ مقتضيات العهد الدولي للحقوق المدنية و السياسية". اتحاد المحامين الصحراويين.  ^ "Morocco rejoins African Union". Worldbulletin. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017.  ^ "NAM reiterates support to right of Saharawi people to determination". Sahara Press Service. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-27.  ^ "Algeria praises NAM's continued support to struggle of Saharawi people for self-determination". Sahara Press Service. 2012-09-02. Retrieved 2012-09-27.  ^ "South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2012-09-27.  ^ South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-01). "Asia-Afro partnership meeting kicked off today". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2006-09-01.  ^ South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-02). "Moroccan objections taint Asian-Africa meeting". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2006-09-02.  ^ "Arab League supports Morocco's territorial integrity". Arabic News. 1999-01-08. Retrieved 2009-02-26.  ^ "Arab League withdraws inaccurate Moroccan maps". Arabic News. 1998-12-17. Retrieved 2009-02-26.  ^ Prensa Latina (2006-09-11). "LatAm, Caribbean Parties in Nicaragua". Prensa Latina. Retrieved 2006-09-11.  ^ "Saharawi Ambassador to Nicaragua receives delegation from Central American Parliament". SPS. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2010-02-07.  Template:Dead link fixed ^ "Saharawi Representation to Mexico attends COPPPAL-ICAPP meeting". Sahara Press Service. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2012-12-10.  ^ "Western Sahara: 35 years of colonisation and exile is enough | Kenworthy News Media - development & socio-political issues". Stiffkitten.wordpress.com. 2011-03-03. Retrieved 2015-05-20.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara" (PDF). UN Security Council. 13 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 


External links[edit] This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Find more aboutSahrawi Arab Democratic Republicat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity Official SADR pages (in Spanish) Polisario.es  (Official website of the Sahrawi Delegation in Spain) (in Arabic) (in English) (in French) (in Spanish) Sahara Press Service (SPS)  (official SADR press agency) (in Arabic) (in Spanish) RASD TV  (official TV channel) (in Arabic) (in Spanish) SADR National Radio  (official radio channel) SADR Oil & Gas 2005  (SADR oil and gas licensing offer) (in Spanish) Sahara salud  (dependency of the Health ministry of the SADR) (in Arabic) (in Spanish) Economic development ministry of the SADR (in Spanish) Ministry of Culture of the SADR (in Spanish) UJSARIO  (Sahrawi Youth Union. Dakhla refugee camp section blog) (in Spanish) UNMS  (Association of Sahrawi Women in Spain) SADR pages (in Spanish) Sahara Today  (Independent Digital Journal Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) (in Arabic) (in Spanish) Futuro Saharaui  (Saharawi first independent magazine founded in 1999) (in Spanish) FiSahara  (Festival de cine del Sahara - Sahara Film Festival) (in Spanish) El Bubisher  (Bookmobile and permanent Libraries Project in the Saharawi refugee camps) (in Spanish) EFA Abidin Kaid Saleh de la RASD  (Audiovisual Education School Abidin Kaid Saleh of the SADR) (in Spanish) ARTifariti  (International Meetings of the Art in the Liberated Territories of SADR) Other Profile of Western Sahara on the CIA World Factbook website (including data and political information) v t e Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic articles History before 1975  (timeline) Colonial wars in Morocco Spanish Sahara (1884–1975) Spanish Morocco (1913–1956) Moroccan Army of Liberation Ifni War (1957–1958) 1975 UN visiting mission (May) ICJ Advisory Opinion (October) Green March (November) Madrid Accords (November) Since 1975 Western Sahara conflict Western Sahara War (1975–1991) Berm (built 1981–1987) Western Sahara peace process Settlement Plan (1991) UN referendum mission (MINURSO, 1991–present) Houston Agreement (1997) Baker Plan (2000/2003) UN Security Council Resolution 1495 (2003) / 1754 (2007) Manhasset negotiations (2007–2008) Geography Cities Climate Ecoregions Wildlife Politics Constitution Political status Parliament Polisario Front Government Government President Prime Minister Diplomatic relations International recognition Economy Infrastructure Economy Sahrawi peseta (currency) Telecommunications Transportation Society Human rights LGBT Demographics Cuisine Music Sahrawi people Outline Bibliography Category Portal v t e Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Municipalities Capital: Tifariti Municipalities of the Liberated Territories Agounit Bir Lehlou Bir Tiguisit Dougaj Mehaires Mijek Tifariti Zug v t e Western Sahara articles Political status Sahrawi Republic History  (timeline) Before 1975 Colonial wars in Morocco Spanish Sahara (1884–1975) Colonial governors Spanish Morocco (1913–1956) High commissioners Moroccan Army of Liberation Ifni War (1957–1958) 1975 UN visiting mission (May) ICJ Advisory Opinion (October) Green March (November) Madrid Accords (November) Since 1975 Western Sahara War (1975–1991) Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR, 1976–present) Berm (built 1981–1987) Settlement Plan (1991) UN referendum mission (MINURSO, 1991–present) Houston Agreement (1997) Baker Plan (2000/2003) UN Security Council Resolution 1495 (2003) / 1754 (2007) Manhasset negotiations (2007–2008) Geography Cities Climate Ecoregions Wildlife Politics Human rights LGBT Legal status Moroccan Initiative Polisario Front former members Politics SADR Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS) International recognition Economy Sahrawi peseta (currency) Telecommunications Transportation Culture Cuisine Demographics Music Sahrawi people Outline Bibliography Category Portal v t e Countries and territories of North Africa Sovereign states  Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Morocco  Sudan  Tunisia Partially recognized state Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Territories Morocco/SADR Western Sahara1 Spain Canary Islands Ceuta2 Melilla2 Alboran Alhucemas2 Chafarinas2 Vélez de la Gomera2 Portugal Madeira Savage Islands3 Sudan/Egypt Hala'ib Triangle4 Wadi Halfa Salient4 Bir Tawil5 Sudan/South Sudan Abyei6 Kafia Kingi6 Italy Pantelleria Pelagie Islands Libya/Chad Aouzou Strip7 Morocco/Spain Perejil8 1Entirely claimed by both Morocco and the SADR. 2Spanish exclaves claimed by Morocco. 3Portuguese archipelago claimed by Spain. 4Disputed between Sudan and Egypt. 5Terra nullius located between Egypt and Sudan. 6Disputed between Sudan and South Sudan. 7Part of Chad, formerly claimed by Libya. 8Disputed between Morocco and Spain v t e States with limited recognition Details concerning international recognition and foreign relations provided by the articles linked in parenthesis UN member states Partially unrecognised Armenia relations China relations Cyprus relations Israel recognition relations North Korea relations South Korea relations Non-UN member states Recognised by at least one UN member Abkhazia recognition relations Kosovo recognition relations Northern Cyprus relations Palestine recognition relations Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic recognition relations South Ossetia recognition relations Taiwan relations Recognised only by non-UN members Artsakh recognition relations Transnistria recognition relations Unrecognised Somaliland relations v t e Countries and territories of Africa Sovereign states entirely/mostly in Africa Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe partly in Africa France Mayotte Réunion Italy Pantelleria Pelagie Islands Portugal Madeira Spain Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía Yemen Socotra Territories and dependencies Îles Éparses France Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha UK Southern Provinces (Western Sahara)1 States with limited recognition Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland 1 Unclear sovereignty. Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168404919 ISNI: 0000 0001 2203 3637 GND: 6060391-4 SUDOC: 132991446 BNF: cb11865426x (data) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sahrawi_Arab_Democratic_Republic&oldid=825254736" Categories: Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicWestern SaharaMaghrebi countriesSaharan countriesArab republicsDisputed territories in AfricaTerritorial disputes of MoroccoUnrecognized or largely unrecognized statesGovernments in exileFormer Spanish coloniesMember states of the African UnionOne-party statesPolisario FrontStates and territories established in 19761976 establishments in Western SaharaGeography of Western SaharaArabic-speaking countries and territoriesSpanish-speaking countries and territoriesCountries in AfricaHidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)All articles with dead external linksArticles with dead external links from January 2015Articles containing Spanish-language textArticles containing Arabic-language textArticles containing French-language textArticles needing additional references from February 2011All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from February 2011Wikipedia external links cleanup from May 2015Wikipedia spam cleanup from May 2015Articles with Spanish-language external linksArticles with Arabic-language external linksArticles with French-language external linksWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers


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SADR (disambiguation)Spanish LanguageArabic LanguageFrench LanguageFlag Of Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicFlag Of Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicCoat Of Arms Of Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicCoat Of Arms Of Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicYā Banīy As-SaharāAreas Controlled By The SADR In Dark Green, Claimed But Uncontrolled Areas In Light GreenSouthern ProvincesEl-AaiúnTifaritiEl-AaiúnArabic LanguageSpanish LanguageHassaniya ArabicSpanish LanguageFrench LanguageMoroccoDemonymSahrawi PeopleDemographics Of Western SaharaOne-party StateSemi-presidential SystemRepublicPresident Of The Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicBrahim GhaliPrime Minister Of The Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicMohamed Wali AkeikSahrawi National CouncilMoroccoWestern SaharaSpainList Of Countries And Dependencies By AreaList Of Countries And Dependencies By PopulationList Of Countries And Territories By Population DensityGross Domestic ProductPurchasing Power ParitySahrawi PesetaMoroccan DirhamAlgerian 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