Contents 1 Rutways 2 Gauge 3 Studded tires 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Rutways[edit] Rutting can also be intentional. The ancient Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians and Greeks constructed roads with artificial wheel-ruts deliberately cut into rock. The ruts were spaced apart from each other the same distance as the wheelspan of an ordinary carriage, and thus constituted grooves that guided the carriages on the rutway. Such ancient stone rutways connected major cities with sacred sites, such as Athens to Eleusis, Sparta to Ayklia, or Elis to Olympia. The gauge of these stone grooves was 1.38 to 1.44 m (4 ft 6 in to 4 ft 9 in). The largest number of preserved stone trackways, over 150, are found on Malta.[1] Some of these ancient stone rutways were very ambitious. Around 600 BC the citizens of ancient Corinth constructed the Diolkos, which some consider the world's first railway. The Diolkos was a hard poros limestone road with grooved tracks (wheel-ruts), along which large wooden flatbed cars carrying entire ships and their cargo were pulled by slaves or draft animals. The grooves were at 1.67 m (5 ft 6 in) centres.[2]

Gauge[edit] References going back to at least 1937 suggest that the "gauge" of ancient rutways, and the distance between the wheels of carts influenced the railway standard gauge of the modern era which is 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in).[3][3] The argument is that this is shown by the evidence of rutted roads marked by cart wheels dating from the Roman Empire.[Note 1] Snopes categorized this legend as false but commented that "... it is perhaps more fairly labelled as 'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons.'"[4] The historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles approximately 5 feet (1,500 mm) apart probably derives from the width needed to fit a carthorse in between the shafts.[4] In addition, while road-traveling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims (and there is some evidence that the first railroads were measured in this way as well),[citation needed] it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels (and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads), was the important one.

Studded tires[edit] On relatively level highways, the depth of the ruts due to carbide studded winter tires is relatively uniform; however, on hilly highways the ruts tend to be deeper on the uphill sections compared to the downhill and level sections. On the uphill sections, the vehicle delivers more power to the wheels to overcome gravity, thereby, increasing the shearing force of the studs against the pavement, thus resulting in an increased cutting action. Ruts are also deeper at the entry to and exit from intersections and corners, due to deceleration (braking) and acceleration.

See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ruts. Bleeding (roads) Crocodile cracking History of rail transport

Notes[edit] ^ The gaps in the pedestrian crossings in Pompeii could give credence or otherwise to this statement, but no relevant studies appear to have been made.

References[edit] ^ Forbes, Robert James (1993). Studies in ancient technology, Volume 5. Brill Archive. ISBN 90-04-00622-2.  ^ Lewis, M. J. T. (2001), "Railways in the Greek and Roman world", in Guy, A.; Rees, J., Early Railways. A Selection of Papers from the First International Early Railways Conference (PDF), pp. 8–19 (10–15), retrieved 14 June 2011  ^ a b "STANDARD RAILWAY GAUGE". Townsville Daily Bulletin. Qld. 5 October 1937. p. 12. Retrieved 3 June 2011 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ a b "Urban Legends Reference Pages: Railroad Gauges and Roman Chariots". Snopes.  External link in |publisher= (help)

External links[edit] Testing equipment for determination of the rut resistance of asphaltic paving materials "TEST METHOD AG:AM/T009 PAVEMENT RUTTING MEASUREMENT WITH A MULTI-LASER PROFILOMETER", Austroads "COLONIAL RAILWAYS". The Empire. Sydney. 12 July 1855. p. 5. Retrieved 20 March 2014 – via National Library of Australia.  v t e Streets and roadways Types of road Limited-access Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway By country Australia Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States Main roads Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway systems by country Local roads Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane Other terms Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number Special route Business route Street hierarchy Toll road Road junctions Interchanges (grade-separated) Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet Intersections (at-grade) 3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out (RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround Surfaces Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete Reinforced concrete Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture Road hazards Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road debris Road slipperiness Road train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout Space and time allocation Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road diet Road verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf Demarcation Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone Structures Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel Glossary of road transport terms Road types by features Retrieved from "" Categories: Road constructionHidden categories: CS1 errors: external linksAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from December 2008CS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertainty

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