Contents 1 History 1.1 Crown land in England and Wales 1.2 Crown land in Ireland 1.3 Crown land in Scotland 1.4 Crown Estate Scotland 2 Present day 2.1 Crown Estate Act 1961 2.2 Holdings 2.2.1 Urban portfolio 2.2.2 Rural portfolio 2.2.3 Windsor Estate 2.2.4 Marine holdings 2.2.5 Other rights and interests 2.3 Finances 3 Governance 3.1 Historical 3.2 Chairmen and chief executives of the Crown Estate Commissioners 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links


History[edit] Crown land in England and Wales[edit] The history of the Crown lands in England and Wales begins with the Norman conquest.[8] When William I died, the land he had acquired by right of conquest was still largely intact.[14] His successors, however, granted large estates to the nobles and barons who supplied them with men and arms.[15] The monarch's remaining land was divided into royal manors, each managed separately by a seneschal. The period between the reigns of William I and Queen Anne was one of continuous alienation of lands.[16] The Crown lands were augmented as well as depleted over the centuries: Edward I extended his possessions into Wales, and James VI & I had his own Crown lands in Scotland which were ultimately combined with the Crown lands of England and Wales.[17] However, the disposals outweighed the acquisitions: at the time of the Restoration in 1660, the total revenue arising from Crown lands was estimated to be £263,598 (equal to £36,318,804 today).[18] By the end of the reign of William III (1689–1702), however, it was reduced to some £6,000 (equal to £901,648 today).[19] Before the reign of William III all the revenues of the kingdom were bestowed on the monarch for the general expenses of government. These revenues were of two kinds:[20] the hereditary revenues, derived principally from the Crown lands, feudal rights (commuted for the hereditary excise duties in 1660), profits of the post office, with licences, &c. the temporary revenues derived from taxes granted to the king for a term of years or for life. After the Glorious Revolution, Parliament retained under its own control the greater part of the temporary revenues, and relieved the sovereign of the cost of the naval and military services and the burden of the national debt. During the reigns of William III, Anne, George I and George II the sovereign remained responsible for the maintenance of the civil government and for the support of the royal household and dignity, being allowed for these purposes the hereditary revenues and certain taxes.[20] As the state machinery expanded, the cost of the civil government exceeded the income from the Crown lands and feudal rights; this created a personal debt for the monarch. On George III's accession he surrendered the income from the Crown lands to Parliament, together with abrogating responsibility for the cost of the civil government and the clearance of associated debts. As a result, and to avoid pecuniary embarrassment, he was granted a fixed civil list payment and the income retained from the Duchy of Lancaster.[21] The King surrendered to parliamentary control the hereditary excise duties, post office revenues, and "the small branches" of hereditary revenue including rents of the Crown lands in England (which amounted to about £11,000, or £1,526,315 today), and was granted a civil list annuity of £800,000 (equal to £111,004,717 today) for the support of his household, subject to the payment of certain annuities to members of the royal family.[21] Although the King had retained large hereditary revenues, his income proved insufficient for his charged expenses because he used the privilege to reward supporters with bribes and gifts.[22] Debts amounting to over £3 million (equal to £220,071,696 today) over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was then increased from time to time.[23] Every succeeding sovereign down to and including Elizabeth II renewed the arrangement made between George III and Parliament and the practice was, by the nineteenth century, recognised as "an integral part of the Constitution [which] would be difficult to abandon".[20][24] Nevertheless, a review of funding arrangements for the monarchy led to the passage of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011, which according to HM Treasury, is:[25] A new consolidated grant rounding together the Civil List, Royal Palaces and Royal Travel grants-in-aid. It is intended that future funding will be set as a fraction of The Crown Estate revenue and paid through the annual Treasury Estimates process, and subject to full National Audit Office audit. . . . The Grant is to enable The Queen to discharge her duties as Head of State. i.e it meets the central staff costs and running expenses of Her Majesty's official Household – such things as official receptions, investitures, garden parties and so on. It will also cover the maintenance of the Royal Palaces in England and the cost of travel to carry out royal engagements such as opening buildings and other royal visits. . . . While the amount of the Grant will be linked to the profits of the Crown Estate, those profits will continue to be paid in to the Exchequer; they are not to be hypothecated. Setting the Grant at a percentage of profits of the Crown Estate will help to put in place a durable and transparent framework. In April 2014 it was reported that the Crown Estate is proposing to sell about 200 of its 750 rural homes in the UK & was evicting tenants in preparation.[26][27] Crown land in Ireland[edit] In 1793 George III surrendered the hereditary revenues of Ireland, and was granted a civil list annuity for certain expenses of Irish civil government.[21][28][29] Most of the crown land by then was from forfeitures after the 1641 rebellion or the 1688–91 revolution, with some smaller older parcels remaining from earlier rebellions, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the Norman period.[30][31] Most confiscated land had been granted away again, as under the Adventurers' Act 1642, Act of Settlement 1662, and Act of Resumption 1700.[30][31] The balance which remained in Crown hands included the "undisposed lands" of the 1662 settlement (worth less than the small quit rent that a grantee would have had to pay) and the balance unsold by the trustees under the 1700 act at its 1703 time limit.[30] The scattered crown lands were farmed out on long leases with little regard to the collection of rent.[30] Responsibility lay with the Quit Rent Office, which was absorbed in 1827 by the Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues.[28] The largest Crown estate in the 1820s was Pobble O'Keefe in Sliabh Luachra at 5,000 acres (2,000 ha).[30][31] In 1828 the lease expired, and Richard Griffith was appointed to supervise its improvement, including the foundation of the model village of Kingwilliamstown.[32] In the early 1830s the Crown Estate resumed possession of land in Ballykilcline following the insanity of the head lessee. The occupational sub-lessees were seven years in arrears with their rent and the result was the Ballykilcline "removals" – free emigration to the new world in 1846. There was further state-assisted emigration from overpopulated Crown estates during the Great Famine.[33] There is evidence of Crown Estate public work schemes to employ the more distressed in improving drainage etc.[34] In 1854 a select committee of the House of Lords concluded that the small estates in Ireland should be sold.[35] 7,000 acres (2,800 ha) were subsequently sold for circa. £25,000 (equal to £2,153,459 today) at auction and £10,000 (equal to £861,384 today) by private treaty: a major disinvestment, with reinvestment in Great Britain.[19] Article 11 of the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State provided that Crown Estate land within the Irish Free State would belong to the state,[36] which took over administrative responsibilities on 1 April 1923. At the time of handover, quit rents totalled £23,418 (equal to £1,225,747 today) and rent from property £1,191 (equal to £62,339 today).[19] The estates handed over mostly comprised foreshore.[37] The Crown estate in Northern Ireland in 1960 comprised "a few quit rents ... yielding yearly only £38."[37] By 2016 it had an income of £1.4m, from cables, pipelines and windfarms on the foreshore, and goldmining in Tyrone.[38][39] Development of the seabed below low tide is hampered by a sovereignty dispute with the Republic of Ireland.[40] Crown land in Scotland[edit] It was not until 1830 that King William IV revoked the income from the Crown estates in Scotland.[41] The hereditary land revenues of the Crown in Scotland, formerly under the management of the Barons of the Exchequer, were transferred to the Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings and their successors under the Crown Lands (Scotland) Acts of 1832, 1833 and 1835.[42] These holdings mainly comprised former ecclesiastical land (following the abolition of the episcopacy in 1689) in Caithness and Orkney, and ancient royal possession in Stirling and Edinburgh, and feudal dues.[37] There was virtually no urban property. Most of the present Scottish estate excepting foreshore and salmon fishing is due to inward investment, including Glenlivet Estate, the largest area of land managed by the Crown Estate in Scotland, purchased in 1937,[43] Applegirth, Fochabers and Whitehill estates, purchased in 1963, 1937 and 1969 respectively.[44] After winning the 2011 Scottish election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) called for the devolution of the Crown Estate income to Scotland.[45] In response to this demand, the Scotland Office decided against dividing up the Crown Estates. However, plans have been developed to allocate some of the Crown Estate income to the Big Lottery Fund, which would then distribute funds to coastal communities.[45] These plans have also been criticised by the SNP.[45] Crown Estate Scotland[edit] The Scottish government has taken control of a portfolio of assets totalling £272 million ($339.6 million) after a devolved Scottish Crown Estate was established, including the rights to develop marine energy projects in the country. A new public body, called Crown Estate Scotland (CES), will oversee seabed areas hosting offshore wind, wave and tidal projects, and some continental shelf activities.[46]


Present day[edit] Crown Estate Act 1961[edit] The Crown Estate now is a statutory corporation run on commercial lines by the Crown Estate Commissioners under the provisions of the Crown Estate Act 1961. Under the Crown Estate Act 1961, the Crown Estate Commissioners have a duty "while maintaining the Crown Estate as an estate in land [...] to maintain and enhance its value and the return obtained from it, but with due regard to the requirements of good management".[47] The Act provides among other things that (Section 1(5)) "The validity of transactions entered into by the Commissioners shall not be called in question on any suggestion of their not having acted in accordance with the provisions of this Act regulating the exercise of their powers, or of their having otherwise acted in excess of their authority, nor shall any person dealing with the Commissioners be concerned to inquire as to the extent of their authority or the observance of any restrictions on the exercise of their powers". Summary of the Act[48] The Crown Estate is an estate in land only, apart from cash and gilts holdings necessary for the conduct of business. The Crown Estate Commissioners, who comprise the main board, are approved by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. They are limited to eight persons. The board of Commissioners have a duty to: maintain and enhance the capital value of the estate and its revenue income; but at the same time – take into account the need to observe a high standard of estate management practice. When selling or letting its property the Crown Estate should always seek to achieve the best consideration (i.e. price) which can reasonably be obtained in all the circumstances, but discounting any monopoly value (mainly from ownership of the foreshore and seabed). The Crown Estate cannot grant leases for a term of longer than 150 years. The Crown Estate cannot grant land options for more than ten years unless the property is re-valued when the option is exercised. The Crown Estate cannot borrow money. Donations can be made for religious or educational purposes connected with the estate or for tenants’ welfare. Otherwise, charitable donations are forbidden. The character of the Windsor estate (Park and Forest) must be preserved; no part of the estate may be sold. A report should be submitted to the Queen and to Parliament annually, showing the performance of the estate over the previous year. The Crown Estate should observe professional accounting practices and distinguish in its accounts between capital and revenue. Money received as a premium from a tenant on the granting of a new lease should be allocated between capital and revenue as follows: where the lease is for a term of thirty years or less it must be treated as revenue; for leases of more than thirty years it must be treated as capital. In 2010 a UK Parliament Treasury Committee report on the Crown Estate, the first for twenty years, reported that it is “alarmed” that the Crown Estate in 2007 started investing in joint ventures such as the Gibraltar Limited Partnership, which it says is in “grave” financial difficulties. The Crown Estate owns 50% of the partnership, which owns the Fort Kinnaird retail park near Edinburgh; the Crown Estate has a monopoly over the marine environment, and has focused too strongly on collecting revenues rather than acting in the long-term public interest around ports and harbours; the quality of residential property management in the urban estate falls short. Consultation processes have lacked transparency, and the Committee was "particularly concerned" that the Crown Estate had failed to consult local bodies which had rights to nominate key workers; some non-commercial historic properties should be reviewed with a view to transferring management to conservation bodies such as English Heritage; Ministers should take a greater interest in the Crown Estate, because its overall management struggles to balance revenue generating with acting in the wider public interest. Crown Estate chief executive Roger Bright said: “We welcome the Committee’s recognition that we run a successful business operation.”[49] Holdings[edit] Urban portfolio[edit] This includes the entirety of Regent Street and around half of St James's in London's West End as well as retail property across the UK in locations including Oxford, Exeter, Nottingham, Newcastle, Harlow and Swansea.[50] In 2002 the Crown Estate began implementing a £1 billion investment programme to improve Regent Street's commercial, retail and visitor facilities and public realm. In addition, they are investing £500 million in St James's, including a number of major redevelopments. Rural portfolio[edit] Holdings consist of around 116,000 hectares (287,000 acres) of agricultural land and forests, together with minerals and residential and commercial property.[51] Agricultural interests Agricultural interests include both livestock and arable farming. Consisting of around 106,000 hectares (263,000 acres) across the UK, they also include 26,900 hectares (66,500 acres) of common land, principally in Wales.[52] Forestry Around 10,000 hectares (24,700 acres) of forestry [53] Minerals Rights to extract minerals covers some 115,500 hectares (285,500 acres). Actual operations include 34 lettings, extracting sand, gravel, limestone, granite, brick clay, coal, slate and dimension stone.[54] Windsor Estate[edit] The Windsor Estate covers approximately 6,300 hectares and includes Windsor Great Park, the Home Park of Windsor Castle, extensive forests, residential and commercial properties, golf courses, a racecourse and let farms. Commercial and residential Offices, retail and hotel 250 hectares Leisure Golf clubs/Ascot Racecourse 250 hectares Agriculture Farms 1,200 hectares Parkland Home Park/Great Park 1,600 hectares Forestry Woodland areas 3,100 hectares Marine holdings[edit] The Crown Estate's marine holdings consist of: Foreshore Approximately 55% of the UK's foreshore is owned by the Crown Estate; other owners of UK foreshore include the Duchy of Cornwall and the Duchy of Lancaster. In Orkney and Shetland, the Crown does not claim ownership of foreshore.[55] Territorial seabed The Crown Estate owns virtually all of the UK's seabed from mean low water to the 12-nautical-mile (22 km) limit.[55] Continental shelf and extraterritorial rights Sovereign rights of the UK in the seabed and its resources vested by the Continental Shelf Act 1964 (sub-soil and substrata below the surface of the seabed, but excluding oil, gas and coal), the Energy Acts 2004 (renewable energy) and 2008 (gas and carbon storage).[55] The Crown Estate plays a major role in the development of the offshore wind energy industry in the UK. Other commercial activity managed by the Crown Estate on the seabed includes wave and tidal energy, carbon capture and storage, aggregates, submarine cables and pipelines and the mining of potash. In terms of the foreshore, the Crown Estate issue licences or leases for around 850 aquaculture sites and owns marina space for approximately 18,000 moorings. Other rights and interests[edit] Other rights and interests include: Shopping centres CrownGate Shopping Centre, Worcester. Westgate Shopping Centre in Oxford and Princesshay Shopping Centre in Exeter are a 50:50 joint venture partnership with Land Securities. The Crown Estate also has a 4.97% share of Lend Lease Retail Partnership which provides an equity interest in the Bluewater Shopping Centre in Kent and the Touchwood Shopping Centre in Solihull. Retail parks Crown Point Shopping Park in Leeds, MK1 Shopping Park in Milton Keynes, Aintree Shopping Park in Merseyside, Altrincham Retail Park in Trafford, Bath Road Shopping Park in Slough, Morfa Shopping Park in Swansea, Ocean Retail Park in Portsmouth, Queensgate Centre in Harlow, South Aylesford Retail Park in Maidstone, Apsley Mills Retail Park in Hemel Hempstead, Victoria Retail Park in Nottingham, Morfa Shopping Park in Swansea.[56] Coliseum Retail Park in Cheshire Oaks, Ellesmere Port has been bought for £81m. Edinburgh's Fort Kinnaird, Cheltenham's Gallagher Retail Park and Warwick's Leamington Shopping Park are owned 50/50 through "The Gibraltar Limited Partnership" with The Hercules Unit Trust, a Jersey-based property unit trust. The estate recently purchased the new Rushden Lakes site in Northamptonshire from its developers. Retail/office buildings Princes Street, London W1B (near Oxford Circus) with a 66.67% interest.[55] Savoy Estate apportionment Right to receive 23% of the income from the Duchy of Lancaster's Savoy Estate in London.[55] Native mussels and oysters in Scotland Wild crustaceans (does not include cultivated crustaceans)[clarification needed] Reversionary and contingent interests Some properties are sold by the Crown Estate for public benefit (such as educational or religious use) with a reverter clause, which means ownership may revert to the Crown Estate in the event of a change of use. Hereditary properties of the monarch currently in government use will revert to the Crown Estate in the event of the government use ceasing.[55] Escheated land Land that has no owner other than the Crown as lord paramount of the whole soil of the country. Escheat can result from bankruptcy or the dissolution of companies. Freehold land owned by dissolved companies which were registered in England or Wales are dealt with by the Treasury Solicitor as bona vacantia. Licences and right granted at nil rent Includes: water mains, cables, substations and war memorials. Finances[edit] In the 2015/2016 fiscal year, the Crown Estate's property evaluation was £12 billion with a £304.1 million net revenue profit (up 6.7%).[57]


Governance[edit] Historical[edit] Previous officials responsible for managing what is now the Crown Estate were:[58] Surveyor General of Woods, Forests, Parks, and Chases and Surveyor General of the Land Revenues of the Crown, 17th century to 1810 Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues, 1810–1831 Commissioners of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings, 1832–1850 Commissioners of Woods, Forests and Land Revenues, 1851–1924 Commissioners of Crown Lands, 1924–1954 Chairmen and chief executives of the Crown Estate Commissioners[edit] Chairmen (First Commissioner) 1955–62 – Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve (later Lord Silsoe) (1894–1976) 1962–77 – The Earl of Perth (1907–2002) 1977–80 – Lord Thomson of Monifieth (1921–2008) 1980–85 – The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres (born 1927) 1985–95 – The Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield (1930–2015) 1995–2002 – Sir Denys Hartley Henderson (1932–2016) 2002–2009 – Sir Ian David Grant (born 1943) 2010–2016 – Sir Stuart Hampson (born 1947) 2016– Robin Budenberg (born 1959) Chief executives (Second Commissioner) 1955–60 – Sir Ronald Montague Joseph Harris (1913–1995) 1960–68 – Sir Jack Alexander Sutherland-Harris (1908–1986) 1968–78 – Sir William Alan Wood (1916–2010) 1978–83 – Sir John Michael Moore (born 1921) 1983–89 – Dr Keith Dexter (1928–1989) 1989-2001– Sir Christopher Howes (born 1942) 2001–2011 Roger Martin Francis Bright (born 1951) 2012– Alison Nimmo (born 1964) The chairman (formally titled "first commissioner") is part-time. The chief executive (the "second commissioner") is the only full-time executive member of the Crown Estate's board.[59]


See also[edit] Crown Estate Paving Commission Duchy of Lancaster Duchy of Cornwall Prince's Coverts – Area of managed woodland in Oxshott, Surrey Regent Street Windsor Great Park Balmoral Castle Sandringham House


Notes[edit] ^ a b c The House of Commons Treasury Committee (2010). The management of the Crown Estate (PDF). London: House of Commons. pp. 5–8.  ^ a b "Sovereign Grant Bill – Further background information provided to Members of Parliament in advance of the Bill's Second Reading Debate on 14 July 2011" (PDF). Her Majesty's Treasury. July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 28 December 2015.  ^ "Who owns The Crown Estate?". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ a b "Sovereign Grant Act,2011: Guidance". Her Majesty's Treasury (gov.uk). 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ a b "Crown Estate Act, 1961" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery Office and Queen's Printer of Acts of Parliament. 1961. pp. 5–7. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ "The Crown Estate – Who We Are". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ "Gracious Message from the Queen to the House of Commons re: Sovereign Grant" (PDF). Buckingham Palace. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-29. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ a b "FAQs". The Crown Estate. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2008.  ^ "Crown Estate makes record £304m Treasury payout". BBC News. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ "Integrated Annual Report 2015/16" (PDF). The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ "Schedule of The Crown Estate's properties rights and interests June 2015" (PDF). The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ "Our Portfolio". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ "Commercial Development of Mines Royal". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ Pugh, p 3 ^ Pugh. pp. 3–4 ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 38 ^ Pugh, p. 5 ^ Commissioners of Enquiry, s. 26 ^ a b c H M Treasury "Blue Note", Class X, 2, 1912 ^ a b c Best, p. 1 ^ a b c Best, p. 2 ^ Kelso, Paul (6 March 2000). "The royal family and the public purse". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Medley, Dudley Julius (30 January 2018). "A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History". B. Blackwell. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Ilbert, C. P., The Times, 14 August 1871, p. 4 ^ United Kingdom. Her Majesty's Treasury. "Sovereign Grant Act: frequently asked questions relating to the Act and on general issues." Archived 29 January 2013 at the UK Government Web Archive Accessed 2 May 2013. ^ "Girl asks Queen to stop her eviction". BBC. 26 April 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "News". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b "Records of the Quit Rent Office (IE-NAI - QRO)". National Archives of Ireland. Archives Portal Europe. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "33 Geo. 3 c. 34". The statutes at large, passed in the Parliaments held in Ireland. 16. Dublin: Boulter Grierson. 1796. p. 863.  ^ a b c d e Commissioners Appointed to Enquire into the Fees, Gratuities, Perquisites, and Emoluments, which are or have been lately received in certain Public Offices in Ireland; and also, to examine into any Abuses which may exist in the same; and into the present Mode of Receiving, Collecting, Issuing, and Accounting for Public Money in Ireland. (20 December 1806). "Crown Lands". Fourth Report. pp. 58–65. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c Reports of Commissioners of Inquiry into Quit Rents and Crown Lands in Ireland; Abstract of Quit, Crown and other Rents in Ireland. HC 1824 (458) 21 71. 22 June 1824. pp. 5–13.  ^ "Pobble O'Keefe". Dublin Penny Journal. Library Ireland. 1 (21). 17 November 1832. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ; Tepper, Michael (1979). New World Immigrants: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from Periodical Literature. Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 487–488. ISBN 9780806308548. Retrieved 30 January 2018. ; Reports on Experimental Improvements on Crown Estate of King William's Town, in County Cork: further report of Mr. Griffiths to the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods. HC 1851 (637) 50 437.0. 4 August 1851.  ^ Ellis, Eilish (1960). "State-Aided Emigration Schemes from Crown Estates in Ireland c. 1850". Analecta Hibernica. Irish Manuscripts Commission (22): 328–394. JSTOR 5511883. (Subscription required (help)). ; reprinted in Tepper, Michael, ed. (1979). New World Immigrants: A Consolidation of Ship Passenger Lists and Associated Data from Periodical Literature. Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 448–. ISBN 9780806308548. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ Commissioners' Report for 1853, p. 601, and 1855, pp. 42–43 ^ Commissioners' Report for 1855, p.47 ^ "Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Act, 1922, Schedule 1". Irish Statute Book. Article 11. Retrieved 31 January 2018. ; Flinn, Hugo (5 May 1936). "Committee on Finance. - Vote 30—Quit Rent Office". Dáil Éireann Debates. Vol.61 No.15 p.40 c.2189. Retrieved 31 January 2018. The Quit Rent Office deals generally with the management of all forms of Crown property, including quit rents, which was transferred to Saorstát Eireann by virtue of Article 11 of the Constitution.  ^ a b c Pugh, p. 17 ^ "Northern Ireland Highlights 2015/16" (PDF). Crown Estate. June 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ McDonnell, Francess (18 Dec 2017). "Australian firm the latest to join Northern Irish 'gold rush'". The Irish Times. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ Grimson, Dermott. "The Crown Estate and renewables". Energy Ireland. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ Jim and Margaret Cuthbert (18 August 2011). "The Sovereign Grant Bill: Bad for Scotland and Bad for the UK". Bella Caledonia. Retrieved 31 January 2014.  ^ Pugh, p. 18 ^ Paterson, Wilma "Out of the shadows", The Herald, 13 November 1999, p. 12 ^ thecrownestate.co.uk Archived 3 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Settle, Michael (22 July 2011). "SNP anger at plan for Crown Estate handout". The Herald. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ "Scottish Crown Estate assets transfer to Holyrood". Ijglobal.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Crown Estate Act 1961, S. 1(3)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "The Crown Estate Act, Brief Summary" Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Crown Estate website, accessed 12 July 2010 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010.  ^ Crown estate news Archived 19 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ "Agriculture". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Forestry". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Minerals". The Crown Estate. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f "List of Assets - a Freedom of Information request to The Crown Estate" (PDF). Whatdotheyknow.com. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "The Crown Estate Portfolio - Scheme Index - Completely Retail". Completelyretail.co.uk. Retrieved 30 January 2018.  ^ "Crown Estate Financial Information". Crown Estate. 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2016.  ^ [1] ^ [2]


References[edit] Annual Reports of Commissioners of Woods and Forests 1811, 1853 and 1855 Best, G. Percival (writing as "G. Percival"), "The Civil List and the Hereditary Revenues of the Crown", The Fortnightly Review, London, March 1901 Commissioners of Enquiry into the Woods, Forests and Land Revenues of the Crown, Twelfth Report, London, 1792 Crown Estate, The, Annual report and accounts 2009, accessed July 2009 Pugh, R B., The Crown Estate – an Historical Essay, London, The Crown Estate, 1960


External links[edit] Official website Crown Estate annual report of assets Text of the Crown Estate Act 1961 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk v t e Agriculture in the United Kingdom Economy of the United Kingdom Agriculture Companies ADAS (company) Arla Foods UK Bernard Matthews Farms Dairy Crest Faccenda Group Farmcare Frontier Agriculture Genus Müller Wiseman Dairies NFU Mutual Norbrook Group Openfield Vestey Group Conservation Grazing marsh Hedgerow removal Rare Breeds Survival Trust Government and regulation Agricultural Land Classification Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board Potato Council Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency British Cattle Movement Service The Country Code Crown Estate Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Northern Ireland) Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Institute for Animal Health Legislation Meat and Livestock Commission Natural England Rights of way in Scotland Rural Development Council Rural Payments Agency Scottish Government Enterprise and Environment Directorate Single Payment Scheme History Agricultural Revolution British timber trade Celtic field Common land Corn Laws Diggers Dutch barn Enclosure Haughley Experiment Highland Clearances Highland Potato Famine Lowland Clearances Napier Commission Rationing Run rig Rural Reconstruction Association Scottish Agricultural Revolution Swing Riots Victory garden Women's Land Army Foot-and-mouth 1967 2001 2007 Nations and regions England Agriculture in London Cuisine Cornwall Devon Fishing Scotland Animal breeds Shetland Crofting Scottish Crofting Foundation Cuisine Factor Fishing Royal Highland Show Wales Cuisine Royal Welsh Show Tŷ unnos Non-governmental organisations Unions Farmers' Union of Wales National Farmers' Union of England and Wales National Farmers' Union of Scotland Ulster Farmers' Union Young Farmers' Clubs of Ulster British Egg Industry Council British Poultry Council Country Land and Business Association Fresh Start Initiative Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences James Hutton Institute Museums Museum of English Rural Life National Museum of Rural Life National Non-Food Crops Centre Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre Rothamsted Research Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland Soil Association Tenant Farmers Association Universities and colleges CAFRE Royal Agricultural University Scotland's Rural College Sectors Beekeeping June Gap Fell farming Forestry Other Countryfile Eglu Farmers Weekly Farming Today Hurdles Category v t e Real estate in the United Kingdom Real estate Economy of the United Kingdom Companies Developers and Owners Allied London Argent Group Balkan Dream Properties Banks Group Brent Walker British Railways Property Board Bruntwood Capital & Centric CLS Holdings Coin Street Community Builders Daejan Holdings Downing Developments Goodman UK Grainger Grosvenor Group Lexi Holdings The Maghull Group MEPC Minerva London & Associated Properties Opal Property Group St. Modwen Properties Sellar Property Group Span Developments St Martins Property Group Targetfollow The Bedford Estate The Peel Group Trafalgar House West Properties House Builders Barratt Bellway Berkeley Bloor Boot Bovis Countryside Properties Crest Nicholson Keepmoat Lend Lease McCarthy & Stone Miller Muir Persimmon Redrow Taylor Wimpey Telford Homes United House Property Services Adzuna Alpha1Estates Atlantis Bidwells BNP Paribas Real Estate Carter Jonas CBRE Group Chestertons CKD Galbraith RH & RW Clutton Cluttons Colliers International Connells Group Countrywide Cushman & Wakefield Cyril Leonard Drivers Jonas DTZ EC Harris Edinburgh Solicitors Property Centre Foxtons Gerald Eve GVA Hamptons International Harrods Estates ISold estate agents Jones Lang LaSalle King Sturge Knight Frank LandlordZONE LSL Property Services Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners Nestoria Northwood Osborne King Primelocation Purplebricks Regus Rightmove Savills Smiths Gore Spicerhaart Strutt & Parker UK Property Shop Whelan Commercial Winkworth Zoopla Real Estate Investment Trusts Assura Big Yellow Group British Land Brixton Derwent London Great Portland Estates Hammerson Hansteen Holdings Intu Properties Land Securities London & Stamford Property NewRiver Primary Health Properties Redefine International Safestore Segro Shaftesbury plc Tritax Big Box Unite Workspace Group Industry Bodies British Institute of Facilities Management British Property Federation Building Research Establishment National Association of Estate Agents National House Building Council Royal Institute of British Architects Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Law and Regulation Assured shorthold tenancy Building regulations in the United Kingdom Land tenure in England Land Registry The Property Ombudsman Right to buy Right to Manage Short Assured Tenancy (Scotland) Tenancy Deposit Scheme (England and Wales) Tenancy deposit schemes (Scotland) Other Council for Licensed Conveyancers Crown Estate Estate agent Estates Gazette Land agent LandlordZONE Property retailer Property Week Public estate in the United Kingdom UK mortgage terminology Category v t e Public real estate management Europe  Austria Bundesimmobiliengesellschaft  Finland Senate Properties  France Service France Domaine  Germany Institute for Federal Real Estate  Sweden Swedish Fortifications Agency National Property Board of Sweden Vasakronan Akademiska Hus Specialfastigheter Locum  United Kingdom Public estate in the United Kingdom Crown Estate Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crown_Estate&oldid=823533752#Royal_manor" Categories: Crown EstateStatutory corporations of the United Kingdom governmentHM TreasuryBritish monarchyBritish landownersReal estate in the United KingdomAgriculture in the United KingdomUnited Kingdom coast and countrysideForests and woodlands of the United Kingdom1961 establishments in the United KingdomGovernment-owned companies of the United KingdomOrganisations based in the City of WestminsterHidden categories: Webarchive template other archivesCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors listCS1: Julian–Gregorian uncertaintyPages containing links to subscription-only contentWebarchive template wayback linksEngvarB from February 2017Use dmy dates from February 2017Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2014


Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog in Namespaces ArticleTalk Variants Views ReadEditView history More Search Navigation Main pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom articleDonate to WikipediaWikipedia store Interaction HelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact page Tools What links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationWikidata itemCite this page Print/export Create a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version Languages CymraegDeutschFrançaisहिन्दीBahasa IndonesiaItaliano日本語NorskРусский Edit links This page was last edited on 1 February 2018, at 20:55. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Cookie statement Mobile view (window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgPageParseReport":{"limitreport":{"cputime":"0.704","walltime":"0.834","ppvisitednodes":{"value":19098,"limit":1000000},"ppgeneratednodes":{"value":0,"limit":1500000},"postexpandincludesize":{"value":168117,"limit":2097152},"templateargumentsize":{"value":3514,"limit":2097152},"expansiondepth":{"value":21,"limit":40},"expensivefunctioncount":{"value":4,"limit":500},"entityaccesscount":{"value":1,"limit":400},"timingprofile":["100.00% 707.500 1 -total"," 34.68% 245.333 1 Template:Reflist"," 19.94% 141.068 9 Template:Inflation"," 15.33% 108.473 9 Template:Decimals"," 14.27% 100.985 30 Template:Cite_web"," 13.59% 96.132 8 Template:Navbox"," 12.82% 90.670 9 Template:Inflation/UK"," 12.40% 87.753 18 Template:Inflation/UK/dataset"," 9.18% 64.915 1 Template:Infobox_government_agency"," 7.58% 53.647 7 Template:Cite_book"]},"scribunto":{"limitreport-timeusage":{"value":"0.272","limit":"10.000"},"limitreport-memusage":{"value":9455477,"limit":52428800}},"cachereport":{"origin":"mw1321","timestamp":"20180220030652","ttl":86400,"transientcontent":true}}});});(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgBackendResponseTime":80,"wgHostname":"mw1266"});});


Royal_manor - Photos and All Basic Informations

Royal_manor More Links

Toyota CrownStatutory CorporationEngland And WalesNorthern IrelandStatutory CorporationCorporation SoleFinancial PortfolioHer Majesty's GovernmentHer Majesty's TreasuryParliament Of The United KingdomForeshoreAscot RacecourseWindsor Great ParkCivil List Act 1760George III Of The United KingdomCivil ListSovereign Grant Act 2011Order In CouncilNorman ConquestWilliam I Of EnglandRight Of ConquestSeneschalAnne, Queen Of Great BritainAlienation (property Law)Edward I Of EnglandWalesJames I Of EnglandEnglish RestorationWilliam III Of EnglandGlorious RevolutionEnglish ParliamentGovernment DebtGeorge I Of The United KingdomGeorge II Of The United KingdomCivil ListDuchy Of LancasterElizabeth IISovereign Grant Act 2011Irish Rebellion Of 1641Williamite War In IrelandDissolution Of The MonasteriesNorman IrelandAdventurers' ActAct Of Settlement 1662Quit RentFarm (revenue Leasing)Commissioners Of Woods, Forests And Land RevenuesSliabh LuachraSir Richard Griffith, 1st BaronetModel VillageKingwilliamstownAssisted ColonizationGreat Famine (Ireland)DisinvestmentConstitution Of The Irish Free StateIrish Free StateQuit-rentNorthern IrelandRepublic Of Ireland–United Kingdom BorderWilliam IV Of The United KingdomCourt Of Exchequer (Scotland)Commissioners Of Woods, Forests And Land RevenuesCaithnessOrkneyStirlingGlenlivet EstateScottish Parliament General Election, 2011Scottish National PartyDevolution In The United KingdomScotland OfficeBig Lottery FundCrown Estate Scotland (Interim Management)Statutory CorporationFort KinnairdRegent StreetSt James'sWest End Of LondonOxfordExeterNottinghamNewcastle Upon TyneHarlowSwanseaWindsor Great ParkHome Park, WindsorWindsor CastleAscot RacecourseHome Park, WindsorWindsor Great ParkForeshoreDuchy Of CornwallDuchy Of LancasterContinental Shelf Act 1964 (United Kingdom)PotashCrownGate Shopping CentreWorcesterWestgate Shopping Centre, OxfordPrincesshay Shopping CentreLand SecuritiesLend Lease GroupBluewater (shopping Centre)Touchwood, SolihullLeedsMilton KeynesTraffordSloughSwanseaPortsmouthHarlowMaidstoneHemel HempsteadMorfa, SwanseaSwanseaEllesmere PortEdinburghFort KinnairdCheltenhamWarwickJerseyOxford CircusWikipedia:Please ClarifyLord ParamountBona VacantiaSurveyor General Of Woods, Forests, Parks, And ChasesSurveyor General Of The Land Revenues Of The CrownCommissioners Of Woods, Forests And Land RevenuesCommissioners Of Woods, Forests And Land RevenuesCommissioners Of Woods, Forests And Land RevenuesCommissioners Of Crown LandsMalcolm Trustram Eve, 1st Baron SilsoeJohn Drummond, 8th Earl Of PerthGeorge Thomson, Baron Thomson Of MonifiethRobert Lindsay, 29th Earl Of CrawfordWilliam Murray, 8th Earl Of Mansfield And MansfieldDenys HendersonIan David GrantStuart HampsonRobin BudenbergChristopher HowesAlison NimmoCrown Estate Paving CommissionDuchy Of LancasterDuchy Of CornwallPrince's CovertsRegent StreetWindsor Great ParkBalmoral CastleSandringham HouseThe GuardianThe TimesUK Government Web ArchiveCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780806308548JSTORInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9780806308548Irish Statute BookHugo FlinnThe Irish TimesThe Herald (Glasgow)Wayback MachineThe Herald (Glasgow)Wayback MachineWayback MachineLegislation.gov.ukTemplate:Agriculture In The United KingdomTemplate Talk:Agriculture In The United KingdomAgriculture In The United KingdomEconomy Of The United KingdomAgricultureADAS (company)Arla Foods UKBernard Matthews FarmsDairy CrestFaccenda GroupFarmcareFrontier AgricultureGenus PlcMüller Wiseman DairiesNFU MutualNorbrook GroupOpenfieldVestey GroupGrazing MarshHedgerow RemovalRare Breeds Survival TrustAgricultural Land ClassificationAgriculture And Horticulture Development BoardPotato CouncilAnimal Health And Veterinary Laboratories AgencyBritish Cattle Movement ServiceThe Country CodeDepartment Of Agriculture And Rural DevelopmentDepartment For Environment, Food And Rural AffairsInstitute For Animal HealthCategory:Agriculture Legislation In The United KingdomMeat And Livestock CommissionNatural EnglandRights Of Way In ScotlandRural Development Council (Scotland)Rural Payments AgencyScottish Government Enterprise And Environment DirectorateSingle Payment SchemeBritish Agricultural RevolutionBritish Timber TradeCeltic FieldCommon LandCorn LawsDiggersDutch BarnEnclosureHaughley ExperimentHighland ClearancesHighland Potato FamineLowland ClearancesNapier CommissionRationing In The United KingdomRun RigRural Reconstruction AssociationScottish Agricultural RevolutionSwing RiotsVictory GardenWomen's Land ArmyFoot-and-mouth Disease1967 United Kingdom Foot-and-mouth Outbreak2001 United Kingdom Foot-and-mouth Outbreak2007 United Kingdom Foot-and-mouth OutbreakAgriculture In EnglandAgriculture In LondonEnglish CuisineCornish CuisineCuisine Of DevonFishing Industry In EnglandAgriculture In ScotlandList Of Domesticated Scottish BreedsShetland Animal BreedsCroftingScottish Crofting FoundationScottish CuisineFactor (Scotland)Fishing Industry In ScotlandRoyal Highland ShowWelsh CuisineRoyal Welsh ShowTŷ UnnosFarmers' Union Of WalesNational Farmers' Union Of England And WalesNational Farmers' Union Of ScotlandUlster Farmers' UnionYoung Farmers' Clubs Of UlsterBritish Egg Industry CouncilBritish Poultry CouncilCountry Land And Business AssociationFresh Start InitiativeInstitute Of Biological, Environmental And Rural SciencesJames Hutton InstituteMuseum Of English Rural LifeNational Museum Of Rural LifeNational Non-Food Crops CentreNottingham Arabidopsis Stock CentreRothamsted ResearchRoyal Highland And Agricultural Society Of ScotlandSoil AssociationTenant Farmers AssociationCollege Of Agriculture, Food And Rural EnterpriseRoyal Agricultural UniversityScotland's Rural CollegeBeekeeping In The United KingdomJune GapFell FarmingForestry In The United KingdomCountryfileEgluFarmers WeeklyFarming TodayHurdles (agricultural)Category:Agriculture In The United KingdomTemplate:Real Estate In The United KingdomTemplate Talk:Real Estate In The United KingdomUnited KingdomReal Estate In The United KingdomReal EstateEconomy Of The United KingdomAllied LondonArgent GroupBalkan Dream PropertiesBanks GroupBrent WalkerBritish Railways Property BoardBruntwoodCapital & CentricCLS HoldingsCoin Street Community BuildersDaejan HoldingsDowning DevelopmentsGoodman UKGrainger PlcGrosvenor GroupLexi HoldingsThe Maghull GroupMEPC PlcMinerva (property Firm)London & Associated PropertiesOpal Property GroupSt. Modwen PropertiesSellar Property GroupSpan DevelopmentsSt Martins Property GroupTargetfollowThe Bedford EstateThe Peel GroupTrafalgar House (company)West PropertiesBarratt DevelopmentsBellwayBerkeley Group HoldingsBloor HomesHenry Boot PlcBovis Homes GroupCountryside PropertiesCrest NicholsonKeepmoatLend Lease Residential DevelopmentMcCarthy & StoneMiller HomesMuir HomesPersimmon PlcRedrow PlcTaylor WimpeyTelford HomesUnited HouseAdzunaAlpha1EstatesAtlantis GroupBidwellsBNP Paribas Real EstateCarter JonasCBRE GroupChestertonsCKD GalbraithRH & RW CluttonCluttonsColliers InternationalConnells GroupCountrywideCushman & WakefieldCyril LeonardDrivers JonasDTZEC HarrisFoxtonsGerald EveHamptons InternationalHarrods EstatesISold Estate AgentsJones Lang LaSalleKing SturgeKnight FrankLandlordZONELSL Property ServicesNathaniel LichfieldNestoriaNorthwood (estate Agent)Osborne KingPrimelocationPurplebricksRegusRightmoveSavillsSmiths GoreSpicerhaartStrutt & ParkerUK Property ShopWhelan CommercialWinkworth PlcZooplaAssura PlcBig Yellow GroupBritish LandBrixton PlcDerwent LondonGreat Portland EstatesHammersonHansteen HoldingsIntu PropertiesLand SecuritiesLondon & Stamford PropertyNewRiverPrimary Health PropertiesRedefine InternationalSafestoreSegroShaftesbury PlcTritax Big Box REITUnite StudentsWorkspace GroupBritish Institute Of Facilities ManagementBritish Property FederationBuilding Research EstablishmentNational Association Of Estate AgentsNational House Building CouncilRoyal Institute Of British ArchitectsRoyal Institute Of Chartered SurveyorsAssured Shorthold TenancyBuilding Regulations In The United KingdomLand Tenure In EnglandLand RegistryThe Property OmbudsmanRight To BuyRight To ManageShort Assured Tenancy (Scotland)Tenancy Deposit Scheme (England And Wales)Tenancy Deposit Schemes (Scotland)Council For Licensed ConveyancersEstate AgentEstates GazetteLand AgentLandlordZONEProperty RetailerProperty WeekPublic Estate In The United KingdomUK Mortgage TerminologyCategory:Real Estate In The United KingdomTemplate:Public Real Estate ManagementAustriaBundesimmobiliengesellschaftFinlandSenate PropertiesFranceService France DomaineGermanyInstitute For Federal Real Estate (Germany)SwedenSwedish Fortifications AgencyNational Property Board Of SwedenVasakronanAkademiska HusUnited KingdomPublic Estate In The United KingdomHelp:CategoryCategory:Crown EstateCategory:Statutory Corporations Of The United Kingdom GovernmentCategory:HM TreasuryCategory:British MonarchyCategory:British LandownersCategory:Real Estate In The United KingdomCategory:Agriculture In The United KingdomCategory:United Kingdom Coast And CountrysideCategory:Forests And Woodlands Of The United KingdomCategory:1961 Establishments In The United KingdomCategory:Government-owned Companies Of The United KingdomCategory:Organisations Based In The City Of WestminsterCategory:Webarchive Template Other ArchivesCategory:CS1 Maint: Multiple Names: Authors ListCategory:CS1: Julian–Gregorian UncertaintyCategory:Pages Containing Links To Subscription-only ContentCategory:Webarchive Template Wayback LinksCategory:EngvarB From February 2017Category:Use Dmy Dates From February 2017Category:Wikipedia Articles Needing Clarification From September 2014Discussion About Edits From This IP Address [n]A List Of Edits Made From This IP Address [y]View The Content Page [c]Discussion About The Content Page [t]Edit This Page [e]Visit The Main Page [z]Guides To Browsing WikipediaFeatured Content – The Best Of WikipediaFind Background Information On Current EventsLoad A Random Article [x]Guidance On How To Use And Edit WikipediaFind Out About WikipediaAbout The Project, What You Can Do, Where To Find ThingsA List Of Recent Changes In The Wiki [r]List Of All English Wikipedia Pages Containing Links To This Page [j]Recent Changes In Pages Linked From This Page [k]Upload Files [u]A List Of All Special Pages [q]Wikipedia:AboutWikipedia:General Disclaimer



view link view link view link view link view link