Contents 1 Early life 2 Business 3 Political activities 3.1 Early political activities 4 Political views 4.1 Abortion 4.2 Fiscal policy 4.3 Reform Party and 1996 presidential run 4.4 Later activities 5 Personal life 6 Honors and achievements 7 Electoral history 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit] Perot was born in Texarkana, Texas, the son of Lula May Perot (née Ray) and Gabriel Ross Perot,[1] a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts. His patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to Louisiana, in the 1740s.[2][3] He attended a private school called Patty Hill. He graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947.[4] One of Perot's boyhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, later Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent Texarkana, Arkansas, lawyer.[5] Perot joined the Boy Scouts of America and made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.[6][7] From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College, then entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1949 and helped establish its honor system.[6][8] Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator.[9] Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.

Business[edit] L-R: Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot (1988) After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He quickly became a top employee (one year, he fulfilled his annual sales quota in a mere two weeks)[10] and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who largely ignored him.[11] He left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in Dallas, Texas, and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused 77 times before he was given his first contract. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U.S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "fastest, richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story.[12] In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion. In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser ever on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970.[13] Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot organized and sponsored their rescue. The rescue team was led by retired U.S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract their two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners. The two prisoners then connected with the rescue team, and the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in a book, On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 miniseries, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna. In 1984, Perot bought a very early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom. It was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation, to provide "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families."[14] The document sold for US$21.3 million on December 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, and is kept on display at the National Archives.[15] After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple and left to found NeXT, his angel investor was Perot, who invested over $20 million. Perot believed in Jobs and did not want to miss out, as he had with his chance to invest in Bill Gates's fledgling Microsoft.[16] In 1988, he founded Perot Systems Corporation, Inc. in Plano, Texas. His son, Ross Perot Jr., eventually succeeded him as CEO. In September 2009, Perot Systems was acquired by Dell for $3.9 billion.[17]

Political activities[edit] Early political activities[edit] Perot became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. He believed that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia at the end of the U.S. involvement in the war,[18] and that government officials were covering up POW/MIA investigations to avoid revealing a drug-smuggling operation used to finance a secret war in Laos.[19] Perot engaged in unauthorized back-channel discussions with Vietnamese officials in the late 1980s, which led to fractured relations between Perot and the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations.[18][19] In 1990, Perot reached agreement with Vietnam's Foreign Ministry to become its business agent in the event that diplomatic relations were normalized.[20] Perot also launched private investigations of, and attacks upon, U.S. Department of Defense official Richard Armitage.[18][19] Perot standing next to a portrait of George Washington at his office in 1986 In Florida in 1990, retired financial planner Jack Gargan funded a series of "I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore" (a reference to a famous quotation from the 1976 political and mass media satire movie, Network) newspaper advertisements denouncing the U.S. Congress for voting for legislative pay raises at a time when average wages nationwide were not increasing. Gargan later founded "Throw the Hypocritical Rascals Out" (THRO), which Ross Perot supported.[21] Perot did not support President George H. W. Bush, and vigorously opposed the United States' involvement in the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War. He unsuccessfully urged Senators to vote against the war resolution, and began to consider his own presidential run.[22][23]

Political views[edit] During Perot's political campaigns, he has been reluctant to speak about social issues, as he is seen as socially liberal and usually focused on his fiscal policies to keep support during his campaigns. He has supported abortion, supports gay rights, is in favor of stricter gun control and increased AIDS research.[24] Abortion[edit] In 1992, Perot stated he is pro-choice; however, since 2000, he has been pro-choice only reluctantly.[25] Fiscal policy[edit] Perot believes tax should be increased on the wealthy, while spending should be cut to help pay off the national debt. Perot also believes capital gains tax should be increased, instead giving tax breaks to those starting new businesses instead of those 'just shooting dice on Wall Street' and states in his book 'Not For Sale at Any Price': "We cut the capital gains tax rate from a maximum rate of 35% to a maximum rate that got as low as 20% during the 1980s. Who got the benefit? The rich did, of course, because that's who owns most of the capital assets."[26] Main article: Ross Perot presidential campaign, 1992 Perot in 1986 On February 20, 1992, he appeared on CNN's Larry King Live and announced his intention to run as an independent if his supporters could get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. With such declared policies as balancing the federal budget, opposition to gun control, ending the outsourcing of jobs and enacting electronic direct democracy via "electronic town halls", he became a potential candidate and soon polled roughly even with the two major party candidates.[27] Perot's candidacy received increasing media attention when the competitive phase of the primary season ended for the two major parties. With the insurgent candidacies of Republican Pat Buchanan and Democrat Jerry Brown winding down, Perot was the natural beneficiary of populist resentment toward establishment politicians. On May 25, 1992, he was featured on the cover of Time with the title "Waiting for Perot", an allusion to Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot.[28] Several months before the Democratic and Republican conventions, Perot filled the vacuum of election news, as his supporters began petition drives to get him on the ballot in all 50 states. This sense of momentum was reinforced when Perot employed two savvy campaign managers in Democrat Hamilton Jordan and Republican Ed Rollins. In July, while Perot was pondering whether to run for office, his supporters established a campaign organization United We Stand America. Perot was late in making formal policy proposals, but most of what he did call for were intended to reduce the deficit, such as a gasoline tax increase and cutbacks to Social Security.[citation needed] In June, Perot led a Gallup poll with 39% of the vote.[29] By mid-July, the Washington Post reported that Perot's campaign managers were becoming increasingly disillusioned by his unwillingness to follow their advice to be more specific on issues,[30] and his need to be in full control of operations[30] with such tactics as forcing volunteers to sign loyalty oaths.[31] Perot's poll numbers began to slip to 25%, and his advisers warned that if he continued to ignore them, he would fall into single digits. Co-manager Hamilton Jordan threatened to quit, and on July 15, Ed Rollins resigned after Perot fired advertisement specialist Hal Riney, who worked with Rollins on the Reagan campaign. Rollins would later claim that a member of the campaign accused him of being a Bush plant with ties to the CIA.[32] Amid the chaos, Perot's support fell to 20%.[33] The next day, Perot announced on Larry King Live that he would not seek the presidency. He explained that he did not want the House of Representatives to decide the election if the result caused the electoral college to be split. Perot eventually stated the reason was that he received threats that digitally altered photographs would be released by the Bush campaign to sabotage his daughter's wedding.[34] Whatever his reasons for withdrawing, his reputation was badly damaged. Many of his supporters felt betrayed and public opinion polls subsequently showed a large negative view of Perot that was absent prior to his decision to end the campaign.[35] In September, he qualified for all 50 state ballots. On October 1, he announced his intention to re-enter the presidential race. He said that Republican operatives had wanted to reveal compromising photographs of his daughter, which would disrupt her wedding, and he wanted to spare her from embarrassment. He campaigned in 16 states and spent an estimated $12.3 million of his own money.[36] Perot employed the innovative strategy of purchasing half-hour blocks of time on major networks for infomercial-type campaign advertisements; this advertising garnered more viewership than many sitcoms, with one Friday night program in October attracting 10.5 million viewers.[37] At one point in June, Perot led the polls with 39% (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton). Just prior to the debates, Perot received 7–9% support in nationwide polls.[38] The debates likely played a significant role in his ultimate receipt of 19% of the popular vote. Although his answers during the debates were often general, many Democrats and Republicans conceded that Perot won at least the first debate. In the debate, he remarked: Keep in mind our Constitution predates the Industrial Revolution. Our founders did not know about electricity, the train, telephones, radio, television, automobiles, airplanes, rockets, nuclear weapons, satellites, or space exploration. There's a lot they didn't know about. It would be interesting to see what kind of document they'd draft today. Just keeping it frozen in time won't hack it.[39] Perot denounced Congress for its inaction in his speech at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, on March 18, 1992. Perot said: This city has become a town filled with sound bites, shell games, handlers, media stuntmen who posture, create images, talk, shoot off Roman candles, but don't ever accomplish anything. We need deeds, not words, in this city.[40] In the 1992 election, he received 18.9% of the popular vote, about 19,741,065 votes (but no electoral college votes), making him the most successful third-party presidential candidate in terms of the popular vote since Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 election.[41] Unlike Perot, however, some other third party candidates since Roosevelt have won electoral college votes. (Robert La Follette had 13 in 1924, Strom Thurmond had 39 in 1948, George Wallace had 46 in 1968 and John Hospers won one in 1972, albeit from a faithless elector). Compared with Thurmond and Wallace, who polled very strongly in a small number of states, Perot's vote was more evenly spread across the country. Perot managed to finish second in two states: In Maine, Perot received 30.44% of the vote to Bush's 30.39% (Clinton won Maine with 38.77%); in Utah, Perot received 27.34% of the vote to Clinton's 24.65% (Bush won Utah with 43.36%). Although Perot won no state, he received the most votes in some counties, including Trinity County, California. A detailed analysis of voting demographics revealed that Perot's support drew heavily from across the political spectrum, with 20% of his votes coming from self-described liberals, 27% from self-described conservatives, and 53% coming from self-described moderates. Economically, however, the majority of Perot voters (57%) were middle class, earning between $15,000 and $49,000 annually, with the bulk of the remainder drawing from the upper middle class (29% earning more than $50,000 annually).[42] Exit polls also showed that Ross Perot drew 38% of his vote from Bush, and 38% of his vote from Clinton, though it's generally considered that he aided Clinton in defeating Bush.[43] Based on his performance in the popular vote in 1992, Perot was entitled to receive federal election funding for 1996. Perot remained in the public eye after the election and championed opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), urging voters to listen for the "giant sucking sound" of American jobs heading south to Mexico should NAFTA be ratified. Reform Party and 1996 presidential run[edit] Perot tried to keep his movement alive through the mid-1990s, continuing to speak about the increasing national debt. He was a prominent campaigner against the NAFTA, and even debated with then Vice President Al Gore on the issue on Larry King Live. Perot's behavior during the debate was a source of mirth thereafter, including his repeated pleas to "let me finish" in his southern drawl. The debate was seen by many as effectively ending Perot's political career.[44] Support for NAFTA went from 34% to 57%.[45] In 1995, he founded the Reform Party and won their presidential nomination for the 1996 election. His vice presidential running mate was Pat Choate. Because of the ballot access laws, he had to run as an Independent on many state ballots. Perot received 8% of the popular vote in 1996, lower than in the 1992 race, but still an unusually successful third-party showing by U.S. standards. He spent much less of his own money in this race than he had four years before, and also allowed other people to contribute to his campaign, unlike his prior race. One common explanation for the decline was Perot's exclusion from the presidential debates, based on the preferences of the Democratic and Republican party candidates. Jamin B. Raskin of Open Debates filed a lawsuit about Perot's exclusion years later.[46][47] Later activities[edit] Perot attending the 2009 EagleBank Bowl in Washington, D.C. Later in the 1990s, Perot's detractors accused him of not allowing the Reform Party to develop into a genuine national political party, but rather using it as a vehicle to promote himself. They cited as evidence the control of party offices by operatives from his presidential campaigns. Perot did not give an endorsement during Jesse Ventura's run for governor of Minnesota in the 1998 election, and this became suspicious to detractors when he made fun of Ventura at a conference after Ventura had a falling out with the press. The party leadership grew in tighter opposition to groups supporting Ventura and Jack Gargan. Evidence of this was demonstrated when Gargan was officially removed as Reform Party chairman by the Reform Party National Committee. In the 2000 presidential election, Perot refused to become openly involved with the internal Reform Party dispute between supporters of Pat Buchanan and John Hagelin. Perot was reportedly unhappy with what he saw as the disintegration of the party, as well as his own portrayal in the press; thus, he chose to remain quiet. He appeared on Larry King Live four days before the election and endorsed George W. Bush for president. Despite his earlier opposition to NAFTA, Perot remained largely silent about expanded use of guest-worker visas in the United States, with Buchanan supporters attributing this silence to his corporate reliance on foreign workers.[48] Some state parties affiliated with the new (Buchananite) America First Party. Perot speaking in 2006 Since then, Perot has been largely silent on political issues, refusing to answer most questions from the press. When interviewed, he usually remains on the subject of his business career and refuses to answer specific questions on politics, candidates, or his past activities. One exception to this came in 2005, when he was asked to testify before the Texas Legislature in support of proposals to extend technology to students, including making laptops available to them. He also supported changing the process of buying textbooks by making e-books available and by allowing schools to buy books at the local level instead of going through the state. In an April 2005 interview, Perot expressed concern about the state of progress on issues that he had raised in his presidential runs.[49] Two further exceptions came with his endorsements in the 2008 and 2012 elections. In January 2008, Perot publicly came out against Republican candidate John McCain and endorsed Mitt Romney for president. He also announced that he would soon be launching a new website with updated economic graphs and charts.[50] In June 2008, this blog launched, focusing on entitlements (Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security), the U.S. national debt, and related issues.[51] In 2012, Perot endorsed Romney for president again.[52] Perot did not give any endorsements for the 2016 election.

Personal life[edit] Perot and his wife Margot (née Birmingham) have five children (Ross Jr., Nancy, Suzanne, Carolyn, and Katherine). As of 2012[update], the Perots had 16 grandchildren.[citation needed] With an estimated net worth of about US$4.1 billion in 2017, he is ranked by Forbes as the 167th-richest person in the United States.[53]

Honors and achievements[edit] In 1986, Perot received the S. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a Private Citizen, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[54] On April 22, 2009, Ross Perot was made an honorary Green Beret at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Perot was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1988. On September 18, 2009, the Texarkana Independent School District named him (1947 graduate of Texas High School) as a 2009 Distinguished Alumnus.[55] In May 2009, he was appointed an honorary chairman of the OSS Society. On October 15, 2009, the U.S. Military Academy at West Point awarded him with the distinguished Sylvanus Thayer Award.[56] In honor of Perot's 80th birthday, the bridge connecting Walton and University drives in Texarkana, Texas, was named the H. Ross Perot Bridge.[57] On April 20, 2010, in Kansas City, Perot was presented with the Distinguished Leadership Award from the Command and General Staff College Foundation, Inc., Fort Leavenworth, KS[58] On October 2, 2010, Perot was given the William J. Donovan Award from the OSS Society at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in Washington, D.C. He is the 26th recipient of the award.[59] In September 2011, Perot accepted the Army Heritage Center Foundation's Boots on the Ground Award.[60] On October 28, 2011, the Museum of Nature & Science in Dallas announced it was naming a new species of the dinosaur genus Pachyrhinosaurus after the Perot family. The new species is named Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum.[61]

Electoral history[edit] United States presidential election, 1992 Bill Clinton/Al Gore (D) – 44,909,806 (43.0%) and 370 electoral votes (32 states and D.C. carried) George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle (R) (Inc.) – 39,104,550 (37.4%) and 168 electoral votes (18 states carried) Ross Perot/James Stockdale (I) – 19,743,821 (18.9%) and 0 electoral votes Andre Marrou/Nancy Lord (L) – 290,087 (0.3%) and 0 electoral votes United States presidential election, 1996 Bill Clinton/Al Gore (D) (Inc.) – 47,400,125 (49.2%) and 379 electoral votes (31 states and D.C. carried) Bob Dole/Jack Kemp (R) – 39,198,755 (40.7%) and 159 electoral votes (19 states carried) Ross Perot/Pat Choate (Ref.) – 8,085,402 (8.4%) and 0 electoral votes

References[edit] ^ "The Ancestors of Ross Perot". Retrieved June 13, 2010.  ^ Posner, Gerald (1996). Citizen Perot. New York City: Random House. p. 8.  ^ Reagan, Danny. "The Perot/Bordelon Branches". Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2014.  ^ "Texarkana Independent School District Names H. Ross Perot as 2009 Distinguished Alumni" (PDF). Texarkana Independent School District. September 17, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2012.  ^ Furlong, Tom (June 10, 1992). "Perot as Hometown Hero: Just Don't Get in His Way". Retrieved June 26, 2010.  ^ a b Townley, Alvin (December 26, 2006). Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 89–100, 108, 187, 194, 249, 260, 265. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006.  ^ Ray, Mark (2007). "What It Means to Be an Eagle Scout". Scouting Magazine. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved January 5, 2007.  ^ The Associated Press. "Ross Perot Gives $1 Million to Texarkana College". Retrieved April 7, 2012.  ^ Martin, Marie Murray (March 25, 2012). "Native Son: TC benefactor Ross Perot reflects on growing up in Texarkana". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2012.  ^ Sam Wyly, 1000 Dollars & an Idea, Publisher: Newmarket, ISBN 1-55704-803-7 ^ Landrum, Gene N. (2004). Entrepreneurial Genius: The Power of Passion. Naples, FL: Brendan Kelly Publishing Inc. p. 174. ISBN 9781895997231. Retrieved December 27, 2015.  ^ "Ross Perot". Famous Entrepreneurs. Retrieved December 28, 2015.  ^ Henry Moscow, "An Astonishment of New York Superlatives: Biggest, Smallest, Longest, Shortest, Oldest, First, Last, Most, Etc." New York Magazine vol. 7, no. 1 (31 December 1973/7 January 1974) p. 53. ^ Magna Carta Is Going on the Auction Block, The New York Times September 25, 2007 ^ "Magna Carta Copy Sold". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4516-4853-7.  ^ Guglielmo, Connie; Hoffmann, Katie (September 22, 2009). "Dell Pays 68% Premium for Perot's Health Technology (Update3)". Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2009.  ^ a b c Patrick E. Tyler (June 20, 1992). "Perot and Senators Seem Headed for a Fight on P.O.W.'s-M.I.A.'s". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2008.  ^ a b c George J. Church (June 29, 1992). "The Other Side of Perot". Time. Retrieved January 24, 2008.  ^ Patrick E. Tyler (June 5, 1992). "Perot to Testify in Senate on Americans Missing in Southeast Asia". The New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2008.  ^ Isikoff, Michael (May 31, 1992). "Unlikely Suitors Pushed Perot Bid". Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2015.  ^ "The 1992 Run For The Presidency". Reform Party.  ^ QUINDLEN, Anna (June 3, 1992). "Public & Private; Waiting for Perot". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2012.  ^ "Ross Perot on Gun Control". Retrieved 2017-06-16.  ^ "Ross Perot on Abortion". Retrieved 2017-06-16.  ^ "Not For Sale at Any Price, by Ross Perot". Retrieved 2017-06-16.  ^ "The Pew Research Center for People & the Press: Year of the Outsider". June 16, 1992. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ "Time magazine cover: H. Ross Perot". May 25, 1992. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: On the Trail; POLL GIVES PEROT A CLEAR LEAD". The New York Times. June 11, 1992. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 24, 2016.  ^ a b "Perot advisers reportedly at odds". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. July 14, 1992. p. 2A. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ "Perot asks volunteers to sign loyalty oaths". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. July 14, 1992. p. 2A.  ^ Lewis, Anthony (October 2, 1992). "Abroad at Home; Why Perot?". The New York Times. p. 31. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ Holmes, Steven A. (July 16, 1992). "Rollins Quits Perot's Campaign; Asserts His Advice Was Ignored". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 27, 2010.  ^ THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Overview; PEROT SAYS HE QUIT IN JULY TO THWART G.O.P. 'DIRTY TRICKS', Richard L. Berke, The New York Times, October 26, 1992 ^ THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Ross Perot; Perot Says He May Rejoin Race To Publicize His Economic Plan, Richard L. Berke, The New York Times, September 19, 1992 ^ Clymer, Adam (August 25, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Perot Gave $12 Million to Aborted Campaign". New York Times.  ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (October 27, 1992). "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Media; Perot's 30-Minute TV Ads Defy the Experts, Again". New York Times. p. A.19.  ^ THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: On the Trail; POLL GIVES PEROT A CLEAR LEAD. The New York Times. New York, N.Y.: June 11, 1992. ^ Sumner, Mark (April 19, 2009). "All This Has Happened Before". Daily Kos. Retrieved June 13, 2010.  ^ Perot, Ross, James W. Robinson. Ross Perot speaks out: issue by issue, what he says about our nation: its problems and its promise. p 55. Prima Pub., 1992. ISBN 978-1-55958-274-2. ^ "Presidential Election of 1912". Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ Peirce Lewis; Casey McCracken; Roger Hunt (October 1994). "Politics: Who Cares". American Demographics. 16: 23.  ^ Holmes, Steven A. (November 5, 1992). "THE 1992 ELECTIONS: DISAPPOINTMENT -- NEWS ANALYSIS An Eccentric but No Joke; Perot's Strong Showing Raises Questions On What Might Have Been, and Might Be". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ Reaves, Jessica; Frank Pelligrini (October 3, 2000). "Bush plays off expectations; Gore learns from mistakes". Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008. Gore's decisive victory was the saving of NAFTA and the beginning of the end of Perot as even a semi-serious public figure.  ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (December 15, 2010). "Al Gore and Ross Perot Debate NAFTA". Time.  ^ "Open Debates: Board of Directors". Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2012.  ^ Richards, Paul J. "Do the debates unfairly shut out third parties?". CBS news.  ^ "Perot: H1Bs and PNTR -- The Giant Silence". May 24, 2000. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved October 20, 2004. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Point of Contact: H. Ross Perot". Dallas Morning News. April 23, 2005. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007.  ^ "Ross Perot Slams McCain". Newsweek. January 16, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2010.  ^ Jason Carroll (June 19, 2008). "Ross Perot wants more focus on national debt". CNN.  ^ Dinan, Stephen. "Ross Perot endorses Mitt Romney". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 16, 2012.  ^ "Forbes 400: 2017 Ranking". Forbes. October 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.  ^ "Jefferson Awards FoundationNational - Jefferson Awards Foundation". Retrieved April 1, 2016.  ^ Martin, Marie Murray (September 19, 2009). "Perot receives TISD Distinguished Alumni Award". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on September 24, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2010.  ^ "List of Thayer Award Recipients". West Point AOG. October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2009.  ^ Martin, Marie Murray (June 9, 2010). "Native Son gets birthday surprise". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.  ^ "CGSC Foundation presents Ross Perot with 2010 Distinguished Leadership Award". The Command and General Staff College Foundation, Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Martin, Marie Murray (September 30, 2010). "Perot to be given distinguished award". Texarkana Gazette. Retrieved September 30, 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ Martin, Marie Murray (July 7, 2011). "Ross Perot will be presented with award". Texarkana Gazette. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. 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Further reading[edit] Thomas M. Defrank, et al. Quest for the Presidency, 1992. Texas A&M University Press. 1994. Mason, Todd (1990). Perot. Business One Irwin. ISBN 1-55623-236-5 An unauthorized biography by a longtime Perot watcher. Doron P. Levin, Irreconcilable Differences: Ross Perot Versus General Motors (New York: Plume, 1990) Thomas Moore, The GM System is Like a Blanket of Fog, Fortune, February 15, 1988 Posner, Gerald Citizen Perot: His Life and Times Random House. New York 1996 Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X. Forbes 400 Rapoport, Ronald and Walter Stone. Three's a Crowd: The Dynamic of Third Parties, Ross Perot, and Republican Resurgence Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ross Perot. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ross Perot United We Stand, H. Ross Perot at the Wayback Machine (archived December 9, 2000); text of the book published by Perot in 1992 to mark the launch of his presidential campaign, complete with charts. The text is hosted by the site of the organization he created that year United We Stand America, as saved by The Internet Archive. Appearances on C-SPAN Booknotes interview with Carolyn Barta on Perot and His People: Disrupting the Balance of Political Power, January 16, 1994. "Ross Perot, Presidential Contender" from C-SPAN's The Contenders Party political offices First Reform nominee for President of the United States 1996 Succeeded by Pat Buchanan v t e United States Reform Party Presidential nominees 1996: Perot 2000: Buchanan 2004: Nader 2008: Weill 2012: Barnett 2016: De La Fuente v t e Notable third party performances in United States elections Presidential (since 1832) 1832 1848 1856 1860 1892 1912 1924 1948 1968 1980 1992 1996 Senatorial (since 1990) Virginia 1990 Alaska 1992 Arizona 1992 Hawaii 1992 Louisiana 1992 Ohio 1992 Arizona 1994 Minnesota 1994 Ohio 1994 Vermont 1994 Virginia 1994 Alaska 1996 Minnesota 1996 Arizona 2000 Massachusetts 2000 Minnesota 2000 Alaska 2002 Kansas 2002 Massachusetts 2002 Mississippi 2002 Oklahoma 2002 Virginia 2002 Oklahoma 2004 Connecticut 2006 Indiana 2006 Maine 2006 Vermont 2006 Arkansas 2008 Idaho 2008 Minnesota 2008 Oregon 2008 Alaska 2010 (Republican Write-In) Florida 2010 Indiana 2010 South Carolina 2010 Utah 2010 Indiana 2012 Maine 2012 Maryland 2012 Missouri 2012 Montana 2012 Vermont 2012 Kansas 2014 South Dakota 2014 Wyoming 2014 Alaska 2016 Arizona 2016 Idaho 2016 Indiana 2016 Kansas 2016 Gubernatorial (since 1990) Alaska 1990 Connecticut 1990 Kansas 1990 Maine 1990 New York 1990 Oklahoma 1990 Oregon 1990 Utah 1992 West Virginia 1992 Alaska 1994 Connecticut 1994 Hawaii 1994 Maine 1994 New Mexico 1994 Oklahoma 1994 Pennsylvania 1994 Rhode Island 1994 Vermont 1994 Alaska 1998 Maine 1998 Minnesota 1998 New York 1998 Pennsylvania 1998 Rhode Island 1998 Kentucky 1999 New Hampshire 2000 Vermont 2000 Arizona 2002 California 2002 Maine 2002 Minnesota 2002 New Mexico 2002 New York 2002 Oklahoma 2002 Vermont 2002 Wisconsin 2002 Alaska 2006 Illinois 2006 Maine 2006 Massachusetts 2006 Minnesota 2006 Texas 2006 Louisiana 2007 Vermont 2008 New Jersey 2009 Colorado 2010 Idaho 2010 Maine 2010 Massachusetts 2010 Minnesota 2010 Rhode Island 2010 Wyoming 2010 Kentucky 2011 Virginia 2013 Alaska 2014 Hawaii 2014 Maine 2014 Rhode Island 2014 Wyoming 2014 West Virginia 2016 Portal:Politics Third party (United States) Third party officeholders in the United States Third party United States House of Representatives v t e (1988 ←) United States presidential election, 1992 (→ 1996) Democratic Party Convention Primaries Nominee Bill Clinton (campaign) VP nominee Al Gore Candidates Larry Agran Jerry Brown Tom Harkin Bob Kerrey Lyndon LaRouche Tom Laughlin Eugene McCarthy Paul Tsongas Douglas Wilder Charles Woods Republican Party Convention Primaries Nominee George H. W. Bush VP nominee Dan Quayle Candidates Pat Buchanan David Duke Jack Fellure Isabell Masters Pat Paulsen Tennie Rogers Harold Stassen Independent Candidate Ross Perot (campaign) VP candidate James Stockdale Other independent and third party candidates Libertarian Party Convention Nominee Andre Marrou VP nominee Nancy Lord Natural Law Party Nominee John Hagelin VP nominee Mike Tompkins New Alliance Party Nominee Lenora Fulani VP nominee Maria Elizabeth Muñoz Prohibition Party Nominee Earl Dodge VP nominee George Ormsby Socialist Party USA Nominee J. Quinn Brisben VP nominee Barbara Garson Socialist Workers Party Nominee James Warren VP nominee Willie Mae Reid U.S. Taxpayers Party Convention Nominee Howard Phillips VP nominee Albion W. Knight, Jr. Workers World Party Nominee Gloria La Riva VP nominee Larry Holmes Independents and other candidates Ronald Daniels (Running mate: Asiba Tupahache) Bo Gritz Isabell Masters Other 1992 elections House Senate Gubernatorial v t e State results of the 1992 U.S. presidential election Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming v t e (1992 ←) United States presidential election, 1996 (→ 2000) Democratic Party Convention Primaries Nominee Bill Clinton VP nominee Al Gore Candidates James D. 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Texarkana, TexasTexarkana CollegeUnited States Naval AcademyRepublican Party (United States)Independent PoliticianReform Party Of The United States Of AmericaRoss Perot Jr.Help:IPA/EnglishBusiness MagnateElectronic Data SystemsIndependent (politician)Ross Perot Presidential Campaign, 1992Third Party (United States)United States Presidential Election, 1996Reform Party Of The United States Of AmericaList Of Third Party Performances In United States Presidential ElectionsTexarkana, TexasIBMUnited States NavyGeneral MotorsPerot SystemsNeXTSteve JobsVietnam War POW/MIA IssueSoutheast AsiaVietnam WarGeorge H. W. BushGulf WarNorth American Free Trade AgreementOutsourcingE-democracyBill ClintonJames StockdaleCommission On Presidential DebatesBob DoleReform Party Presidential Primaries, 2000George W. 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BushDan QuayleJames StockdaleAndre MarrouNancy LordUnited States Presidential Election, 1996Bill ClintonAl GoreBob DoleJack KempPat ChoateInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/0-312-36653-1International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55704-803-7International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/9781895997231The New York TimesThe New York TimesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4516-4853-7The New York TimesTime (magazine)The New York TimesInternational Standard Serial NumberThe Milwaukee SentinelSt. Petersburg TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesThe New York TimesInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/978-1-55958-274-2Cnn.comCategory:CS1 Maint: BOT: Original-url Status UnknownWikipedia:Link RotInternational Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-55623-236-5International Standard Book NumberSpecial:BookSources/1-4000-3003-XWayback MachineC-SPANC-SPANThe ContendersReform Party Of The United States Of 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W. BushDan QuaylePat BuchananDavid DukeJack FellureIsabell MastersPat PaulsenTennie RogersHarold StassenIndependent PoliticianRoss Perot Presidential Campaign, 1992James StockdaleIndependent PoliticianThird Party (United States)United States Third Party And Independent Presidential Candidates, 1992Libertarian Party (United States)1991 Libertarian National ConventionAndre MarrouNancy LordNatural Law Party (United States)John HagelinMike TompkinsNew Alliance PartyLenora FulaniMaria Elizabeth MuñozProhibition PartyEarl DodgeGeorge Ormsby (politician)Socialist Party USAJ. Quinn BrisbenBarbara GarsonSocialist Workers Party (United States)James Warren (presidential Candidate)Willie Mae ReidConstitution Party (United States)Constitution Party National ConventionHoward Phillips (politician)Albion W. Knight, Jr.Workers World PartyGloria La RivaLarry Holmes (activist)Ronald Daniels (politician)Asiba TupahacheBo GritzIsabell MastersUnited States House Of Representatives Elections, 1992United States Senate Elections, 1992 And 1993United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1992Template:State Results Of The 1992 U.S. Presidential ElectionTemplate Talk:State Results Of The 1992 U.S. Presidential ElectionUnited States Presidential Election, 1992United States Presidential Election In Alabama, 1992United States Presidential Election In Alaska, 1992United States Presidential Election In Arizona, 1992United States Presidential Election In Arkansas, 1992United States Presidential Election In California, 1992United States Presidential Election In Colorado, 1992United States Presidential Election In Connecticut, 1992United States Presidential Election In Delaware, 1992United States Presidential Election In The District Of Columbia, 1992United States Presidential Election In Florida, 1992United States Presidential Election In Georgia, 1992United States Presidential Election In Hawaii, 1992United States Presidential Election In Idaho, 1992United States Presidential Election In Illinois, 1992United States Presidential Election In Indiana, 1992United States Presidential Election In Iowa, 1992United States Presidential Election In Kansas, 1992United States Presidential Election In Kentucky, 1992United States Presidential Election In Louisiana, 1992United States Presidential Election In Maine, 1992United States Presidential Election In Maryland, 1992United States Presidential Election In Massachusetts, 1992United States Presidential Election In Michigan, 1992United States Presidential Election In Minnesota, 1992United States Presidential Election In Mississippi, 1992United States Presidential Election In Missouri, 1992United States Presidential Election In Montana, 1992United States Presidential Election In Nebraska, 1992United States Presidential Election In Nevada, 1992United States Presidential Election In New Hampshire, 1992United States Presidential Election In New Jersey, 1992United States Presidential Election In New Mexico, 1992United States Presidential Election In New York, 1992United States Presidential Election In North Carolina, 1992United States Presidential Election In North Dakota, 1992United States Presidential Election In Ohio, 1992United States Presidential Election In Oklahoma, 1992United States Presidential Election In Oregon, 1992United States Presidential Election In Pennsylvania, 1992United States Presidential Election In Rhode Island, 1992United States Presidential Election In South Carolina, 1992United States Presidential Election In South Dakota, 1992United States Presidential Election In Tennessee, 1992United States Presidential Election In Texas, 1992United States Presidential Election In Utah, 1992United States Presidential Election In Vermont, 1992United States Presidential Election In Virginia, 1992United States Presidential Election In Washington (state), 1992United States Presidential Election In West Virginia, 1992United States Presidential Election In Wisconsin, 1992United States Presidential Election In Wyoming, 1992Electoral Map, 1992 ElectionTemplate:United States Presidential Election, 1996Template Talk:United States Presidential Election, 1996United States Presidential Election, 1992United States Presidential Election, 1996United States Presidential Election, 2000Democratic Party (United States)1996 Democratic National ConventionDemocratic Party Presidential Primaries, 1996Bill ClintonAl GoreJames D. 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