Contents 1 History 1.1 Rise of nationalism 1.2 World War II 1.3 Post-war development 2 Geography 2.1 Climate 3 Cityscape 4 City administration 4.1 Political control 4.2 Mayor 5 Demographics 5.1 Districts 6 Economy 7 Infrastructure 7.1 Roads 7.2 Airports and seaports 7.3 Railways 7.4 District heating 8 Cultural heritage 9 Lifestyle 9.1 Nightlife 9.2 New Year's Eve 10 Main sights 11 Recreation 12 Education 12.1 Secondary schools 12.2 Universities 12.3 International schools 13 Sports teams 13.1 Football 13.1.1 Úrvalsdeild 13.1.2 1. deild karla 13.2 Other 14 Twin towns and sister cities 15 Notable people 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 External links


History[edit] See also: Timeline of Reykjavík and History of Iceland A painting by Johan Peter Raadsig of Ingólfur commanding his high seat pillars to be erected Reykjavík in the 1860s The first permanent settlement in Iceland by Norsemen is believed to have been established at Reykjavík by Ingólfur Arnarson from Norway around AD 870; this is described in Landnámabók, or the Book of Settlement. Ingólfur Arnarson is said to have decided the location of his settlement using a traditional Norse method; he cast his high seat pillars (Öndvegissúlur) into the ocean when he saw the coastline, then settled where the pillars came to shore. Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name, which loosely translates to Smoke Cove (the city is sometimes referred to as Bay of Smoke or Smoky Bay in English language travel guides).[10][11] The original name was Reykjarvík with an additional "r" that had vanished around 1800.[12] Reykjavík is not mentioned in any medieval sources except as being covered by farmland, but the 18th century saw the beginning of urban concentration. The Danish rulers of Iceland backed the idea of domestic industry in Iceland that would stimulate much-needed development on the island.[citation needed] In 1752, the King of Denmark, Frederik V, donated the estate of Reykjavík to the Innréttingar Corporation; the name comes from the Danish language word indretninger, meaning institution. The leader of this movement was Skúli Magnússon (is). In the 1750s several houses were built to house the wool industry that was to be Reykjavík's most important employer for a few decades and the original reason for its existence. Other crafts were also practised by the Innréttingar, such as fisheries, sulphur mining, agriculture, and shipbuilding.[13] The Danish Crown abolished monopoly trading in 1786 and granted six communities around the country an exclusive trading charter. Reykjavík was one of them and the only one to hold on to the charter permanently. The year 1786 is regarded as the date of the city's founding; its 200th anniversary was celebrated in 1986. Trading rights were still limited to the subjects of the Danish Crown, and Danish traders continued to dominate trade in Iceland. Over the following decades, their business in Iceland expanded. After 1880, free trade was expanded to all nationalities and the influence of Icelandic merchants started to grow. Rise of nationalism[edit] Reykjavík in 1881 Icelandic nationalist sentiment gained influence in the 19th century and the idea of Icelandic independence became widespread. Reykjavík, as Iceland's only city, was central to such ideas. Advocates of an independent Iceland realized that a strong Reykjavík was fundamental to that objective. All the important events in the history of the independence struggle were important to Reykjavík as well. In 1845 Alþingi, the general assembly formed in 930 AD, was re-established in Reykjavík; it had been suspended a few decades earlier when it was located at Þingvellir. At the time it functioned only as an advisory assembly, advising the King about Icelandic affairs. The location of Alþingi in Reykjavík effectively established the city as the capital of Iceland. In 1874, Iceland was given a constitution; with it, Alþingi gained some limited legislative powers and in essence became the institution that it is today. The next step was to move most of the executive power to Iceland: Home Rule was granted in 1904 when the office of Minister For Iceland was established in Reykjavík. The biggest step towards an independent Iceland was taken on 1 December 1918 when Iceland became a sovereign country under the Crown of Denmark, the Kingdom of Iceland. By the 1920s and 1930s most of the growing Icelandic fishing trawler fleet sailed from Reykjavík and salt-cod production was its main industry, but the Great Depression hit Reykjavík hard with unemployment and labour union struggles occurring that sometimes became violent. World War II[edit] On the morning of 10 May 1940, following the German occupation of Denmark and Norway on 9 April 1940, four British warships approached Reykjavík and anchored in the harbour. In a few hours, the allied occupation of Reykjavík was complete. There was no armed resistance, and taxi and truck drivers even assisted the invasion force, which initially had no motor vehicles. The Icelandic government had received many requests from the British government to consent to the occupation, but it always declined on the basis of the Neutrality Policy. For the remaining years of World War II, British and later American soldiers occupied camps in Reykjavík, and the number of foreign soldiers in Reykjavík became about the same as the local population of the city. The Royal Regiment of Canada (RREGTC) formed part of the garrison in Iceland during the early part of the war. The economic effects of the occupation were positive for Reykjavík: the unemployment of the Depression years vanished and construction work began. The British built Reykjavík Airport, which is still in service today, mostly serving domestic flights. The Americans, meanwhile, built Keflavík Airport, situated 50 km (31 mi) west of Reykjavík, which would become Iceland's primary international airport. In 1944, the Republic of Iceland was founded and a president, elected by the people, replaced the King; the office of the president was placed in Reykjavík. Post-war development[edit] In the post-war years the growth of Reykjavík accelerated. An exodus from the rural countryside began, largely due to improved technology in agriculture that reduced the need for manpower, and because of a population boom resulting from better living conditions in the country. A once primitive village was rapidly transformed into a modern city. Private cars became common and modern apartment complexes rose in the expanding suburbs. Much of Reykjavík lost its village feel. In 1972, Reykjavík hosted the world chess championship between Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky. The 1986 Reykjavík Summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev underlined Reykjavík's international status. Deregulation in the financial sector and the computer revolution of the 1990s again transformed Reykjavík. The financial and IT sectors are now significant employers in the city. The city has fostered some world-famous talents in recent decades, such as Björk, Ólafur Arnalds and bands Múm, Sigur Rós and Of Monsters and Men, poet Sjón and visual artist Ragnar Kjartansson.


Geography[edit] Reykjavík seen from above Esja, the mountain range to the north of Reykjavík Reykjavík is located in southwest Iceland. The Reykjavík area coastline is characterized by peninsulas, coves, straits, and islands. During the Ice Age (up to 10,000 years ago) a large glacier covered parts of the city area, reaching as far out as Álftanes. Other parts of the city area were covered by sea water. In the warm periods and at the end of the Ice Age, some hills like Öskjuhlíð were islands. The former sea level is indicated by sediments (with clams) reaching (at Öskjuhlíð, for example) as far as 43 m (141 ft) above the current sea level. The hills of Öskjuhlíð and Skólavörðuholt appear to be the remains of former shield volcanoes which were active during the warm periods of the Ice Age. After the Ice Age the land rose as the heavy load of the glaciers fell away, and began to look as it does today. The capital city area continued to be shaped by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, like the one 4,500 years ago in the mountain range Bláfjöll, when the lava coming down the Elliðaá valley reached the sea at the bay of Elliðavogur. The largest river to run through Reykjavík is the Elliðaá River, which is non-navigable. It is one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Mount Esja, at 914 m (2,999 ft), is the highest mountain in the vicinity of Reykjavík. The city of Reykjavík is mostly located on the Seltjarnarnes peninsula, but the suburbs reach far out to the south and east. Reykjavík is a spread-out city: most of its urban area consists of low-density suburbs, and houses are usually widely spaced. The outer residential neighbourhoods are also widely spaced from each other; in between them are the main traffic arteries and a lot of empty space. Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan with the mountains Akrafjall (middle) and Esja (right) in the background Panorama of Reykjavík seen from Perlan in summer during sunset. As seen in the picture Reykjavík is mild enough to permit the growing of trees. Climate[edit] Using the −3 °C isotherm and 1961–1990 climate data Reykjavík has a subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc), that can be classified as a subarctic climate (Dfc) using the 0 °C isotherm. The city also very closely borders a tundra climate (ET). A warming climate has led to Reykjavík falling firmly into the subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) when considering climate data from 2000-2014. Despite its northern latitude, temperatures very rarely drop below −15 °C (5 °F) in the winter. This is because the Icelandic coastal weather in winter is moderated by the North Atlantic Current, itself an extension of the Gulf Stream (see also Extratropical cyclone). The city's coastal location does make it prone to wind, however, and gales are common in winter. Summers are cool, with temperatures fluctuating between 10 and 15 °C (50 and 59 °F), rarely exceeding 20 °C (68 °F). Reykjavík averages 147 days[14] with measurable precipitation every year. Droughts are uncommon although they occur in some summers. In the summer of 2007, no rain was measured for one month. Summer tends to be the sunniest season, although May receives the most sunshine of any individual month. Overall, the city receives around 1,200 annual hours of sunshine,[15] which is comparable with other places in Northern and North-Western Europe. Nonetheless, Reykjavik is one of the cloudiest and coldest capitals of any nation in the world. The highest ever recorded temperature in Reykjavík was 25.7 °C (78 °F), recorded on July 30, 2008,[16] while the lowest ever recorded temperature was −19.7 °C (−3 °F), recorded on January 30, 1971.[17] Climate data for Reykjavík, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1949–present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 10.7 (51.3) 10.2 (50.4) 13.0 (55.4) 14.7 (58.5) 20.6 (69.1) 22.4 (72.3) 25.7 (78.3) 24.8 (76.6) 18.5 (65.3) 15.7 (60.3) 12.6 (54.7) 12.0 (53.6) 25.7 (78.3) Average high °C (°F) 2.5 (36.5) 2.8 (37) 3.4 (38.1) 6.1 (43) 9.7 (49.5) 12.4 (54.3) 14.2 (57.6) 13.6 (56.5) 10.9 (51.6) 7.0 (44.6) 4.2 (39.6) 3.1 (37.6) 7.5 (45.5) Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 0.1 (32.2) 0.6 (33.1) 3.0 (37.4) 6.6 (43.9) 9.5 (49.1) 11.2 (52.2) 10.7 (51.3) 8.0 (46.4) 4.4 (39.9) 1.9 (35.4) 0.6 (33.1) 4.7 (40.5) Average low °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −2.4 (27.7) −1.9 (28.6) 0.5 (32.9) 3.8 (38.8) 7.0 (44.6) 8.8 (47.8) 8.4 (47.1) 5.7 (42.3) 2.2 (36) −0.5 (31.1) −1.8 (28.8) 2.3 (36.1) Record low °C (°F) −19.7 (−3.5) −17.6 (0.3) −16.4 (2.5) −16.4 (2.5) −7.7 (18.1) −0.7 (30.7) 1.4 (34.5) −0.4 (31.3) −4.4 (24.1) −10.6 (12.9) −15.1 (4.8) −16.8 (1.8) −19.7 (−3.5) Average precipitation mm (inches) 83.0 (3.268) 85.9 (3.382) 81.4 (3.205) 56.0 (2.205) 52.8 (2.079) 43.8 (1.724) 52.3 (2.059) 67.3 (2.65) 73.5 (2.894) 74.4 (2.929) 78.8 (3.102) 94.1 (3.705) 843.3 (33.201) Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 13.3 12.5 14.4 12.2 9.8 10.7 10.0 11.7 12.4 14.5 12.5 13.9 148.3 Average relative humidity (%) 78.1 77.1 76.2 74.4 74.9 77.9 80.3 81.6 79.0 78.0 77.7 77.7 77.8 Mean monthly sunshine hours 20.0 56.7 109.5 162.5 199.2 176.7 172.5 154.1 119.4 90.8 38.5 12.0 1,311.9 Source: Icelandic Met Office (precipitation days 1961-1990)[18][19][20]


Cityscape[edit] Colourful rooftops line Reykjavík. Central Reykjavík seen from Hallgrímskirkja. Menntaskólinn (high school) of Reykjavík or MR. Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavik city centre with statue in front Looking southeast from Hallgrímskirkja. Another view of Reykjavík from Hallgrímskirkja. Þjóðmenningarhúsið View from Skólavörðustígur. Tjörnin (The Pond) in Central Reykjavík. Austurvöllur on a sunny day. View from Perlan. Reykjavík Cathedral. Reykjavik from Hallgrimskirkja Panorama of the northern seashore of Reykjavík, as seen from Örfirisey.


City administration[edit] The Reykjavík City Council governs the city of Reykjavík according to law number 45/1998[21] and is directly elected by those aged over 18 domiciled in the city. The council has 15 members who are elected using the open list method for four year terms. The council selects members of boards, and each board controls a different field under the city council's authority. The most important board is the City Board that wields the executive rights along with the City Mayor. The City Mayor is the senior public official and also the director of city operations. Other public officials control city institutions under the mayor's authority. Thus, the administration consists of two different parts: The political power of City Council cascading down to other boards Public officials under the authority of the city mayor who administer and manage implementation of policy. Political control[edit] The Independence Party was traditionally the ruling party for the city, having an overall majority from its establishment in 1929 until 1978, when it was narrowly lost. From 1978 to 1982, a three party coalition composed of the People's Alliance, the Social Democratic Party, and the Progressive Party formed the majority of the council. In 1982, the Independence Party regained an overall majority of the seats which it held for three consecutive terms. In 1994, Icelandic socialist parties formed an alliance called the Reykjavíkurlistinn (R-list) which was led by Ingibjörg Sólrún Gísladóttir to victory. The alliance stood for election for three consecutive city council elections and won a majority in all of them, until it was dissolved for the city council election of 2006 when five different parties were on the ballot. The Independence Party obtained seven members of the council, and thus failed to gain overall control, but together with the Progressive Party, and its one council member, they were able to form a new majority in the council which took over in June 2006. In October 2007 a new majority was formed on the council, consisting of members of the Progressive Party (1), the Social Democratic Alliance (4), the Left-Greens (2) and the F-list (1) (liberals and independents), after controversy regarding REI, a subsidiary of OR, the city's energy company. However three months later the leader of the F-list formed a new majority together with the Independence Party. Ólafur F. Magnússon, the leader of the F-list, was elected mayor on 24 January 2008, and in March 2009 the Independence Party was due to appoint a new mayor. This changed once again on 14 August 2008 when the fourth majority of the term was formed, when the Independence Party and the Social Democratic Alliance formed a majority, with Hanna Birna Kristjánsdóttir becoming mayor. The City Council election in May 2010 saw a new political party, The Best Party, win six of 15 seats and they formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Alliance with comedian Jón Gnarr becoming mayor.[22] At the 2014 election, the Social Democratic Alliance had its best showing yet gaining five seats in the council, while Bright future (successor to the Best Party) received two seats and the two parties formed a coalition with the Left-Green movement and the Pirate party both of which received one councilor each. The Independence Party received its worst election with only four seats in the council. Reykjavik: northeast aerial panorama Mayor[edit] Main article: Mayor of Reykjavik City The mayor is appointed by the city council; usually one of the council members is chosen but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council. The post was created in 1907 and advertised in 1908. Two applications were received, from Páll Einarsson, sheriff and town mayor of Hafnarfjörður and from Knud Zimsen, town councillor in Reykjavík. Páll was appointed on 7 May and was mayor for six years. At that time the city mayor received a salary of 4500 ISK per year and 1500 ISK for office expenses. The current mayor is Dagur B. Eggertsson.[23]


Demographics[edit] Reykjavík is the largest and most populous settlement in Iceland. Present-day Reykjavík is a city with people from at least 100 countries. The most common ethnic minorities are Poles, Lithuanians, and Danes. In 2009, foreign-born individuals made up 8% of the total population.[24] Children of foreign origin, many of whom are adopted, form a more considerable minority in the city's schools: as many as a third in places.[25] The city is also visited by thousands of tourists, students, and other temporary residents, at times outnumbering natives in the city centre.[26] Historical population of Reykjavík. Districts[edit] Districts of Reykjavík Reykjavík is divided into 10 districts: Vesturbær (District 1) Miðborg (District 2, city centre) Hlíðar (District 3) Laugardalur (District 4) Háaleiti og Bústaðir (District 5) Breiðholt (District 6) Árbær (District 7) Grafarvogur (District 8) Kjalarnes (District 9) (in the north-east) Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur (District 10)


Economy[edit] Borgartún is the financial centre of Reykjavík, hosting a large number of companies and three investment banks. Old whaling ships Hvalur 6, 7, 8 and 9 Reykjavík has been at the centre of Iceland's economic growth and subsequent economic contraction over the last decade,[which?] a period referred to in foreign media as the "Nordic Tiger" years,[27][28] or "Iceland's Boom Years".[29] The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects such as Harpa concert hall and conference centre and others. Many of these projects came to a screeching halt in the following economic crash of 2008. In 2009, Reykjavík was listed as the richest city in the world in 2007 by The Economist Group.[citation needed]


Infrastructure[edit] Roads[edit] Per capita car ownership in Iceland is among the highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents,[30] though Reykjavík is not severely affected by congestion. Several multi-lane highways (mainly dual carriageways) run between the most heavily populated areas and most frequently driven routes. Parking spaces are also plentiful in most areas. Public transportation consists of a bus system called Strætó bs. Route 1 (the Ring Road) runs through the city outskirts and connects the city to the rest of Iceland. Airports and seaports[edit] Reykjavík Airport, the second largest airport in the country (after Keflavík International Airport), is positioned inside the city, just south of the city centre. It is mainly used for domestic flights, as well as flights to Greenland and the Faroe Islands. It was built there by the British occupation force during World War II, when it was on the outskirts of the then much smaller Reykjavík. Since 1962, there has been some controversy regarding the location of the airport, since it takes up a lot of valuable space in central Reykjavík. Reykjavík has two seaports, the old harbour near the city centre which is mainly used by fishermen and cruise ships and Sundahöfn in the east city which is the largest cargo port in the country. Old Harbor Railways[edit] Two steam locomotives were used to build the harbour Reykjavík Docks railway; both are now on display in Reykjavík. There are no public railways in Iceland, due to its sparse population, but the locomotives used to build the docks are on display. District heating[edit] See also: Geothermal power in Iceland Volcanic activity provides Reykjavík with geothermal heating systems for both residential and industrial districts. In 2008, natural hot water was used to heat roughly 90% of all buildings in Iceland.[31] Of total annual use of geothermal energy of 39 PJ, space heating accounted for 48%. Most of the district heating in Iceland comes from three main geothermal power plants:[32] Svartsengi combined heat and power plant (CHP) Nesjavellir CHP plant Hellisheiði CHP plant


Cultural heritage[edit] Safnahúsið (the Culture House) was opened in 1909 and has a number of important exhibits. Originally built to house the National Library and National Archives and also previously the location of the National Museum and Natural History Museum, in 2000 it was re-modeled to promote the Icelandic national heritage. Many of Iceland's national treasures are on display, such as the Poetic Edda, and the Sagas in their original manuscripts. There are also changing exhibitions of various topics.[33]


Lifestyle[edit] Nightlife[edit] Laugavegur main street in downtown Reykjavík Reykjavík is famous for its weekend nightlife. Icelanders tend to go out late, so bars that look rather quiet can fill up suddenly—usually after midnight on a weekend. Alcohol is expensive at bars. People tend to drink at home before going out. Beer was banned in Iceland until 1 March 1989, but has since become popular among many Icelanders as their alcoholic drink of choice.[34] There are over 100 different bars and clubs in Reykjavík;[citation needed] most of them are located on Laugavegur and its side streets. It is very common for an establishment that is a café before dinner to turn into a bar in the evening. Closing time is usually around 4:30 am at weekends and 1 am during the week at the most well known hospitality venues. The Iceland Airwaves music festival is annually staged in November. New Year's Eve[edit] The arrival of the new year is a particular cause for celebration to the people of Reykjavík. Icelandic law states that anyone may purchase and use fireworks during a certain period around New Year's Eve. As a result, every New Year's Eve the city is lit up with fireworks displays.


Main sights[edit] Blue Lagoon, a geothermal spa located near Reykjavík Austurstræti street Alþingishúsið — the Icelandic parliament building Austurvöllur — a park in central Reykjavík surrounded by restaurants and bars Árbæjarsafn (Reykjavík Open Air Museum) — Reykjavík's Municipal Museum Blue Lagoon — geothermal spa located near Reykjavík CIA.IS - Center for Icelandic Art — general information on Icelandic visual art Hallgrímskirkja — the largest church in Iceland Harpa Reykjavík - Reykjavík Concert & Conference Center Heiðmörk — the largest forest and nature reserve in the area Höfði — the house in which Gorbachev and Reagan met in 1986 for the Iceland Summit Kringlan — the second largest mall in Iceland Laugardalslaug — swimming pool Laugavegur — main shopping street National and University Library of Iceland (Þjóðarbókhlaðan) National Museum of Iceland (Þjóðminjasafnið) Nauthólsvík — a geothermally heated beach Perlan — a glass dome resting on five water tanks Ráðhús Reykjavíkur — city hall Rauðhólar — a cluster of red volcanic craters Reykjavík 871±2 — exhibition of an archaeological excavation of a Viking age longhouse, from about AD 930 Reykjavík Art Museum — the largest visual art institution in Iceland Safnahúsið, culture House, National Centre for Cultural Heritage (Þjóðmenningarhúsið) Tjörnin — the pond University of Iceland Vikin Maritime Museum - a maritime museum located by the old harbour


Recreation[edit] Reykjavik Golf Club was established in 1934. It is the oldest and largest golf club in Iceland. It consists of two 18-hole courses - one at Grafarholt and the other at Korpa. The Grafarholt golf course opened in 1963, which makes it the oldest 18-hole golf course in Iceland. The Korpa golf course opened in 1997.[35]


Education[edit] Secondary schools[edit] Borgarholtsskóli (Borgó) Fjölbrautaskólinn í Breiðholti (FB) Fjölbrautaskólinn við Ármúla (FÁ) Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík (Kvennó) Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík (MR) Menntaskólinn við Hamrahlíð (MH) Menntaskólinn við Sund (MS) Tækniskólinn Verzlunarskóli Íslands (Verzló) Universities[edit] Iceland Academy of the Arts Reykjavík University The University of Iceland International schools[edit] Reykjavik International School


Sports teams[edit] Football[edit] Úrvalsdeild[edit] Fjölnir KR Valur Víkingur 1. deild karla[edit] Fram Fylkir ÍR Leiknir R. Þróttur Reykjavík Other[edit] Glímufélagið Ármann (Sports club) Skautafélag Reykjavíkur (Hockey) Skylmingafélag Reykjavíkur (Fencing) Skotfélag Reykjavíkur (Shooting) Íþróttafélag fatlaðra í Reykjavík (Disabled sports club in Reykjavik)


Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Further information: List of twin towns and sister cities in Iceland This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Reykjavík is twinned with: Baku, Azerbaijan Caracas, Venezuela Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom[36] La Paz, Bolivia Mexico City, Mexico[37] Moscow, Russia[38] Nuuk, Greenland Oslo, Norway Saint Petersburg, Russia Seattle, United States (since 1986)[39] Stockholm, Sweden Strumica, Macedonia Tórshavn, Faroe Islands[40] Vilnius, Lithuania Winnipeg, Canada Wrocław, Poland[41] In July 2013, mayor Jón Gnarr filed a motion before the city council to terminate the city's relationship with Moscow, in response to a trend of anti-gay legislation in Russia.[42] According to The Daily Telegraph, "Mr Gnarr has long been an advocate for gay rights, appearing in Gay Pride parades in drag"; in 2009, Iceland was the first modern country to have an openly LGBT head of government (Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir, who is a lesbian), and the Alþingi unanimously legalized same-sex marriage in 2010.


Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Reykjavík


See also[edit] Althing Beer Day (Iceland) Kringlan Menningarnótt Rail transport in Iceland Reykjavík Green Days


Notes[edit] ^ "Vísindavefurinn: Af hverju varð Reykjavík höfuðstaður Íslands?". Vísindavefurinn.  ^ "Vísindavefurinn: Hvað er Reykjavík margir metrar?". Vísindavefurinn.  ^ a b "Mannfjöldi eftir sveitarfélögum, kyni, ríkisfangi og ársfjórðungum 2010-2016". Hagstofa Íslands. Hagstofa Íslands. Retrieved 30 March 2017.  ^ "Reykjavik - definition of Reykjavik in English from the Oxford dictionary". www.oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.  ^ "How to say or pronounce Reykjavik - PronounceNames.com". www.pronouncenames.com. Retrieved 2016-03-29.  ^ "Things to do in Reykjavík". Guide to Iceland. Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ Yunlong, Sun (2007-12-23). "Reykjavík rated cleanest city in Nordic and Baltic countries". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-29.  ^ "15 Green Cities". Grist. 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2013-09-29.  ^ "Iceland among Top 10 safest countries and Reykjavík is the winner of Tripadvisor Awards". TRAVELIO.net. 2010-05-20. Retrieved 2013-09-29.  ^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.  ^ "Google.com". Google.com. Retrieved 2012-07-25.  ^ Er eitthvert örnefni á höfuðborgarsvæðinu eða vík eða vogur, sem heitir Reykjavík?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic) ^ Hvaðan kemur nafnið "Innréttingarnar" á fyrirtækinu sem starfaði hér á á 18. öld?. Vísindavefur. (in Icelandic) ^ "Weather statistics for Reykjavik". yr.no.  ^ The weather of 2010 in Iceland Icelandic Met Office ^ "Reykjavik sees record summer temperature". Agence France-Presse. July 31, 2008. ^ "Nokkur íslensk veðurmet". Archived from the original on 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2008-07-17.  ^ "Montly Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Meteorological Office. Retrieved 9 September 2017.  ^ "Annual Averages for Reykjavík". Icelandic Met Office. Retrieved 14 February 2016.  ^ "Reykjavík 1961-1990 Averages". Icelandic Meteorological Office. Retrieved 14 February 2016.  ^ "1998 nr. 45 3. júní/ Sveitarstjórnarlög". Althingi.is. Retrieved 2009-07-08.  ^ "Best Party wins polls in Iceland's Reykjavík". BBC News Online. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-05-30.  ^ Jón Glarr is no longer mayor of Reykjavík. Reykjavík Grapevine. ^ Foreign citizens in Reykjavík by districts 2002-2010 Reference Icelandic Statistical Bureau ^ "Reykjavík – fjölmenningarborg barna" (PDF). 18 January 2008. Retrieved 2014-07-07.  ^ "Vísir - Breskir ferðamenn fjölmennastir sem fyrr". Visir.is. Retrieved 2011-09-15.  ^ Surowiecki, James (2008-04-21). "Iceland's Deep Freeze". The New Yorker.  ^ Kvam, Berit (2009-06-19). "Iceland: light at the end of the tunnel?". Nordic Labour Journal.  ^ "Iceland: the boom years". The Telegraph. 2009-08-18.  ^ "Motor vehicles (most recent) by country". United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook. nationmaster.com. Retrieved 2010-03-29.  ^ "NEA.is". NEA.is. Retrieved 2012-07-25.  ^ "Mannvit". Mannvit. Retrieved 2012-07-25.  ^ Guide leaflet to the Culture House 2008, published by the National Centre for Cultural Heritage. ^ "The Dynamics of Shifts in Alcoholic Beverage Preference: Effects of the Legalization of Beer in Iceland". Questia.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-08.  ^ "Reykjavik Golf Club".  ^ "Christmas around the world". Hull in print. Hull City Council. December 2006.  ^ "Convenio de amistad entre Ciudad de México y Reykjavík" (in Spanish). SEGOB.  ^ Irvine, Chris (2013-07-15). "Reykjavik mayor proposes cutting ties with Moscow over gay law". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-07-24.  ^ "Reykjavík, Iceland - Sister Cities". Retrieved 4 March 2015.  ^ "Vinarbýir - Tórshavnar kommuna". torshavn.fo.  ^ "Wrocław będzie miał nowe miasto partnerskie". tuwroclaw.com.  ^ "Sister Cities Ramp Up Russia Boycott Over Antigay Law". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 


References[edit] Hermannsdóttir, Edda (2006-07-03). "Consumption of alcoholic beverages 2005". Prices and consumption. Reykjavík: Hagstofa Íslands. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 


External links[edit] Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Reykjavík. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reykjavík. Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Reykjavík" dated 2008-06-23, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Official website (in Icelandic) v t e Districts of Reykjavik City Vesturbær Miðborg Hlíðar Laugardalur Háaleiti og Bústaðir Breiðholt Árbær Grafarvogur Kjalarnes Grafarholt og Úlfarsárdalur v t e Cities and towns in Iceland Álftanes Akranes Akureyri Blönduós Bolungarvík Borgarnes Dalvík Egilsstaðir Eskifjörður Eyrarbakki Fáskrúðsfjörður Garðabær Garður Grindavík Grundarfjörður Hafnarfjörður Hella Höfn Húsavík Hvammstangi Hveragerði Hvolsvöllur Ísafjörður Keflavík Kópavogur Mosfellsbær Neskaupstaður Njarðvík Ólafsfjörður Ólafsvík Patreksfjörður Reyðarfjörður Reykjavík Sandgerði Sauðárkrókur Selfoss Seltjarnarnes Seyðisfjörður Siglufjörður Skagaströnd Stokkseyri Stykkishólmur Þorlákshöfn Vestmannaeyjar Vík í Mýrdal Vogar Vopnafjörður v t e Municipalities of Iceland Capital Region Garðabær Hafnarfjarðarkaupstaður Kjósarhreppur Kópavogsbær Mosfellsbær Reykjavíkurborg Seltjarnarneskaupstaður Southern Peninsula Grindavíkurbær Reykjanesbær Sandgerðisbær Sveitarfélagið Garður Sveitarfélagið Vogar Western Region Akraneskaupstaður Borgarbyggð Dalabyggð Eyja- og Miklaholtshreppur Grundarfjarðarbær Helgafellssveit Hvalfjarðarsveit Skorradalshreppur Snæfellsbær Stykkishólmsbær Westfjords Árneshreppur Bolungarvíkurkaupstaður Ísafjarðarbær Kaldrananeshreppur Reykhólahreppur Strandabyggð Súðavíkurhreppur Tálknafjarðarhreppur Vesturbyggð Northwestern Region Akrahreppur Blönduósbær Húnavatnshreppur Húnaþing vestra Skagabyggð Sveitarfélagið Skagafjörður Sveitarfélagið Skagaströnd Northeastern Region Akureyrarkaupstaður Dalvíkurbyggð Eyjafjarðarsveit Fjallabyggð Grýtubakkahreppur Hörgársveit Langanesbyggð Norðurþing Skútustaðahreppur Svalbarðshreppur Svalbarðsstrandarhreppur Tjörneshreppur Þingeyjarsveit Eastern Region Borgarfjarðarhreppur Breiðdalshreppur Djúpavogshreppur Fjarðabyggð Fljótsdalshérað Fljótsdalshreppur Seyðisfjarðarkaupstaður Vopnafjarðarhreppur Southern Region Ásahreppur Bláskógabyggð Flóahreppur Grímsnes- og Grafningshreppur Hrunamannahreppur Hveragerðisbær Mýrdalshreppur Rangárþing eystra Rangárþing ytra Skaftárhreppur Skeiða- og Gnúpverjahreppur Sveitarfélagið Árborg Sveitarfélagið Hornafjörður Sveitarfélagið Ölfus Vestmannaeyjabær v t e 50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries  Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden 1. Stockholm 1,372,565 2. Copenhagen 1,263,698 3. Helsinki 1,214,210 4. Oslo 958,378 5. Gothenburg 549,839 6. Tampere 325,025 7. Malmö 280,415 8. Aarhus 261,570 9. Turku 260,367 10. Bergen 250,420 11. Stavanger 210,874 12. Reykjavík 209,510 13. Oulu 193,817 14. Trondheim 175,068 15. Odense 173,814 16. Uppsala 140,454 17. Aalborg 132,578 18. Jyväskylä 120,306 19. Lahti 117,424 20. Drammen 113,534 21. Västerås 110,877 22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636 23. Örebro 107,038 24. Linköping 104,232 25. Helsingborg 97,122 26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737 27. Jönköping 89,396 28. Norrköping 87,247 29. Kuopio 86,034 30. Pori 84,509 31. Lund 82,800 32. Umeå 79,594 33. Esbjerg 72,060 34. Gävle 71,033 35. Vaasa 66,911 36. Borås 66,273 37. Joensuu 65,686 38. Eskilstuna 64,679 39. Södertälje 64,619 40. Karlstad 61,685 41. Randers 61,664 42. Täby 61,272 43. Växjö 60,887 44. Kristiansand 60,583 45. Kolding 58,757 46. Halmstad 58,577 47. Horsens 56,536 48. Lappeenranta 55,429 49. Vejle 53,975 50. Kotka 52,600 v t e Capitals of European states and territories Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics. Western Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK) Northern Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark) Central Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland Southern Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia Eastern Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3 1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union and Brussels and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country v t e European Capitals of Culture 1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette Coordinates: 64°08′00″N 21°56′00″W / 64.13333°N 21.93333°W / 64.13333; -21.93333 Authority control WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146514002 LCCN: n80045964 ISNI: 0000 0004 0643 6825 GND: 4049708-2 SELIBR: 158121 BNF: cb11962542w (data) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reykjavík&oldid=826662443" Categories: ReykjavíkPopulated places in IcelandMunicipalities of IcelandCapitals in EuropePopulated coastal places in IcelandPopulated places established in 1786Port cities in EuropeViking Age populated placesHidden categories: CS1 Spanish-language sources (es)Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pagesArticles with hAudio microformatsAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from June 2011Interlanguage link template link numberAll articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrasesArticles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2010Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013Articles needing additional references from April 2014All articles needing additional referencesSpoken articlesOfficial website different in Wikidata and WikipediaArticles with Icelandic-language external linksCoordinates on WikidataWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with ISNI identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with BNF identifiers


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Listen To This ArticleReykjavik, ManitobaPerlanHallgrímskirkjaCoat Of ArmsRegions Of IcelandCapital Region (Iceland)Constituencies Of IcelandReykjavík Constituency NorthReykjavík Constituency SouthMarket TownMayorDagur Bergþóruson EggertssonSocial Democratic AllianceMunicipal CouncilReykjavík City CouncilList Of Postal Codes In IcelandHelp:IPA/EnglishHelp:Pronunciation Respelling KeyHelp:IPA/IcelandicAbout This SoundIcelandFaxa BayList Of Northernmost ItemsCapital Region (Iceland)Culture Of IcelandEconomy Of IcelandGovernment Of IcelandIngólfur ArnarsonUrban DevelopmentCountryCommerceTimeline Of ReykjavíkHistory Of IcelandEnlargeJohan Peter RaadsigEnlargeNorsemenIngólfur ArnarsonLandnámabókHigh Seat PillarsDanish PeopleWikipedia:Citation NeededList Of Danish MonarchsDanish LanguageWoolFishingSulfurFree TradeNationalityEnlargeIcelandic NationalismAlþingiÞingvellirLegislativeExecutive (government)List Of Prime Ministers Of IcelandList Of Danish MonarchsKingdom Of IcelandGreat DepressionAllies Of World War IIInvasion Of IcelandNeutral CountryWorld War IIThe Royal Regiment Of CanadaReykjavík AirportKeflavíkList Of Presidents Of IcelandWorld Chess Championship 1972Bobby FischerBoris SpasskyReykjavík SummitRonald ReaganMikhail GorbachevDeregulationBjörkÓlafur ArnaldsMúmSigur RósOf Monsters And MenSjónRagnar Kjartansson (sculptor)EnlargeEnlargeIcelandQuaternary GlaciationÁlftanesShield VolcanoesVolcanoElliðaáSalmonEsjaPanorama Of Reykjavík Seen From Perlan With The Mountains Akrafjall (middle) And Esja (right) In The BackgroundFile:Reykjavik Perlan.jpgPerlanEsjaPanorama Of Reykjavík Seen From Perlan In Summer During Sunset. 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