Contents 1 Requirements engineering activities 2 Problems 3 Criticism 4 See also 5 References 6 External links


Requirements engineering activities[edit] The activities involved in requirements engineering vary widely, depending on the type of system being developed and the specific practices of the organization(s) involved.[7] These may include: Requirements inception or requirements elicitation - Developers and stakeholders meet, the latter are inquired concerning their needs and wants regarding the software product. Requirements analysis and negotiation - Requirements are identified (including new ones if the development is iterative) and conflicts with stakeholders are solved. Both written and graphical tools (the latter commonly used in the design phase but some find them helpful at this stage, too) are successfully used as aids. Examples of written analysis tools: use cases and user stories. Examples of graphical tools: UML[8] and LML. System modeling - Some Engineering fields (or specific situations) require the product to be completely designed and modeled before its construction or fabrication starts and, therefore, the design phase must be performed in advance. For instance, blueprints for a building must be elaborated before any contract can be approved and signed. Many fields might derive models of the system with the Lifecycle Modeling Language, whereas others, might use UML. Note: In many fields, such as Software Engineering, most modeling activities are classified as design activities and not as requirement engineering activities. Requirements specification - Requirements are documented in a formal artifact called Requirements Specification (RS). Nevertheless, it will become official only after validation. A RS can contain both written and graphical (models) information if necessary. Example: Software requirements specification (SRS). Requirements validation - Checking that the documented requirements and models are consistent and meet the needs of the stakeholder. Only if the final draft passes the validation process, the RS becomes official. Requirements management - Managing all the activities related to the requirements since inception, supervising as the system is developed and, even until after it is put into use (e. g., changes, extentions, etc.) These are sometimes presented as chronological stages although, in practice, there is considerable interleaving of these activities.


Problems[edit] One limited study in Germany presented possible problems in implementing requirements engineering and asked respondents whether they agreed that they were actual problems. The results were not presented as being generalizable but suggested that the principal perceived problems were incomplete requirements, moving targets, and time boxing, with lesser problems being communications flaws, lack of traceability, terminological problems, and unclear responsibilities.[9]


Criticism[edit] There is no evidence that requirements engineering contributes to the success of software projects or systems. Problem structuring, a key aspect of requirements engineering, decreases design performance. [10] Some research suggests that software requirements are often an illusion misrepresenting design decisions as requirements in situations where no real requirements are evident.[11]


See also[edit] Alan M. Davis's extensive bibliography of requirements engineering. Requirements Engineering Specialist Group (RESG) International Requirements Engineering Board (IREB) IEEE 12207 "Systems and software engineering – Software life cycle processes" TOGAF (Chapter 17) Concept of operations (ConOps) Operations management Software requirements Software requirements specification Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) Design specification Specification (technical standard) Formal specification


References[edit] ^ Nuseibeh, B.; Easterbrook, S. (2000). Requirements engineering: a roadmap (PDF). ICSE'00. Proceedings of the conference on the future of Software engineering. pp. 35–46. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.131.3116 . doi:10.1145/336512.336523. ISBN 1-58113-253-0.  ^ Kotonya, Gerald; Sommerville, Ian (September 1998). Requirements Engineering: Processes and Techniques. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-97208-8.  ^ Chemuturi, M. (2013). Requirements Engineering and Management for Software Development Projects. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5377-2. ISBN 978-1-4614-5376-5.  ^ Software Requirements Engineering Methodology (Development) Alford, M. W. and Lawson,J. T. TRW Defense and Space Systems Group. 1979. ^ Thayer, Richard H.; Dorfman, Merlin, eds. (March 1997). Software Requirements Engineering (2nd ed.). IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7738-4.  ^ Royce, W. W. (1970). Managing the Development of Large Software Systems: Concepts and Techniques (PDF). ICSE'87. Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Software Engineering. pp. 1–9.  ^ Sommerville, Ian (2009). Software Engineering (9th ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-13-703515-1.  ^ http://tynerblain.com/blog/2008/03/06/requirements-class-diagrams-1/ ^ Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan (2015). "Naming the pain in requirements engineering: A design for a global family of surveys and first results from Germany". Information and Software Technology. 57: 616–643. doi:10.1016/j.infsof.2014.05.008.  ^ Ralph, Paul; Mohanani, Rahul (May 2015). "Is Requirements Engineering Inherently Counterproductive?". IEEE.  ^ Ralph, P. (September 2013). "The illusion of requirements in software development". Requirements Engineering. 18 (3): 293–296. doi:10.1007/s00766-012-0161-4. 


External links[edit] 29148-2011 - Systems and software engineering — Life cycle processes — Requirements engineering. 2011. pp. 1–94. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2011.6146379. ISBN 978-0-7381-6591-2. ("This standard replaces IEEE 830-1998, IEEE 1233-1998, IEEE 1362-1998 - http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/29148-2011.html") Systems Engineering Body of Knowledge Requirements Engineering Management Handbook by FAA v t e Systems engineering Subfields Aerospace engineering Biological systems engineering Configuration management Earth systems engineering and management Electrical engineering Enterprise systems engineering Performance engineering Reliability engineering Safety engineering Processes Requirements engineering Functional specification System integration Verification and validation Design review Concepts Business process System System lifecycle V-Model Systems development life cycle Tools Decision-making Function modelling IDEF Optimization Quality function deployment System dynamics Systems Modeling Language Systems analysis Systems modeling Work breakdown structure People James S. Albus Ruzena Bajcsy Benjamin S. Blanchard Wernher von Braun Kathleen Carley Harold Chestnut Wolt Fabrycky Barbara Grosz Arthur David Hall III Derek Hitchins Robert E. Machol Radhika Nagpal Simon Ramo Joseph Francis Shea Katia Sycara Manuela M. Veloso John N. Warfield Related fields Control engineering Computer engineering Industrial engineering Operations research Project management Quality management Risk management Software engineering Category v t e Software engineering Fields Computer programming Requirements engineering Software deployment Software design Software maintenance Software testing Systems analysis Formal methods Concepts Data modeling Enterprise architecture Functional specification Modeling language Orthogonality Programming paradigm Software Software archaeology Software architecture Software configuration management Software development methodology Software development process Software quality Software quality assurance Software verification and validation Structured analysis Orientations Agile Aspect-oriented Object orientation Ontology Service orientation SDLC Models Developmental Agile EUP Executable UML Incremental model Iterative model Prototype model RAD UP Scrum Spiral model V-Model Waterfall model XP Other SPICE CMMI Data model ER model Function model Information model Metamodeling Object model Systems model View model Languages IDEF UML USL SysML Software engineers Victor Basili Kent Beck Grady Booch Fred Brooks Barry Boehm Peter Chen Danese Cooper Ward Cunningham Tom DeMarco Edsger W. Dijkstra Delores M. Etter Martin Fowler Adele Goldstine Margaret Hamilton C. A. R. Hoare Lois Haibt Mary Jean Harrold Grace Hopper Watts Humphrey Michael A. Jackson Ivar Jacobson Alan Kay Nancy Leveson Stephen J. Mellor Bertrand Meyer David Parnas Trygve Reenskaug Winston W. Royce James Rumbaugh Mary Shaw Peri Tarr Elaine Weyuker Niklaus Wirth Edward Yourdon Related fields Computer science Computer engineering Project management Risk management Systems engineering Category Commons v t e IEEE standards Current 488 730 754 Revision 854 828 829 896 1003 1014 1016 1076 1149.1 1154 1164 1275 1278 1284 1355 1394 1451 1497 1516 1541 1547 1584 1588 1596 1603 1613 1666 1667 1675 1685 1800 1801 1815 1850 1900 1901 1902 1904 1905 2030 11073 12207 14764 16085 16326 29148 42010 802 series 802.1 D p Q Qat Qay w X ab ad AE ag ah ak aq ax az 802.11 a b c d e f g h i j k n p r s u v w y ac ad af ah ai ax ay .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .10 .12 .14 .15 .1 .4 .4a .16 d · e .17 .18 .20 .21 .22 Proposed P1363 P1619 P1699 P1823 P1906.1 Superseded 754-1985 830 1219 1233 1362 1364 1471 See also IEEE Standards Association Category:IEEE standards v t e ISO standards by standard number List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards 1–9999 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639 -1 -2 -3 -5 -6 646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166 -1 -2 -3 3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995 10000–19999 10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303 -11 -21 -22 -28 -238 10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211 -1 -2 13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496 -2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20 14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444 -3 15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706 -2 15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600:2014 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831 20000+ 20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000 -1 -2 -3 Category Authority control LCCN: sh2007004792 GND: 4213997-1 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Requirements_engineering&oldid=816132790" Categories: Systems engineeringSoftware requirementsIEEE standardsISO/IEC standardsHidden categories: Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiers


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